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  • Publikationer från KTH

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brink, John;

    Locomotion in VR is still a topic of exploration, as different solutions serve different purposes. Teleportation is an established technique for moving in virtual environments larger than physical space, but one area that has not been thoroughly investigated is controller-free teleportation, where users are not limited by intermediary devices for movement control. Recent advancements in VR headsets now allow tracking of multiple body parts, including hands and eyes, enabling locomotion solely through gestures. Prior research on hand- and eye-tracking for teleportation in VR shows promising results in controlled environments but lacks practical comparisons in typical VR applications with dynamic settings. In this study, two types of controller-free teleportation techniques based on hand- and eye-tracking were implemented. The results indicate that, in dynamic VR environments, hand-based teleportation is more efficient and has seemingly higher usability. However, eye-based teleportation appears more immersive, and is potentially a viable and less physically demanding alternative for people with disabilities to increase the accessibility to VR applications. This study’s results provide valuable insights for developing innovative controller-free locomotion techniques utilizing body-tracking in dynamic VR environments. Förflyttning i VR är ett ämne som fortfarande utforskas, då olika lösningar passar olika ändamål. Teleportering är en etablerad förflyttningsteknik för att röra sig i virtuella miljöer som är större än det fysiska utrymmet man befinner sig i, men ett område som inte har undersökts mycket ännu är kontrollerfri teleportering, där användare inte begränsas av mellanliggande enheter för att förflytta sig. De senaste utvecklingen av VR-headset tillåter kroppsspårning av händer och ögon, vilket möjliggör förflyttning enbart genom gester. Tidigare forskning kring hand- och ögonspårning för teleportering i VR visar lovande resultat i kontrollerade miljöer, men saknar praktiska jämförelser i typiska VR-applikationer med dynamiska miljöer. I denna studie implementerades två typer av kontrollerfria teleporteringstekniker baserade på hand- och ögonspårning. Resultaten tyder på att i dynamiska VR-miljöer är handbaserad teleportering mer effektiv och till synes högre användbarhet. Ögonbaserad teleportering verkar dock vara mer uppslukande, och är potentiellt ett användbart samt mindre fysiskt krävande alternativ för personer med funktionsnedsättning för att öka tillgängligheten till VR applikationer. Resultaten av denna studie ger värdefulla insikter till utvecklingen av innovativa kontrollerfria rörelsetekniker som använder kroppsspårning i dynamiska VR-miljöer.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Publikationer från K...arrow_drop_down
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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2023
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Mettler, Hannes;

    In our fast-paced, hectic time, which is stamped by an ever-increasing degree of nervousness, unrest, and unsteadiness it has become customary for mankind to relax for a shorter or longer period of time from the habits of everyday life and recreation. To search for strength somewhere on earth that is away from the place of business, that invites you to rest from everyday worries and toils. So lures the Black Forest. With these words, the Sommerberg-Hotel was advertised already over 100 years ago. Nowadays stress has become a fashionable term in our modern and digital world. For many, it is almost a status symbol - because those who are stressed have a lot on their plate and are therefore important. This attitude is leading to increasing health issues and to a society that is not able to breathe anymore because they have to be in working order. After decades of being empty and unused, the Sommerberg-Hotel occupies a unique location on top of the mountain in the Black Forest. Following its rich past and responding to society's needs it becomes once more a refuge to escape the rush. In close dialogue with the existing, this project investigates a possible transformation and a repurposing of the old structures of the Sommerberg-Hotel. Making it to The Mental Wellbeing Place.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2022
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2022
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kaalen, Stefan;

