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  • 2018-2022
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  • Вестник СибАДИ

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    A. D. Tolstoy; V. S. Lesovik; A. S. Milkina;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. The important national economic task is to provide the modern construction industry with high-strength and effective materials made using new technological approaches and artificiallyproduced materials. These materials differ from the usual one by high content of cement stone, smaller grain size, multicomponent composition, increased specific surface of the filler. Therefore, the research of such problem would be always relevant according to the constant growth of requirements for the building materials and structures quality.Materials and methods. Experimental studies were conducted in the laboratories of the Department of Construction Materials, Products and Structures. The literary sources’ analysis was made in the scientific and technical library of the Belgorod State Technological University named after V. G. Shukhov. At the same time, standard test procedures and the provisions of the operating instructions for individual devices and equipment were used in the research.Discussion and conclusions. As a result, the models of structure formation in high-strength hardening compositions, in which the principle of structure optimization consisting in creation of the high degree ordering of its constituent elements and tumors, as well as in increasing the adhesion of cement stone particles, are implemented. In addition, the usage of artificially-produced materials and organic additives produces the possibility of reducing the consumption of raw materials and consumption of energy and resources. The mechanism and principles of structure formation management are intensively studied and would be explained later on the basis of synergetic concepts.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    A. Yu. Mikhailov; E. L. Popova;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. This paper presents the results of a study on the methods for calculating the capacity of level crossings. The purpose of writing this research paper is determine the best methodology for calculating the intervals in the main flows for the prevailing road conditions in the Russian Federation, that a new methodology to calculate capacity adapted to domestic road conditions would be developed in the future.Materials and methods. In recent decades of market relations in the Russian Federation, one can note a rapid increase in motorization in human settlements. The number in 550 vehicles per 1000 people in domestic entities is expected to have been increasde by 2025, which is significantly higher than the current level in European part of the Russian Federation. It is important to note that when the number of vehiclec is increasing, which level is about 80%, it is essential to increase road crossings capacity. Results. At the moment the methodology for calculating capacity and queue length is the same. It should be noted that the current models are not properly described in the domestic studies, but the calculations were made using models developed in the 1960s and 1970s.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    K. V. Chernyshov; V. V. Novikov; R. R. Sanzhapov; V. V. Kotov;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. The purpose of the article is to consider the effect of damping in the shock absorber on smooth running, continuous rolling of the wheel and energy loss in the suspension of the car.Materials and methods. The review is based on the analysis of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of a two-mass car model and the dependence of the shock absorber operation during the oscillation cycle on the frequency of kinematic action.Results. The article presents a calculation scheme and equations of dynamics of a two-mass oscillatory system equivalent to an automobile suspension. The frequencies at which the amplitude-frequency characteristics intersect for different levels of damping (invariant points) in a two-mass oscillatory system are calculated. The relative operation of the shock absorber for the oscillation cycle concept is proposed and a formula for calculating the relative operation of the shock absorber in a two-mass oscillatory system is given. A comparative analysis of graphs characterizing smooth running, continuous rolling of the wheel and energy losses in the suspension is carried out.Discussion and conclusions. It is revealed that significant contradictions between these requirements arise only near the second resonance of the sprung mass, with an increase in the frequency of vibrations in the resonant zone, these contradictions are decrease.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    V. E. Ovsyannikov; V. I. Vasilyev;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University

