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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pia Gottschalk; Jo Smith; Martin Wattenbach; Jessica Bellarby; Elke Stehfest; Nigel W. Arnell; Timothy J. Osborn; C. D. Jones; Pete Smith;
    Publisher: Copernicus GmbH
    Countries: Germany, United Kingdom, United Kingdom
    Project: EC | GHG EUROPE (244122), EC | GHG EUROPE (244122)

    Abstract. We use a soil carbon (C) model (RothC), driven by a range of climate models for a range of climate scenarios to examine the impacts of future climate on global soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. The results suggest an overall global increase in SOC stocks by 2100 under all scenarios, but with a different extent of increase among the climate model and emissions scenarios. The impacts of projected land use changes are also simulated, but have relatively minor impacts at the global scale. Whether soils gain or lose SOC depends upon the balance between C inputs and decomposition. Changes in net primary production (NPP) change C inputs to the soil, whilst decomposition usually increases under warmer temperatures, but can also be slowed by decreased soil moisture. Underlying the global trend of increasing SOC under future climate is a complex pattern of regional SOC change. SOC losses are projected to occur in northern latitudes where higher SOC decomposition rates due to higher temperatures are not balanced by increased NPP, whereas in tropical regions, NPP increases override losses due to higher SOC decomposition. The spatial heterogeneity in the response of SOC to changing climate shows how delicately balanced the competing gain and loss processes are, with subtle changes in temperature, moisture, soil type and land use, interacting to determine whether SOC increases or decreases in the future. Our results suggest that we should stop looking for a single answer regarding whether SOC stocks will increase or decrease under future climate, since there is no single answer. Instead, we should focus on improving our prediction of the factors that determine the size and direction of change, and the land management practices that can be implemented to protect and enhance SOC stocks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leins, A.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Bregnard, D.; Günther, K.; Junier, P.; Regenspurg, S.;
    Publisher: GFZ Data Services
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | REFLECT (850626)