    Several manufacturers of road vehicles today are working on developing autonomous vehicles. One subject that is often up for discussion when it comes to integrating autonomous road vehicles into the infrastructure is the safety aspect. There is in the context no common view of how safety should be quantified. As a contribution to this discussion we propose describing each potential hazardous event of a vehicle as a Semi-Markov Process (SMP). A reliability-based method for using the semi-Markov representation to calculate the probability of a hazardous event to occur is presented. The method simplifies the expression for the reliability using the Laplace-Stieltjes transform and calculates the transform of the reliability exactly. Numerical inversion algorithms are then applied to approximate the reliability up to a desired error tolerance. The method is validated using alternative techniques and is thereafter applied to a system for automated steering based on a real example from the industry. A desired evolution of the method is to involve a framework for how to represent each hazardous event as a SMP. Flertalet tillverkare av vägfordon jobbar idag på att utveckla autonoma fordon. Ett ämne ofta på agendan i diskussionen om att integrera autonoma fordon på vägarna är säkerhet. Det finns i sammanhanget ingen klar bild över hur säkerhet ska kvantifieras. Som ett bidrag till denna diskussion föreslås här att beskriva varje potentiellt farlig situation av ett fordon som en Semi-Markov process (SMP). En metod presenteras för att via beräkning av funktionssäkerheten nyttja semi-Markov representationen för att beräkna sannolikheten för att en farlig situation ska uppstå. Metoden nyttjar Laplace-Stieltjes transformen för att förenkla uttrycket för funktionssäkerheten och beräknar transformen av funktionssäkerheten exakt. Numeriska algoritmer för den inversa transformen appliceras sedan för att beräkna funktionssäkerheten upp till en viss feltolerans. Metoden valideras genom alternativa tekniker och appliceras sedan på ett system för autonom styrning baserat på ett riktigt exempel från industrin. En fördelaktig utveckling av metoden som presenteras här skulle vara att involvera ett ramverk för hur varje potentiellt farlig situation ska representeras som en SMP.

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    Publikationer från KTH
    Bachelor thesis . 2019
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      Publikationer från KTH
      Bachelor thesis . 2019
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. FluidDyn project QC 20220322

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Open Rese...arrow_drop_down
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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    DOAJ
    Article . 2019
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    Journal of Open Research Software
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Journal of Open Rese...arrow_drop_down
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      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Journal of Open Research Software
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    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake’s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent. QC 20191106. QC 20200129 PhD project

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    Fluids
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Fluids
    Article . 2019
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      Fluids
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
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      Article . 2019
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    Authors: Wang, Ruize;

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) är en allmänt accepterad krypteringsalgoritm som används i Internet-of-Things (IoT) -enheter som Bluetooth-enheter. Även om implementeringen av AES är tillräckligt komplicerad kan angriparna fortfarande förvärva den kryptografiska informationen som genererats från AES-utförandet för att utföra Side-Channel Attack (SCA). Det finns två vanligt förekommande typer av SCA, som är kraftbaserad attack och elektro-magnetisk (EM) baserad attack. Emellertid kräver förvärv av både strömspår och EM-fältspår nära fysisk kontakt med offeranordningarna, vilket är omöjligt att attackera ett välskyddat system. I den här avhandlingen utnyttjar vi EM-förökningsegenskapen för fjärrfältet och utbildar flera Deep Learning (DL) -modeller för att attackera litenAES- algoritm implementerad på offret Bluetooth-chip nRF52832 monterat på Nordic nRF52 DK på avståndet upp till 50 cm. För att simulera det verkliga angreppsscenariot utbildar vi våra DL-modeller på en nRF52 DK vid 30 cm och attackerar en annan samma skiva på avståndet 5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm respektive 50 cm i en kontorsmiljö. Vi begränsar antalet attackerande spår till 7000. Nyckelbyte i alla fall kan framgångsrikt återvinnas av Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) och det bästa testet behöver endast 1848 spår. Våra bidrag är: (1). Vi bevisar att det är möjligt att attackera Bluetooth-chip som kör AES på variation avstånd av DL; (2). Vi jämför våra DL-modellprestanda med den klassiska korrelationsanalysen och finner korrelationsanalys tar mycket fler spår än DL;(3). Vi tillhandahåller flera motåtgärder mot EM-SCA. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a widely accepted encryption algorithm used in Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices such as Bluetooth devices. Although the implementation of AES is complicated enough, attackers can still acquire the cryptographic information generated from the AES execution to perform Side-Channel Attack (SCA). There are two commonly used types of SCA, which are power based attack and Electromagnetic (EM) based attack. However, the acquisition of both power traces and EM near-field traces require close physical contact to the victim devices, which is difficult to attack a well-protected system. In this thesis, we exploit the far-field EM propagation property and train several Deep Learning (DL) models to attack tinyAES algorithm implemented on the victim Bluetooth chip nRF52832 mounted on Nordic nRF52 DK at the distance up to 50cm. To simulate the real attacking scenario, we train our DL models on one nRF52 DK at 30cm and attack another same board at the distance 5cm, 15cm, 30cm and 50cm respectively in an office environment. We restrict the number of attacking traces to 7000. The key byte of all of cases can be recovered successfully by Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) and the best test only need 1848 traces. Our contributions are: (1).We prove it is feasible to attack Bluetooth chip running AES at variation distance by DL; (2).We compare our DL model performance with the classical correlation analysis and find correlation analysis takes far more traces than DL; (3).We propose several countermeasures to protect against the far-field EM SCA.