    Introduction.The article discusses the question of applicability of the calculation assessment method of resistance for details from gray cast iron after thermal diffusion hardening. The purpose of research is to check applicability of the calculated model for determination of intensity in case of the variable blanket hardness.Materials and methods.The model of intensity dependence on contact of two disks of friction gear is used in the research. Calculated determination of parameters is executed in two options: contact of the steel disk and disk from gray cast iron with the strengthened layer, and contact of the steel disk and disk from the tempered high-strength cast iron. Thus, roughness corresponding to the earned extra surface in contact zone is created. Experimental check of received results is carried out by means of specific work of abrasive wear definition for gray cast iron with the strengthened layer and the high-strength tempered cast iron.Results.As a result, it was established that the resistance of details from gray cast iron with the strengthened layer is comparable to high-strength cast iron after hardening. The results of experimental check prove the obtained calculations since the parameters values of resistance received would be well coordinated. Therefore, the possibility of the calculated resistant technique usage for such case could be considered as proved one and, therefore, it could be used at design calculations of the frictional units containing details from gray cast iron with the strengthened layer.Discussion and conclusions.The considered way of superficial hardening needs to be applied depending on features of operation on frictional unit. In such case, when the allowed values of wear change in wide limits (for example, brakes, coupling, etc.) it would be better not to subject a blanket to machining where the formation of optimum parameters of friction surfaces happened in natural way, or it would be necessary to delete an allowance. This suggests that the calculation method of the determination of layer resistance enables to define concrete values of an allowance which needs to be deleted.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    V. E. Ovsyannikov; V. I. Vasilyev;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. Hole details are quite widely used in structures of construction and road machines. The specialists apply boring for draft, semi-fair, and in some cases for fair processing of such surfaces. This type of processing is often followed by the negative nature of oscillatory processes that leads to decrease in accuracy and in the surface quality. The paper studies the possibility of the calculation method’s usage in oscillatory processes, which allows assigning the cutting modes by providing required output parameters.Materials and methods. The authors used the double-support beam as a design model of a boring cutter. The solution of the fluctuations’ modeling came down to definition of point movements, which corresponded to cutter top (points of application equally effective cutting forces). The authors made the definition of movements with use of Mor integrals. Therefore, the paper considered the impact of chip formation and separation due to perturbing forces.Results. The authors carried out the calculation of forces’ values in cutting with use of the degree dependences. Moreover, the authors accepted the formation’s frequency as the frequency of the perturbing influenced structure. The frequency of the chip formation was defined on the basis of estimated dependences, which connected parameters of the tool, the cut-off layer and modes of cutting. As a result, the author received the implementations of oscillatory processes and studied the influence of different factors on vibration amplitude.Discussion and conclusions. The authors make assessment of the received results’ adequacy by comparison with experimental data. The error doesn’t exceed 20%. The developed model considers geometrical parameters of the tool (a departure, plate corners, etc.), the modes of cutting both mechanical properties of the processed material and parameters of the chip formation. The model can be used both at design of boring operations and by optimization of the cutting modes for the purpose of productivity increase.

  • Open Access Russian
    Authors: 
    V. A. Nikolaev;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University

