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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Muhammad Naveed; Mutez Ali Ahmed; Pascal Benard; Lawrie K. Brown; Timothy S. George; A. G. Bengough; Tiina Roose; Nicolai Koebernick; Paul D. Hallett;
    Publisher: Springer
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Rhizosphere by design: br... (BB/L026058/1), EC | DIMR (646809), UKRI | Truly Predicting Root Upt... (BB/J000868/1), UKRI | Rice germplasm for high g... (BB/J011460/1), UKRI | Real-time in situ sensing... (BB/P004180/1), UKRI | Rooting for sustainable p... (EP/M020355/1), UKRI | Rhizosphere by design: br... (BB/L026058/1), EC | DIMR (646809), UKRI | Truly Predicting Root Upt... (BB/J000868/1), UKRI | Rice germplasm for high g... (BB/J011460/1),...

    Abstract\ud Aims Rhizodeposits collected from hydroponic solutions with roots of maize and barley, and seed mucilage washed from chia, were added to soil to measure their impact on water retention and hysteresis in a sandy loam soil at a range of concentrations. We test the hypothesis that the effect of plant exudates and mucilages on hydraulic properties of soils depend on their physicochemical characteristics and origin.\ud Methods Surface tension and viscosity of the exudate solutions were measured using the Du Noüy ring method and a cone-plate rheometer, respectively. The contact angle of water on exudate treated soil was measured with the sessile drop method. Water retention and hysteresis were measured by equilibrating soil samples, treated with exudates and mucilages at 0.46 and 4.6 mg g−1 concentration, on dialysis tubing filled with polyethylene glycol (PEG) solution of known osmotic potential.\ud Results Surface tension decreased and viscosity increased with increasing concentration of the exudates and mucilage in solutions. Change in surface tension and viscosity was greatest for chia seed exudate and least for barley root exudate. Contact angle increased with increasing maize root and chia seed exudate concentration in soil, but not barley root. Chia seed mucilage and maize root rhizodeposits enhanced soil water retention and increased hysteresis index, whereas barley root rhizodeposits decreased soil water retention and the hysteresis effect. The impact of exudates and mucilages on soil water retention almost ceased when approaching the wilting point at −1500 kPa matric potential.\ud Conclusions Barley rhizodeposits behaved as surfactants, drying the rhizosphere at smaller suctions. Chia seed mucilage and maize root rhizodeposits behaved as hydrogels that hold more water in the rhizosphere, but with slower rewetting and greater hysteresis.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rubén J. Sánchez-García;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Isaac Newton Institute fo... (EP/K032208/1), UKRI | Isaac Newton Institute fo... (EP/K032208/1)

    Virtually all network analyses involve structural measures between pairs of vertices, or of the vertices themselves, and the large amount of symmetry present in real-world complex networks is inherited by such measures. This has practical consequences which have not yet been explored in full generality, nor systematically exploited by network practitioners. Here we study the effect of network symmetry on arbitrary network measures, and show how this can be exploited in practice in a number of ways, from redundancy compression, to computational reduction. We also uncover the spectral signatures of symmetry for an arbitrary network measure such as the graph Laplacian. Computing network symmetries is very efficient in practice, and we test real-world examples up to several million nodes. Since network models are ubiquitous in the Applied Sciences, and typically contain a large degree of structural redundancy, our results are not only significant, but widely applicable. Comment: Author name updated (accents added)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexander Belyaev; Kazem Bitaghsir Fadafan; Nick Evans; Mansoureh Gholamzadeh;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | New Frontiers in Particle... (ST/P000711/1), UKRI | New Frontiers in Particle... (ST/P000711/1)

    We use a holographic description of technicolor dynamics to study gauge theories that only break chiral symmetry when aided by a strong four fermion interaction. These Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) assisted technicolor models provide examples of different dynamics from walking technicolor which can, by tuning, generate a light higgs like $\sigma$ meson. We compute the vector meson ($\rho$) and axial vector meson (A) spectrum for a variety of models with techni-quarks in the fundamental representation, enlarging the available parameter space over a previous analysis of walking theories. These predictions determine the parameter space of a low energy effective description where LHC constraints from dilepton channels have already been applied. Many of the models with low numbers of electroweak doublets still lie beyond current constraints and motivate exploration of new signatures beyond dilepton for LHC and a 100 TeV proton collider. Comment: 13 pages, 6 figures, 9 tables