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    Authors: Olsson, Sofia;

    The purpose of the thesis is to develop a water samplingsolution to use with an aerial drone for remote water sampling and to investigate the feasibility of the system. The actuating hypothesis is that using a drone for this application will have many benefits over the manual methods, for example to reach inhospitable areas, improve data gathering and offer a safer work situation for the researchers. The research method has been empirical and exploring, by rapidly develop prototypes based on a pre-study, test the full test system and draw conclusions regarding the feasibility of the application based on the tests. Through the pre-study of the current water sampling process through interviews and a survey, a general user case was created. It was studied with a mechatronic perspective to understand how the current water sampling process could be adjusted to function remotely with a drone. The main focuses when developing the water sampler was to design a product independent from the drone with full automatic function, and to maximize its water volume capacity while minimizing the weight of the sampler to manage the drones barload constraints of 1 kg. Through workshop activities and methods from TRIZ theory, several concepts were evaluated. The main idea was to integrate the laboratory bottle with the water sampler. Two physical prototypes were designed to test the function of the concepts and evaluate them against the Ruttner sampler. The first prototype, the Wheel, has a simple design, is lightweight and mechanic while the second prototype, the Combination, is more complex, heavier and uses a mechatronic system. The prototypes were evaluated through functional tests to investigate its design and suitability to be used with a drone for water sampling. The behavior of the full test system, consisting of the Wheel sampler and a drone, was observed and analyzed through drone data when gathering water samples. The thesis demonstrates through field tests that the system, consisting of drone and developed water sampler, succeeds in gathering water samples remotely. Through tests of the water samplers, the thesis also shows the benefits and disadvantages of their proposed design for water sampling.

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    Authors: Ranara, Jeff;

    Publikum Nynäshamn docks directly to the west façade of the existing 9 story municipal building with seven floors of open activity space. These surround a full-height atrium across which a two-floor living plant green wall provides the monumental living presence of nature and its ecosystem services in an office environment. Plants also grace the other side of this two story wall, providing a living backdrop for the heart of the building - the raised three floor high assembly hall. A lunchroom with balconies above the assembly hall provides city views and a roof garden for municipal staff. The two floor high lobby beneath the assembly hall provides a new internal city street between Banana Square and Floravägen – a former back alleyway. A ground-level colonnade walkway with benches surrounds the new and old buildings, inviting citizens into the building spaces. Public space and circulation is further enhanced with a new passageway opening up the former dead-end southwest corner of Banana Square where the old municipal building met Folkets hus (People’s House). A generous stair complex in this new sunny southern square provides spontaneous seating and meeting spaces as well as additional outdoor access to the two floor café, art gallery, and the largest green roof – one of three accessible green roofs that enhance social and ecological values. Pedestrian movement can continue through this new passageway directly down to Svandammen (swan pond), and in the opposite direction, directly up to Banana square from the commuter rail station. The café and two-floor meeting room spaces provide evening and weekend public social spaces for the city residents, complementing existing bars and restaurants in the adjoining Folkets Hus. Reduced use of energy is encouraged with progressively rising central spaces allowing for the possibility of natural stack ventilation, thermal mass energy storage in concrete (HD/F) slabs, and generous natural daylight through the glazed curtain wall climate shell surrounding the building. Abstracted winged structures crown the top of the building and grace the building entrances, inspired by the sightings of sea eagles reported in this coastal area, and provides both a signum for the building (instead of a more traditional municipal building tower) and extended surface for rainwater collection that can be used for watering indoor green plant walls and the roof garden vegetation. The deeper soil of the intensive green roofs not only provides more uptake and retention of rainwater (and thus reduced peak flow rates favorable for stormwater management) but also allows planting of larger, woody plants and bushes, and even small trees, which in turn, among other social and ecological benefits, add natural habitat to a predominantly impervious-surfaced downtown urban area.