    This data was collected to write an extensive review on organic compounds in geothermal fluids as part of the REFLECT (Redefining geothermal fluid properties at extreme conditions to optimize future geothermal energy extraction). The data is mainly focussed on geothermal sites were organic compound data was reported in the literature. It includes data from the literature (Feldbusch, 2016; Vetter, 2012; Brehme et al., 2019; Westphal et al., 2019; Sanjuan et al., 2016) as well as own data that was analysed at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences in section 3.2 (Organic Geochemistry). It comprises 130 samples from 19 different sites including DOC, organic acid anion as well as main inorganic anion concentrations, well depths, and reservoir temperatures of various geothermal sites in Europe. Due to confidentiality agreements Site names are all given in ID’s which are fully explained in the publication “Organic compounds in geothermal fluids – a review” when available. Sample ID’s are also given if the samples, both from the literature or own samples were measured at GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement nº 850626 (REFLECT).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Shevchenko, A.; Dvigalo, V.; Walter, T.; Mania, R.;
    Publisher: GFZ Data Services
    Country: Germany
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    Decades of photogrammetric records at Bezymianny, one of the most active volcanoes on Earth, allow unveiling morphological changes, eruption and intrusion dynamics, erosion, lava and tephra deposition processes. This data publication releases an almost 7-decade long record, retrieved from airborne, satellite, and UAV platforms. The Kamchatkan Institute of Volcanology and Seismology released archives of high-resolution aerial images acquired in 1967-2013. We complemented the aerial datasets with 2017 Pleiades tri-stereo satellite and UAV images. The images were processed using Erdas Imagine and Photomod software. Here we publish nine quality-controlled point clouds in LAS format referenced to the WGS84 (UTM zone 57N). By comparing the point clouds we were able to describe topographic changes and calculate volumetric differences, details of which were further analyzed in Shevchenko et al. (2020, https://doi.org/...). The ~5-decade-long photogrammetric record was achieved by 8 aerial and 1 satellite-UAV datasets. The 8 sets of near nadir aerial photographs acquired in 1967, 1968, 1976, 1977, 1982, 1994, 2006, and 2013 were taken with various photogrammetry cameras dedicated for topographic analysis, specifically the AFA 41-10 camera (1967, 1968, 1976, and 1977; focal length = 99.086 mm), the TAFA 10 camera (1982 and 1994; focal length = 99.120 mm), and the AFA TE-140 camera (2006 and 2013; focal length = 139.536 mm). These analog cameras have all an 18×18 cm frame size. The acquisition flight altitude above the mean surface of Bezymianny varied from 1,500-2,500 m above mean surface elevation, translating up to >5,000 m above sea level. For photogrammetric processing, we used 3-4 consecutive shots that provided a 60-70% forward overlap. The analog photo negatives were digitized by scanning with Epson Perfection V750 Pro scanner in a resolution of 2,400 pixels/inch (approx. pixel (px) size = 0.01 mm). The mean scale within a single photograph depends on the distance to the surface and corresponds on average to 1:10,000-1:20,000. Thus, each px in the scanned image represents about 10-20 cm resolution on the ground. The coordinates of 12 ground control points were derived from a Theo 010B theodolite dataset collected at geodetic benchmarks during a 1977 fieldwork. These benchmarks were established on the slopes of Bezymianny before the 1977 aerial survey and then captured with the AFA 41-10 aerial camera. The most recent was a satellite dataset acquired on 2017-09-09 by the PHR 1B sensor aboard the Pleiades satellite (AIRBUS Defence & Space) operated by the French space agency (CNES). The forward, nadir and backward camera configuration allows revisiting any point on earth and was tasked for the acquisition of Bezymianny to provide a 0.5 m resolution panchromatic imagery dataset. In order to improve the Pleiades data, we complemented them with UAV data collected on 2017-07-29 with DJI Mavic Pro during fieldwork at Bezymianny. This data publication includes a description of the data (in pdf format) and the nine processed and controlled three-dimensional point clouds (in LAS format). The point clouds can be easily interpolated and imported into most open and commercially available geographic information system (GIS) software. Further details on data and data handling are provided in Shevchenko et al. (2020).

  • Publication . Article . Research . Preprint . Other literature type . 2014
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hall, J.; Arheimer, B.; Borga, M.; Brá zdil, R.; Claps, Pierluigi; Kiss, A.; Kjeldsen, T. R.; Kriauĉ uniene, J.; +25 more
    Publisher: Copernicus Publications
    Countries: Spain, United Kingdom, France, Switzerland, Spain, Spain, Germany, Italy, Italy, Italy ...
    Project: EC | FLOODCHANGE (291152), EC | SWITCH-ON (603587), EC | FLOODCHANGE (291152), EC | SWITCH-ON (603587)

    Losing streams that are influenced by wastewater treatment plant effluents and combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can be a source of groundwater contamination. Released micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupters and other ecotoxicologically relevant substances as well as inorganic wastewater constituents can reach the groundwater, where they may deteriorate groundwater quality. This paper presents a method to quantify exfiltration mass flow rates per stream length unit Mex of wastewater constituents from losing streams by the operation of integral pumping tests (IPTs) up- and downstream of a target section. Due to the large sampled water volume during IPTs the results are more reliable than those from conventional point sampling. We applied the method at a test site in Leipzig (Germany). Wastewater constituents K+ and NO3− showed Mex values of 1241 to 4315 and 749 to 924 mg mstream−1 d−1, respectively, while Cl− (16.8 to 47.3 g mstream−1 d−1) and SO42− (20.3 to 32.2 g mstream−1 d−1) revealed the highest observed Mex values at the test site. The micropollutants caffeine and technical-nonylphenol were dominated by elimination processes in the groundwater between upstream and downstream wells. Additional concentration measurements in the stream and a connected sewer at the test site were performed to identify relevant processes that influence the concentrations at the IPT wells. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, 10 (12) ISSN:1812-2116 ISSN:1812-2108

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