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  • 2014-2023
  • Open Access
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  • GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Duriscoe, D.; Kyba, C.; +5 Authors
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    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Beyerle, G.;
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Stiller, M.; Kaerger, L.; Agafonova, T.; Krawczyk, C.; +5 Authors

    The 36 km long line 4Q was recorded in 1985 as part of the DEKORP project, the German continental seismic reflection program. The aim of the survey was to explore important tectonic structures through the regional tectonic trend of the Bavarian Forest (NW-SE) with high-fold near-vertical incidence vibroseis acquisition. Details of the experiment, first results and interpretations were published by DEKORP Research Group (1987, 1988). The Technical Report of line 4Q gives complete information about acquisition and processing parameters. The European Variscides, extending from the French Central Massif to the East European Platform, originated during the collision between Gondwana and Baltica in the Late Palaeozoic. Due to involvement of various crustal blocks in the orogenesis, the mountain belt is subdivided into distinct zones. The external fold-and-thrust belts of the Rhenohercynian and Saxothuringian as well as the predominantly crystalline body of the Moldanubian dominate the central European segment of the Variscides. Polyphase tectonic deformation, magmatism and metamorphic processes led to a complex interlinking between the units. The Moldanubian unit contains blocks of pre-Variscan crust and their Palaezoic cover. During the Variscan orogeny the Moldanubian crust was thrust towards the NW over the Saxothuringian foreland. Both units were welded together by a low-pressure metamorphism accompanied by polyphase deformation (DEKORP Research Group, 1987, 1988). The SW-NE striking line 4Q runs perpendicular to the gneisses of the Bavarian Forest at the southwestern margin of the Bohemian Massif, a part of the Moldanubian Zone. In the southwest the profile crosses the NW-SE striking Bavarian Pfahl. The 150 km long quartz vein is a dextral shear zone with cataclastic as well as ductile deformation and extensive quartz mineralization (DEKORP Research Group, 1988). In the northeast DEKORP 4Q intersects the Hoher Bogen, an amphibolitic nappe, belonging to the western margin of the Tepla-Taus-Complex which is marked by an important volume of mafic metamorphic rocks (DEKORP Research Group, 1988). The profile 4Q traverses DEKORP 4N at its northeastern end almost perpendicularly.

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    Authors: Kück, J.; Pierdominici, S.;

    The Lake Junín Drilling Project, co-funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, ICDP, aims to provide a continuous paleoclimate record from lacustrine sediments, and to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles spanning more than 500 kyr. Lake Junín, also known as Chinchaycocha, is a shallow (maximum water depth of 12 m), inter-mountain high-elevation (at 4100 m a.s.l.) lake in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere that spans 300 km2 in the tropical Andes of Peru. Drill cores were recovered during summer 2015 from three drill sites on the lake. After the completion of coring operations in each hole, downhole logging measurements were performed in five of the 11 boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP at GFZ Potsdam (OSG). The OSG logging data from Lake Junín Drilling Project is given here in three data formats. For each of the five boreholes all processed logging data are comprised in one composite logging data set, this set is given here both in ASCII text and in WellCAD format. Additionally, the raw sonic waveform data are in LIS format: • Composite logging data in ASCII text files (.txt) • Composite logging data in WellCAD format (.wcl) • Sonic raw data (waveforms) in LIS format (.lis) Detailed description is provided in the associated data description file.