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    Authors: Nielsen, Torbjörn;

    NR 20140805

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    Authors: Wahlstedt, Johan;

    Intresset för att påverka resvanorna i våra städer så att kollektivtrafikandelen ökar har växt de senaste decennierna på grund av en ökad trängsel i gatunätet samt ökad miljömedvetenhet. Stockholms stad har antagit ”Framkomlighetsstrategin” som innebär att kollektivtrafik, gång och cykel ska prioriteras framför biltrafik i centrala Stockholm. En av de faktorer som påverkar färdmedelsvalet mest är restidskvoten mellan bil och kollektivtrafik. Tidigare studier har visat att kollektivtrafikprioritering i trafiksignaler kan minska körtiden för kollektivtrafiken väsentligt, med små eller inga negativa konsekvenser för övrig trafik. Villkorlig prioritering kan dessutom förbättra kollektivtrafikens regularitet. Kollektivtrafikprioritering i trafiksignaler kan på så sätt hjälpa till att förbättra kollektivtrafikens attraktivitet och därigenom öka kollektivtrafikandelen. Samordnade trafiksignaler styrda med konventionell teknik har en fast tidsättning framtagen med insamlade historiska trafikdata som grund. Viss trafikstyrning kan åstadkommas inom ramen för den fasta omloppstiden. Om bussprioritering finns ändras signalväxlingen av prioriteringsfunktionerna när en buss detekteras, inom vissa begränsningar för att hålla ihop det samordnade systemet. Självoptimerande signalstyrning bygger på att fordonsrörelserna genom systemet predikteras med en trafikmodell utifrån trafikräkningar med detektorer. Signaltidsättningen bestäms sedan i realtid genom att minimera en kostnadsfunktion som innehåller fördröjning, antal stopp mm. för de modellerade fordonsrörelserna. Kollektivtrafiken prioriteras genom att dess fordon detekteras separat från övrig trafik, och ges en högre vikt i optimeringen av signaltidssättningen. I denna avhandling beskrivs de teoretiska grunderna för trafiksignalstyrning, liksom metoder och kriterier för villkorlig och ovillkorlig signalprioritering av kollektivtrafik. En simuleringsbaserad metod för att utvärdera effekterna av olika signalprioritering har implementerats. Denna använder styrapparatsimulatorer med samma programmering som styrapparaterna på gatan, inklusive prioriteringsfunktioner. Sådana simuleringar kan vara ett användbart verktyg för att justera in prioriteringsfunktionerna innan dessa implementeras i signalstyrningen på gatan. Simuleringar med styrapparatsimulatorer möjliggör också jämförelser av olika styrstrategier under kontrollerade förhållanden som inte vore praktiskt, eller ekonomiskt möjliga att genomföra i fält. I den framtagna simuleringsmiljön har effekterna av de olika prioriteringsfunktionerna i PRIBUSS utvärderats. Korta (maxtids-)förlängningar gav körtidsvinster för bussar och knappast några restidsförsämringar för övrig trafik. Långa förlängningar (fråntidsförlängning och återtagen start) gav ytterligare restidsvinster för busstrafiken, men ökad fördröjning för övrig trafik. Avkortning gav, jämfört med förlängningar, mindre restidsvinster för busstrafiken och mer störning för övrig trafik. De mer komplicerade funktionerna Dubbel avkortning och extrafas gav viss ytterligare restidsvinst för bussarna, men hade den största inverkan på övrig trafik. Bäst resultat uppkom dock med en kombination av PRIBUSS funktioner. Beroende på samordningens struktur och busshållplatsernas placering i förhållande till trafiksignalerna kan olika prioriteringsfunktioner ge större eller mindre nytta. Baserat på utvärderingen av de olika PRIBUSS funktionernas effekter på bussar och övrig trafik har en tidhållningsbaserad differentierad prioriteringsstrategi föreslagits, som förutom att skapa direkta restidvinster också försöker motverka ihopklumpning av bussar. Denna strategi har implementerats och testats i den framtagna simuleringsmiljön. Med hjälp av simuleringar har de självoptimerande signalstyrsystemen Utopia/Spot och ImFlow testats och jämförts med konventionell styrning, inklusive bussprioritering med PRIBUSS. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka om fördröjningen per person i trafiknätet kan minskas genom bättre kollektivtrafikprioritering med hjälp av ett kommersiellt tillgängligt självoptimerande signalstyrsystem. De båda testade systemen gav minskad fördröjning för kollektivtrafik, gående och cyklister, men ökad fördröjning och antal stopp för biltrafik. Den totala fördröjningen minskades betydligt med de båda testade självoptimerande signalstyrsystemen. Increasing congestion and environmental concerns have evoked an interest in promoting urban Public Transport (PT) the last decades. In 2012 the City of Stockholm adopted an “Urban mobility strategy” stating that public transport, cycling and walking should be prioritised over cars in central Stockholm. One of the most important factors influencing the modal choice is the travel time ratio between car and PT travel. According to earlier studies Public Transport Traffic Signal Priority (PTSP) can reduce travel times for public transport with only small negative impacts on other traffic. Conditional PTSP can also help to regulate the PT service. Thus PTSP may support drivers’ decision to change travel mode from car to PT, thus supporting adopted policy goals. Conventional control strategies for coordinated traffic signals have pre-set timings based on traffic surveys. Some traffic adaptation based on real time detector actuations can also take place within the frames of the pre-set cycle time. PTSP changes the signal timings, within pre-set limits, when a PT vehicle is detected. Self-optimising control strategies use a traffic model to predict the traffic flows from traffic counts, and determine the signal changes in real-time by minimising a cost function including delay, number of stops etc. PTSP is included directly in the optimisation by giving PT vehicles a higher weight compared to cars. In this thesis the fundamentals of signal control theory are reviewed as well as unconditional and conditional PTSP criteria and strategies. A simulation based method for evaluation of impacts of different PTSP strategies in coordinated controlled traffic signals is implemented. The simulation setup includes Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) signal controller simulators running the same control logic as used in field. Such simulation models can be useful to test and fine tune PTSP before being implemented in field. Simulations with a SIL setup also enable comparisons of signal control strategies or systems on equal terms, not practically or economically possible in field studies. The implemented SIL simulation model was used to evaluate the impacts on buses and other traffic from the different PTSP functions used in the “PRIBUSS” PTSP method. Short green time extensions showed travel time reductions for buses, with almost no travel time increase for other traffic. Long green time extensions gave somewhat larger benefits for the buses, but more delay to other traffic. Red truncation gave less travel time savings to the prioritised buses and more extra delay for cross street traffic, compared to green extensions. Double red truncation and Extra phase showed some additional travel time savings to the buses, but had the largest negative impact on other traffic. A combination of PRIBUSS functions showed the best results. Depending on the structure of the signal coordination and the location of the bus stops different PTSP functions may be needed. Based on the conclusions from the evaluation of the different PRIBUSS functions a conditional “differential on-time-status” based PTSP strategy was proposed and tested in the SIL simulation environment. The proposed method is focusing on direct travel time savings as well as on reduced bus bunching. The two self-optimising signal control systems Utopia/Spot and ImFlow were tested, and their impacts were compared to conventional control including PTSP with the PRIBUSS method in a SIL simulation environment. The aim was to test if commercially available self-optimising control systems can reduce the overall delay per person by applying more sophisticated PTSP. Both systems reduced the delay for buses, cyclists and pedestrians at a cost of increased delay and increased number of stops compared to the existing conventional control used in field. The total delay for all road users was reduced substantially. QC 20140513

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Brink, John;