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Daniele Carrieri; Anneke Lucassen; Angus John Clarke; Sandi Dheensa; Shane Doheny; Peter D. Turnpenny; Susan E. Kelly;
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Mainstreaming Genomics: R... (ES/L002868/1), UKRI | Mainstreaming Genomics: R... (ES/L002868/1)

    Purpose: To ascertain whether and how recontacting occurs in the United Kingdom. Genet Med 18 9, 876–881. Method: A Web-based survey was administered online between October 2014 and July 2015. A link to the survey was circulated via an e-mail invitation to the clinical leads of the United Kingdom's 23 clinical genetics services, with follow-up with senior clinical genetics staff. Genet Med 18 9, 876–881. Results: The majority of UK services reported that they recontact patients and their family members. However, recontacting generally occurs in an ad hoc fashion when an unplanned event causes clinicians to review a file (a “trigger”). There are no standardized recontacting practices in the United Kingdom. More than half of the services were unsure whether formalized recontacting systems should be implemented. Some suggested greater patient involvement in the process of recontacting. Genet Med 18 9, 876–881. Conclusion: This research suggests that a thorough evaluation of the efficacy and sustainability of potential recontacting systems within the National Health Service would be necessary before deciding whether and how to implement such a service or to create guidelines on best-practice models. Genet Med 18 9, 876–881.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2016
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Elizaveta A. Suturina; Ilya Kuprov;
    Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Non-classical paramagneti... (EP/N006895/1), UKRI | Non-classical paramagneti... (EP/N006895/1)

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the pseudocontact shift (PCS) field induced by a mobile spin label that is viewed as a probability density distribution with an associated effective magnetic susceptibility anisotropy. It is demonstrated that non-spherically-symmetric density can lead to significant deviations from the commonly used point dipole approximation for PCS. Analytical and numerical solutions are presented for the general partial differential equation that describes the non-point case. It is also demonstrated that it is possible, with some reasonable approximations, to reconstruct paramagnetic centre probability distributions from the experimental PCS data. in press

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Cencillo-Abad, Pablo; Ou, Jun-Yu; Plum, Eric; Valente, João; Zheludev, Nikolay I.;
    Publisher: IOP Publishing
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | NANOSTRUCTURED PHOTONIC M... (EP/G060363/1)

    While metamaterials offer engineered static optical properties, future artificial media with dynamic random-access control over shape and position of meta-molecules will provide arbitrary control of light propagation. The simplest example of such a reconfigurable metamaterial is a nanowire grid metasurface with subwavelength wire spacing. Recently we demonstrated computationally that such a metadevice with individually controlled wire positions could be used as dynamic diffraction grating, beam steering module and tunable focusing element. Here we report on the nanomembrane realization of such a nanowire grid metasurface constructed from individually addressable plasmonic chevron nanowires with a 230nm x 100nm cross-section, which consist of gold and silicon nitride. The active structure of the metadevice consists of 15 nanowires each 18 microns long and is fabricated by a combination of electron beam lithography and ion beam milling. It is packaged as a microchip device where the nanowires can be individually actuated by control currents via differential thermal expansion.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Aude Lavayssière; Tim Greenfield; Derek Keir; Atalay Ayele; J-Michael Kendall;
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy
    Project: UKRI | Rift volcanism: past, pre... (NE/L013932/1), UKRI | Rift volcanism: past, pre... (NE/L013932/1)

    <p>Corbetti is currently one of the fastest uplifting volcanoes globally, with strong evidence from geodetic and gravity data for a subsurface inflating magma body. A dense network of 18 stations has been deployed around Corbetti and Hawassa calderas between February 2016 and October 2017, to place seismic constraints on the magmatic, hydrothermal and fault slip processes occurring around this deforming volcano. We locate 122 events of magnitudes between 0.4 and 4.2 were located using a new local velocity model. The seismicity is focused in two areas: directly beneath Corbetti caldera and beneath the east shore of Lake Hawassa. The shallower 0-5km depth below sea level (b.s.l.) earthquakes beneath Corbetti are mainly focused in NW-elongated clusters at Urji and Chabbi volcanic centres. This distribution is interpreted to be mainly controlled by a northward propagation of hydrothermal fluids from a cross-rift pre-existing fault. Source mechanisms are predominantly strike-slip and different to the normal faulting away from the volcano, suggesting a local rotation of the stress-field. These observations, along with a low Vp/Vs ratio, are consistent with the inflation of a gas-rich sill, likely of silicic composition, beneath Urji. In contrast, the seismicity beneath the east shore of Lake Hawassa extends to greater depth (16 km b.s.l.). These earthquakes are focused on 8-10 km long segmented faults, which are active in seismic swarms. One of these swarms, in August 2016, is focused between 5 and 16 km depth b.s.l. along a steep normal fault beneath the city of Hawassa, highlighting the tectonic hazard for the local population.</p>