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    Authors: Itzerott, S.;
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    Authors: Isken, M.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Kraft, T.; +2 Authors

    The interactive web page contains supplementary information to Acoustic signals of a meteoroid recorded on a large-N seismic network and fibre optic cables. It aggregates the probabilistic trajectory inversion results for the observed meteor explosion above south Iceland on July 2, 2022. These inversion results of a hypersonic moving source model (MSM) are based on travel time picks of the first arrival (A1) and the last arrival (LA), both, in homogeneous and layered atmospheric model. Additionally we present the inversion results of a simple point source model (PSM) based on the arrival times of A1 and LA.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ziegler, M.; Heidbach, O.;

    These data are supplementary material to Ziegler & Heidbach (2020) and present the results of a 3D geomechanical-numerical model of the stress state with quantified uncertainties. The average modelled stress state is provided for each of the six components of the full stress tensor. In addition, the associated standard deviation for each component is provided. The modelling approach uses a published lithological model and the used data is described in the publication Ziegler & Heidbach (2020). The reduced stress tensor is derived using the Tecplot Addon GeoStress (Stromeyer & Heidbach, 2017).The model results are provided in a comma-separated ascii file. Each line in the file represents one of the approx. 3 million finite elements that comprise the model.

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Mortensen, A.; Wollin, C.; Diaz Meza, S.; +1 Authors

    The GFZ-Landsvirkjun Theistareykir Fibre array is located in the Theytareykir geothermal area, in North Iceland. It is collocated with arrays of broadband seismometers and gravity meters (see e.g., https://doi.org/10.1186/s40517-021-00208-w). The geometry of the fibre array is following the telecom network in the area, and was chosen to test the seismological capabilities of telecom cables in this geothermal environment. We connected an iDAS V2 interrogator from Silixa. The interrogator location is lat=65.898041, lon=-16.966274. The array starts N-S and after 1.5 km, turns towards the East, up to a local transmission antenna station for mobile phones. The length of the path is ~5 km. The length of the cable is actually more than 15 km, as other fibre instance is connected at the transmission antenna station.. Jumps were performed along the cable to geo-locate the channels. The exact location of the fibre can unfortunately not be disclosed. Original recordings at 1000 Hz were downsampled to 200 Hz using a software from INGV-OE (michele.prestifilippo@ingv.it) and are provided in an h5 format. We provide here the first fibre instance (5 km long). The data contain 1 h long recording intervals framing M>5 teleseismic earthquakes recorded in the frame of the global DAS month, an initiative to collaboratively record and share simultaneously recorded DAS data from all over the world (https://www.norsar.no/in-focus/global-das-monitoring-month-february-2023). DAS is an emerging technology increasingly used by seismologists to convert kilometer long optical fibers into seismic sensors.

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    Authors: Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Duriscoe, D.; Kyba, C.; +5 Authors
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    Authors: Pons, M.; Sobolev, S.; Liu, S.; Neuharth, D.;

    The Central Andes (~21°S) is a subduction-type orogeny formed in the last ~50 Ma from the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate beneath the South American continental plate. However, the most important phases of deformation occur in the last 20 Ma. Pulses of shortening have led to the sudden growth of the by the Altiplano-Puna plateau. Previous studies have provided insights on the importance of various mechanisms on the overall shortening such as the weakening of the overriding plate from crustal eclogitization and delamination, or the importance of a relatively high friction at the subduction interface, and weak sediments in foreland. However none of them has addressed the mechanism behind these shortening pulses yet. Therefore, we built a series of high resolution 2D visco-plastic subduction models using the ASPECT geodynamic code, in which the oceanic plate is buoyancy-driven and the velocity of the continent is prescribed. We have also implemented a realistic geometry for the south American plate at ~30 Ma. We propose a new plausible mechanism (buckling and steepening of the slab) as the cause of these pulses. The buckling leads to the blockage of the trench. Consequently, the difference of velocity between the South American plate and the trench is accommodated by shortening. The data presented here includes the parameters files, for the reference model (S1) and the following alternative simulations: models with variation of the friction at the subduction interface (S2a-c), a model without eclogitization of the lower crust (S3) and a model with higher thermal conductivity of the upper crust (S4). Additionally, this publication includes the initial composition and thermal state of the lithosphere used for the models and a Readme file that gives all the instructions to run them.