    Locomotion in VR is still a topic of exploration, as different solutions serve different purposes. Teleportation is an established technique for moving in virtual environments larger than physical space, but one area that has not been thoroughly investigated is controller-free teleportation, where users are not limited by intermediary devices for movement control. Recent advancements in VR headsets now allow tracking of multiple body parts, including hands and eyes, enabling locomotion solely through gestures. Prior research on hand- and eye-tracking for teleportation in VR shows promising results in controlled environments but lacks practical comparisons in typical VR applications with dynamic settings. In this study, two types of controller-free teleportation techniques based on hand- and eye-tracking were implemented. The results indicate that, in dynamic VR environments, hand-based teleportation is more efficient and has seemingly higher usability. However, eye-based teleportation appears more immersive, and is potentially a viable and less physically demanding alternative for people with disabilities to increase the accessibility to VR applications. This study’s results provide valuable insights for developing innovative controller-free locomotion techniques utilizing body-tracking in dynamic VR environments. Förflyttning i VR är ett ämne som fortfarande utforskas, då olika lösningar passar olika ändamål. Teleportering är en etablerad förflyttningsteknik för att röra sig i virtuella miljöer som är större än det fysiska utrymmet man befinner sig i, men ett område som inte har undersökts mycket ännu är kontrollerfri teleportering, där användare inte begränsas av mellanliggande enheter för att förflytta sig. De senaste utvecklingen av VR-headset tillåter kroppsspårning av händer och ögon, vilket möjliggör förflyttning enbart genom gester. Tidigare forskning kring hand- och ögonspårning för teleportering i VR visar lovande resultat i kontrollerade miljöer, men saknar praktiska jämförelser i typiska VR-applikationer med dynamiska miljöer. I denna studie implementerades två typer av kontrollerfria teleporteringstekniker baserade på hand- och ögonspårning. Resultaten tyder på att i dynamiska VR-miljöer är handbaserad teleportering mer effektiv och till synes högre användbarhet. Ögonbaserad teleportering verkar dock vara mer uppslukande, och är potentiellt ett användbart samt mindre fysiskt krävande alternativ för personer med funktionsnedsättning för att öka tillgängligheten till VR applikationer. Resultaten av denna studie ger värdefulla insikter till utvecklingen av innovativa kontrollerfria rörelsetekniker som använder kroppsspårning i dynamiska VR-miljöer.

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    Authors: Mettler, Hannes;

    In our fast-paced, hectic time, which is stamped by an ever-increasing degree of nervousness, unrest, and unsteadiness it has become customary for mankind to relax for a shorter or longer period of time from the habits of everyday life and recreation. To search for strength somewhere on earth that is away from the place of business, that invites you to rest from everyday worries and toils. So lures the Black Forest. With these words, the Sommerberg-Hotel was advertised already over 100 years ago. Nowadays stress has become a fashionable term in our modern and digital world. For many, it is almost a status symbol - because those who are stressed have a lot on their plate and are therefore important. This attitude is leading to increasing health issues and to a society that is not able to breathe anymore because they have to be in working order. After decades of being empty and unused, the Sommerberg-Hotel occupies a unique location on top of the mountain in the Black Forest. Following its rich past and responding to society's needs it becomes once more a refuge to escape the rush. In close dialogue with the existing, this project investigates a possible transformation and a repurposing of the old structures of the Sommerberg-Hotel. Making it to The Mental Wellbeing Place.

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    Authors: Kaalen, Stefan;