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Matthias Feinaeugle; Daniel J. Heath; Benjamin Mills; James A. Grant-Jacob; Goran Z. Mashanovich; Robert W. Eason;
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Integrated Photonic Mater... (EP/J008052/1), UKRI | Digital Multimirror Devic... (EP/L022230/1), UKRI | Integrated Photonic Mater... (EP/J008052/1), UKRI | Digital Multimirror Devic... (EP/L022230/1)

    Femtosecond laser-induced backward transfer of transparent photopolymers is demonstrated in the solid state, assisted by a digital micromirror spatial light modulator for producing shaped deposits. Through use of an absorbing silicon carrier substrate, we have been able to successfully transfer solid-phase material, with lateral dimensions as small as ~6 microns. In addition, a carrier of silicon incorporating a photonic waveguide relief structure enables the transfer of imprinted deposits that have been accomplished with surface features exactly complementing those present on the substrate, with an observed minimum feature size of 140 nm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ulrich Sternberg; Raiker Witter; Ilya Kuprov; Jonathan M. Lamley; Andres Oss; Józef R. Lewandowski; Ago Samoson;
    Publisher: Karlsruhe
    Countries: United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Germany
    Project: EC | complexNMR (639907), UKRI | Biophysical basis for the... (BB/L022761/1), UKRI | 100 kHz magic angle spinn... (EP/L025906/1), EC | complexNMR (639907), UKRI | Biophysical basis for the... (BB/L022761/1), UKRI | 100 kHz magic angle spinn... (EP/L025906/1)

    Recent developments in magic angle spinning (MAS) technology permit spinning frequencies of ≥100 kHz. We examine the effect of such fast MAS rates upon nuclear magnetic resonance proton line widths in the multi-spin system of β-Asp-Ala crystal. We perform powder pattern simulations employing Fokker-Plank approach with periodic boundary conditions and 1H-chemical shift tensors calculated using the bond polarization theory. The theoretical predictions mirror well the experimental results. Both approaches demonstrate that homogeneous broadening has a linear-quadratic dependency on the inverse of the MAS spinning frequency and that, at the faster end of the spinning frequencies, the residual spectral line broadening becomes dominated by chemical shift distributions and susceptibility effects even for crystalline systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gale, Catharine R.; Batty, G. David; Cooper, Sally-Ann; Deary, Ian J.; Der, Geoff; McEwan, Bruce S.; Cavanagh, Jonathan;
    Country: United Kingdom
    Project: UKRI | Centre for Cognitive Agei... (MR/K026992/1)

    ABSTRACT Objective To examine the relation between reaction time in adolescence and subsequent symptoms of anxiety and depression and investigate the mediating role of sociodemographic measures, health behaviors, and allostatic load. Methods Participants were 705 members of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Choice reaction time was measured at age 16. At age 36 years, anxiety and depression were assessed with the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and measurements were made of blood pressure, pulse rate, waist-to-hip ratio, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, albumin, and glycosolated hemoglobin from which allostatic load was calculated. Results In unadjusted models, longer choice reaction time at age 16 years was positively associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression at age 36 years: for a standard deviation increment in choice reaction time, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals) for logged GHQ score, and square-root–transformed HADS anxiety and depression scores were 0.048 (0.016–0.080), 0.064 (0.009–0.118), and 0.097 (0.032–0.163) respectively. Adjustment for sex, parental social class, GHQ score at age 16 years, health behaviors at age 36 years and allostatic load had little attenuating effect on the association between reaction time and GHQ score, but weakened those between reaction time and the HADS subscales. Part of the effect of reaction time on depression was mediated through allostatic load; this mediating role was of borderline significance after adjustment. Conclusions Adolescents with slower processing speed may be at increased risk for anxiety and depression. Cumulative allostatic load may partially mediate the relation between processing speed and depression. Supplemental digital content is available in the text.

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