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    Authors: Beyerle, G.;
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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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    Authors: Stiller, M.; Kaerger, L.; Agafonova, T.; Krawczyk, C.; +5 Authors

    The 36 km long line 4Q was recorded in 1985 as part of the DEKORP project, the German continental seismic reflection program. The aim of the survey was to explore important tectonic structures through the regional tectonic trend of the Bavarian Forest (NW-SE) with high-fold near-vertical incidence vibroseis acquisition. Details of the experiment, first results and interpretations were published by DEKORP Research Group (1987, 1988). The Technical Report of line 4Q gives complete information about acquisition and processing parameters. The European Variscides, extending from the French Central Massif to the East European Platform, originated during the collision between Gondwana and Baltica in the Late Palaeozoic. Due to involvement of various crustal blocks in the orogenesis, the mountain belt is subdivided into distinct zones. The external fold-and-thrust belts of the Rhenohercynian and Saxothuringian as well as the predominantly crystalline body of the Moldanubian dominate the central European segment of the Variscides. Polyphase tectonic deformation, magmatism and metamorphic processes led to a complex interlinking between the units. The Moldanubian unit contains blocks of pre-Variscan crust and their Palaezoic cover. During the Variscan orogeny the Moldanubian crust was thrust towards the NW over the Saxothuringian foreland. Both units were welded together by a low-pressure metamorphism accompanied by polyphase deformation (DEKORP Research Group, 1987, 1988). The SW-NE striking line 4Q runs perpendicular to the gneisses of the Bavarian Forest at the southwestern margin of the Bohemian Massif, a part of the Moldanubian Zone. In the southwest the profile crosses the NW-SE striking Bavarian Pfahl. The 150 km long quartz vein is a dextral shear zone with cataclastic as well as ductile deformation and extensive quartz mineralization (DEKORP Research Group, 1988). In the northeast DEKORP 4Q intersects the Hoher Bogen, an amphibolitic nappe, belonging to the western margin of the Tepla-Taus-Complex which is marked by an important volume of mafic metamorphic rocks (DEKORP Research Group, 1988). The profile 4Q traverses DEKORP 4N at its northeastern end almost perpendicularly.

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    Authors: Kück, J.; Pierdominici, S.;

    The Lake Junín Drilling Project, co-funded by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, ICDP, aims to provide a continuous paleoclimate record from lacustrine sediments, and to reconstruct the history of the continental records covering the glacial-interglacial cycles spanning more than 500 kyr. Lake Junín, also known as Chinchaycocha, is a shallow (maximum water depth of 12 m), inter-mountain high-elevation (at 4100 m a.s.l.) lake in the inner-tropics of the Southern Hemisphere that spans 300 km2 in the tropical Andes of Peru. Drill cores were recovered during summer 2015 from three drill sites on the lake. After the completion of coring operations in each hole, downhole logging measurements were performed in five of the 11 boreholes (1A, 1C, 1D, 2A and 3B) by the Operational Support Group of ICDP at GFZ Potsdam (OSG). The OSG logging data from Lake Junín Drilling Project is given here in three data formats. For each of the five boreholes all processed logging data are comprised in one composite logging data set, this set is given here both in ASCII text and in WellCAD format. Additionally, the raw sonic waveform data are in LIS format: • Composite logging data in ASCII text files (.txt) • Composite logging data in WellCAD format (.wcl) • Sonic raw data (waveforms) in LIS format (.lis) Detailed description is provided in the associated data description file.

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    Authors: Itzerott, S.;
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    Authors: Isken, M.; Heimann, S.; Dahm, T.; Kraft, T.; +2 Authors

    The interactive web page contains supplementary information to Acoustic signals of a meteoroid recorded on a large-N seismic network and fibre optic cables. It aggregates the probabilistic trajectory inversion results for the observed meteor explosion above south Iceland on July 2, 2022. These inversion results of a hypersonic moving source model (MSM) are based on travel time picks of the first arrival (A1) and the last arrival (LA), both, in homogeneous and layered atmospheric model. Additionally we present the inversion results of a simple point source model (PSM) based on the arrival times of A1 and LA.

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