    Several manufacturers of road vehicles today are working on developing autonomous vehicles. One subject that is often up for discussion when it comes to integrating autonomous road vehicles into the infrastructure is the safety aspect. There is in the context no common view of how safety should be quantified. As a contribution to this discussion we propose describing each potential hazardous event of a vehicle as a Semi-Markov Process (SMP). A reliability-based method for using the semi-Markov representation to calculate the probability of a hazardous event to occur is presented. The method simplifies the expression for the reliability using the Laplace-Stieltjes transform and calculates the transform of the reliability exactly. Numerical inversion algorithms are then applied to approximate the reliability up to a desired error tolerance. The method is validated using alternative techniques and is thereafter applied to a system for automated steering based on a real example from the industry. A desired evolution of the method is to involve a framework for how to represent each hazardous event as a SMP. Flertalet tillverkare av vägfordon jobbar idag på att utveckla autonoma fordon. Ett ämne ofta på agendan i diskussionen om att integrera autonoma fordon på vägarna är säkerhet. Det finns i sammanhanget ingen klar bild över hur säkerhet ska kvantifieras. Som ett bidrag till denna diskussion föreslås här att beskriva varje potentiellt farlig situation av ett fordon som en Semi-Markov process (SMP). En metod presenteras för att via beräkning av funktionssäkerheten nyttja semi-Markov representationen för att beräkna sannolikheten för att en farlig situation ska uppstå. Metoden nyttjar Laplace-Stieltjes transformen för att förenkla uttrycket för funktionssäkerheten och beräknar transformen av funktionssäkerheten exakt. Numeriska algoritmer för den inversa transformen appliceras sedan för att beräkna funktionssäkerheten upp till en viss feltolerans. Metoden valideras genom alternativa tekniker och appliceras sedan på ett system för autonom styrning baserat på ett riktigt exempel från industrin. En fördelaktig utveckling av metoden som presenteras här skulle vara att involvera ett ramverk för hur varje potentiellt farlig situation ska representeras som en SMP.

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      Publikationer från KTH
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    Authors: Augier, Pierre; Mohanan, Ashwin Vishnu; Bonamy, Cyrille;

    FluidDyn is a project to foster open-science and open-source in the fluid dynamics community. It is thought of as a research project to channel open-source dynamics, methods and tools to do science. We propose a set of Python packages forming a framework to study fluid dynamics with different methods, in particular laboratory experiments (package fluidlab), simulations (packages fluidfft, fluidsim and fluidfoam) and data processing (package fluidimage). In the present article, we give an overview of the specialized packages of the project and then focus on the base package called fluiddyn, which contains common code used in the specialized packages. Packages fluidfft and fluidsim are described with greater detail in two companion papers [4, 5]. With the project FluidDyn, we demonstrate that specialized scientific code can be written with methods and good practices of the open-source community. The Mercurial repositories are available in Bitbucket (https://bitbucket.org/fluiddyn/). All codes are documented using Sphinx and Read the Docs, and tested with continuous integration run on Bitbucket Pipelines and Travis. To improve the reuse potential, the codes are as modular as possible, leveraging the simple object-oriented programming model of Python. All codes are also written to be highly efficient, using C++, Cython and Pythran to speedup the performance of critical functions. FluidDyn project QC 20220322

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    Journal of Open Research Software
    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Journal of Open Research Software
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      Journal of Open Research Software
      Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Seema Paul; Jesper Oppelstrup; Roger Thunvik; John Mango Magero; +2 Authors

    This study explored two-dimensional (2D) numerical hydrodynamic model simulations of Lake Victoria. Several methods were developed in Matlab to build the lake topography. Old depth soundings taken in smaller parts of the lake were combined with more recent extensive data to produce a smooth topographical model. The lake free surface numerical model in the COMSOL Multiphysics (CM) software was implemented using bathymetry and vertically integrated 2D shallow water equations. Validated by measurements of mean lake water level, the model predicted very low mean flow speeds and was thus close to being linear and time invariant, allowing long-time simulations with low-pass filtered inflow data. An outflow boundary condition allowed an accurate simulation to achieve the lake’s steady state level. The numerical accuracy of the linear measurement of lake water level was excellent. QC 20191106. QC 20200129 PhD project

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    Other literature type . Article . 2019 . Peer-reviewed
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    Authors: Wang, Ruize;

    Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) är en allmänt accepterad krypteringsalgoritm som används i Internet-of-Things (IoT) -enheter som Bluetooth-enheter. Även om implementeringen av AES är tillräckligt komplicerad kan angriparna fortfarande förvärva den kryptografiska informationen som genererats från AES-utförandet för att utföra Side-Channel Attack (SCA). Det finns två vanligt förekommande typer av SCA, som är kraftbaserad attack och elektro-magnetisk (EM) baserad attack. Emellertid kräver förvärv av både strömspår och EM-fältspår nära fysisk kontakt med offeranordningarna, vilket är omöjligt att attackera ett välskyddat system. I den här avhandlingen utnyttjar vi EM-förökningsegenskapen för fjärrfältet och utbildar flera Deep Learning (DL) -modeller för att attackera litenAES- algoritm implementerad på offret Bluetooth-chip nRF52832 monterat på Nordic nRF52 DK på avståndet upp till 50 cm. För att simulera det verkliga angreppsscenariot utbildar vi våra DL-modeller på en nRF52 DK vid 30 cm och attackerar en annan samma skiva på avståndet 5 cm, 15 cm, 30 cm respektive 50 cm i en kontorsmiljö. Vi begränsar antalet attackerande spår till 7000. Nyckelbyte i alla fall kan framgångsrikt återvinnas av Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) och det bästa testet behöver endast 1848 spår. Våra bidrag är: (1). Vi bevisar att det är möjligt att attackera Bluetooth-chip som kör AES på variation avstånd av DL; (2). Vi jämför våra DL-modellprestanda med den klassiska korrelationsanalysen och finner korrelationsanalys tar mycket fler spår än DL;(3). Vi tillhandahåller flera motåtgärder mot EM-SCA. Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is a widely accepted encryption algorithm used in Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices such as Bluetooth devices. Although the implementation of AES is complicated enough, attackers can still acquire the cryptographic information generated from the AES execution to perform Side-Channel Attack (SCA). There are two commonly used types of SCA, which are power based attack and Electromagnetic (EM) based attack. However, the acquisition of both power traces and EM near-field traces require close physical contact to the victim devices, which is difficult to attack a well-protected system. In this thesis, we exploit the far-field EM propagation property and train several Deep Learning (DL) models to attack tinyAES algorithm implemented on the victim Bluetooth chip nRF52832 mounted on Nordic nRF52 DK at the distance up to 50cm. To simulate the real attacking scenario, we train our DL models on one nRF52 DK at 30cm and attack another same board at the distance 5cm, 15cm, 30cm and 50cm respectively in an office environment. We restrict the number of attacking traces to 7000. The key byte of all of cases can be recovered successfully by Convolution Neuron Network (CNN) and the best test only need 1848 traces. Our contributions are: (1).We prove it is feasible to attack Bluetooth chip running AES at variation distance by DL; (2).We compare our DL model performance with the classical correlation analysis and find correlation analysis takes far more traces than DL; (3).We propose several countermeasures to protect against the far-field EM SCA.

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    Authors: Olsson, Sofia;

    The purpose of the thesis is to develop a water samplingsolution to use with an aerial drone for remote water sampling and to investigate the feasibility of the system. The actuating hypothesis is that using a drone for this application will have many benefits over the manual methods, for example to reach inhospitable areas, improve data gathering and offer a safer work situation for the researchers. The research method has been empirical and exploring, by rapidly develop prototypes based on a pre-study, test the full test system and draw conclusions regarding the feasibility of the application based on the tests. Through the pre-study of the current water sampling process through interviews and a survey, a general user case was created. It was studied with a mechatronic perspective to understand how the current water sampling process could be adjusted to function remotely with a drone. The main focuses when developing the water sampler was to design a product independent from the drone with full automatic function, and to maximize its water volume capacity while minimizing the weight of the sampler to manage the drones barload constraints of 1 kg. Through workshop activities and methods from TRIZ theory, several concepts were evaluated. The main idea was to integrate the laboratory bottle with the water sampler. Two physical prototypes were designed to test the function of the concepts and evaluate them against the Ruttner sampler. The first prototype, the Wheel, has a simple design, is lightweight and mechanic while the second prototype, the Combination, is more complex, heavier and uses a mechatronic system. The prototypes were evaluated through functional tests to investigate its design and suitability to be used with a drone for water sampling. The behavior of the full test system, consisting of the Wheel sampler and a drone, was observed and analyzed through drone data when gathering water samples. The thesis demonstrates through field tests that the system, consisting of drone and developed water sampler, succeeds in gathering water samples remotely. Through tests of the water samplers, the thesis also shows the benefits and disadvantages of their proposed design for water sampling.

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