    Introduction. To solve the problem of accelerating the construction of roads, improving their quality, it is advisable to use a continuous action unit to form a underlying layer. The main working elements of this unit are buckets, which cut off the soil layer from below and side. At the same time, the bottom knife cuts off the ground layer from below, the right knife - on the side, and the console knife partially cuts the top layer of soil from below for the next bucket. In particular, the analysis of interaction with the ground of the bottom knife of the continuous action unit is of theoretical and practical interest. To do this, the lower knife is divided into elements and the interaction of these elements with the soil is analyzed. The consistent impact on the soil of many bottom knives, within the width of the grip of the unit, is replaced by the impact on the ground of one conventional bottom knife at a distance necessary for the development of one cubic meter of soil. The forces of interaction of the conventional bottom knife with the soil are called conditional forces.The method of research. The method of calculating energy costs when introducing the bottom knife into the ground is presented. In general, when introducing the bottom knife in the ground, there are energy costs: to separate the soil, to overcome the friction of the ground on the edge of the blade, to overcome the pressure of the ground on the face, to the rise of the ground, to the vertical acceleration of the ground by the phase, to overcome the friction of the ground on the face, to overcome the friction of the ground on the surface, to overcome the friction of the ground on the lower plane. The total energy costs of interacting with a one cubic metre soil are derived from the addition of private energy costs. The method of calculating the horizontal longitudinal force needed to move the bottom knife is given.Results. On the basis of the developed method, energy costs are calculated in the introduction of the lower knife: on the separation of the soil, on overcoming the friction of the ground on the edge of the blade, on overcoming the pressure of the ground on the face, on the rise of the ground, on the vertical acceleration of the ground face, on overcoming the friction of the ground on the fascia, to overcome the friction of the ground on the lower plane. Energy costs to overcome the friction of the ground on the surface of the bottom knife are zero, as the soil flies over it. The total energy costs of the bottom knife interact with the soil of one cubic meter. The horizontal long-lived force needed to move the bottom knife has been determined.Conclusion. As a result of the calculations: the energy needed to cut the ground with the bottom knives, about 5 kJ/cube m., horizontal longitudinal force needed to move the lower knife - 16 N. To determine the total energy costs of moving the boiler unit to remove the top layer of soil from the underlying layer of the road, you need to analyze the interaction with the soil of other elements of the bucket.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    P. A Korchagin; A. B. Letopolskiy; I. A. Teterina;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. Nowadays there is sufficient number of the working bodies’ parameters, which allow performing technological operations in different conditions with minimal labor and energy resources. It is necessary to produce significant excavation during roads’ construction. Therefore, to perform such technological procedure excavation and road machinery are used. The motor grader is an earth-moving machine and is necessary for surface profiling, moving and construction materials’ level.The motor grader efficiency is determined by the performance criterion. World producers of earthmoving and road machinery associate the growth of quality and speed of work with the improvement of the executive working bodies. Moreover, new design variants of dumps are being developed, including design variants for motor graders. Such solution would allow to reduce the necessary number of passages along the construction site and to shorten the time for mounting the working body. The article presents the variant of the motor grader working equipment improving by installing the side working dump.Materials and methods. The calculated dependences of the main parameters of the motor grader are obtained, such as the coupling weight, the nominal traction force, the resistances arising in the operating mode when cutting and moving the ground, and the total engine power for the operating mode at 4 km per hour speed. Strength characteristics of the side working equipment of the motor grader are investigated. The analysis is carried out by using the Solid Software.Results. The results of the theoretical studies are presented graphically and reflected the stresses, displacements and deformations in proposed lateral working equipment of the motor grader. Using the Solid Works software product it is possible to determine the safety margin of the proposed design. The conducted research allows confirming the working capacity of the proposed technical solution.Discussion and conclusion. The proposed technical solution allows increasing the productivity of the machine while performing the planning works, while maintaining the specified accuracy of their implementation. In addition, such design allows profiling not only the horizontal surface, but also the embankment construction when the side blade is located at an angle of up to 20 degrees.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    I. E. Agureev; G. E. Pyshnaya; V. A. Pyshnyi;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction. The calculation of correspondence was described at the beginning of the 20 century in the form of a gravitational model and is based on analogy with the law of universal gravitation. The development of this model can be called J. Wilson’s approach, in which correspondence calculations are performed using an entropy model. The entropy approach operates with various expressions for the entropy of a macroscopic system. At the same time, its equilibrium is achieved at the maximum value of the selected entropy function. The purpose of this work is to develop a methodology for determining the probabilistic demand of mass attraction centers - Shopping centers and to demonstrate the results of its application on the example of shopping centers located on the territory of the city of Tula. Probabilistic demand is necessary to obtain the so-called ‘a priori probabilities’ in the expression of the entropy of the transport macrosystem.Methods and Materials. For the development of the methodology, as well as its further use, the most convenient and promising scientific platform is the theory of transport macrosystems, which is a special case of the general theory of macrosystems. Developed in the works of mainly domestic scientists, it allows you to perform various tasks specific to transport systems.Conclusions. The method of determining the probabilistic demand of the mass attraction centers -Shopping centers, which consists in obtaining a priori probabilities of being in them and their capacities for solving problems of finding equilibrium distributions of visitors, was developed with the aim of further developing the macroscopic approach in the study of Shopping centers. The main purpose of the technique is to use the results obtained in solving problems about the equilibrium states of the drains of transport and the road network in the framework of the theory of transport macrosystems.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    K. P. Krylova; E. E. Vitvitskiy;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    The article presents some aspects of the rental vehicles’ practice on the terms by an hourly pay. The specified activities for vehicles’ providing represent daily work of the significant amount of the enterprises. It defines the researches relevance in this area of the freight automobile transportations theory and practice. The article defines the necessity in the solution of the transportation distance influence on the rental vehicles working results in the city, in cargo transportation on the pendulum route with reverse and not loaded mileage. The gained solution is submitted on the example of the commercial cargo transportation by the rent vehicles group with a loading capacity of 1,5 tons at the condition of two tariffs application. The method of handling works’ accomplishment is mechanized method. The description model in the small auto transport system of cargo transportation is applied in operational planning as a mathematical apparatus of research. The output in tons, the possible work time of vehicles for each considered range distance are defined. The dependence of the rental group vehicles cost, one ton of freight transportation cost and time efficiency from the transportation distance changing is established. The checking process of the founded dependences on the adequacy of the researching process is made.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yu. A. Kolber;
    Publisher: Siberian State Automobile and Highway University (SibADI)

    Introduction . The article is devoted to the analysis of scientific developments in the sphere of the information support of public passenger transport networks’ optimization in major cities. Currently, insufficient attention is paid to the infobase formation for the urban route networks’ optimization. Materials and methods . The article presents the analysis of the experience for optimization of urban route networks on the basis of identified modern optimization approaches, which should be directed to the generated information support. Typical initial information to process city route networks’ optimization in qualitative and quantitative indicators, which is used by designers of the route network, is reflected. The most time-consuming among the initial information is the matrix of passenger correspondence, some methods of which are not sufficiently developed nowadays. The problems of forming passenger correspondence matrix for major cities are considered. Results . Relevance of the information support methodology to public passenger transport route networks’ optimization in major cities and on the basis of this methodology the correspondence matrix for major cities is substantiated. Therefore, this matrix should contain all types of urban movements, detailing correspondence to the stopping point and provide an acceptable level of results. Moreover, goals and directions for further research in the sphere of information management efficient for route networks’ optimization of public passenger transport in major cities are identified. Discussion and conclusion . The results of the investigation could be used as a basis for scientific research, which should make a significant contribution to improving the efficiency of the urban route networks’ optimization and the quality of transport services for the population, in particular for major cities.

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