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  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Research . 2018
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Anton Bondarev; Alfred Greiner;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Switzerland, Germany

    In this paper we develop an economic growth model that includes anthropogenic climate change. We include a publicly funded research sector that creates new technologies and simultaneously expands the productivities of existing technologies. The environment is affected by R&D activities both negatively, through the increase of output from productivity growth, as well as positively as new technologies are less harmful for the environment. We find that there may exist two different steadystates of the economy, depending on the amount of research spending: one with less new technologies being developed and the other with more technologies. Thus, a lock-in effect may arise that, however, can be overcome by raising R&D spending sufficiently such that the steady-state becomes unique. We derive the combinations of fiscal policy instruments for which that can be achieved and we study the implications for the economy and for the environment. In particular, the double dividend hypothesis may hold only under some specific conditions.

  • Publication . Preprint . Research . Other literature type . Article . 2019
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    LHCb collaboration; Aaij, R.; Beteta, C. Abellán; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Aidala, C. A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albicocco, P.; Albrecht, J.; +190 more
    Publisher: RWTH Aachen University
    Countries: Germany, France

    An angular analysis of $B^0\to J/\psi K^+\pi^-$ decays is performed, using proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3~${\rm fb}^{-1}$ collected with the LHCb detector. The $m(K^+\pi^-)$ spectrum is divided into fine bins. In each $m(K^+\pi^-)$ bin, the hypothesis that the three-dimensional angular distribution can be described by structures induced only by $K^\ast$ resonances is examined, making minimal assumptions about the $K^+\pi^-$ system. The data reject the $K^\ast$-only hypothesis with a large significance, implying the observation of exotic contributions in a model-independent fashion. Inspection of the $m(J/\psi\pi^-)$ versus $m(K^+\pi^-)$ plane suggests structures near $m(J/\psi\pi^-)=4200$~MeV and 4600~MeV. Comment: All figures and tables, along with any supplementary material and additional information, are available at http://lhcbproject.web.cern.ch/lhcbproject/Publications/LHCbProjectPublic/LHCb-PAPER-2018-043.html

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Research . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Melo da Costa, Eliza; Brandao Malbouisson, Helena; Tomei, Thiago; de Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; de Souza Lemos, Dener; Garcia Fuentes, Francisco Ignacio; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Brom, Jean-Marie; +279 more
    Countries: Italy, Finland, Croatia, Croatia, United Kingdom, United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, Belgium, Turkey ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | INSIGHTS (765710), EC | LHCTOPVLQ (752730)

    Measurements of the second Fourier harmonic coefficient (v2) of the azimuthal distributions of prompt and nonprompt D0 mesons produced in pp and pPb collisions are presented. Nonprompt D0 mesons come from beauty hadron decays. The data samples are collected by the CMS experiment at nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energies of 13 and 8.16 TeV, respectively. In high multiplicity pp collisions, v2 signals for prompt charm hadrons are reported for the first time, and are found to be comparable to those for light-flavor hadron species over a transverse momentum (pT) range of 2–6 GeV. Compared at similar event multiplicities, the prompt D0 meson v2 values in pp and pPb collisions are similar in magnitude. The v2 values for open beauty hadrons are extracted for the first time via nonprompt D0 mesons in pPb collisions. For pT in the range of 2–5 GeV, the results suggest that v2 for nonprompt D0 mesons is smaller than that for prompt D0 mesons. These new measurements indicate a positive charm hadron v2 in pp collisions and suggest a mass dependence in v2 between charm and beauty hadrons in the pPb system. These results provide insights into the origin of heavy-flavor quark collectivity in small systems. Individuals have received support from the Marie-Curie program and the European Research Council and Horizon 2020 Grant, contract Nos. 675440, 752730, and 765710 (European Union); CERN; the Programa Estatal de Fomento de la Investigación Científica y Técnica de Excelencia María de Maeztu, grant MDM-2015-0509 and the Programa Severo Ochoa del Principado de Asturias. CMS Collaboration: et al. Funded by SCOAP3. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Böhm, Michael J.; Gregory, Terry; Qendrai, Pamela; Siegel, Christian;
    Publisher: Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics (IZA)
    Country: Germany

    Like many other countries, Germany has experienced rapid population and workforce ageing, yet with substantial variation across regions. In this paper we first use this spatial variation between 1975 and 2014 to estimate quasi- causal supply effects of ageing on regional labour market outcomes, drawing on the identification strategy of Böhm and Siegel (2020). We find in our panel of German labour market regions that workforce mean age has considerable negative effects on the wage returns to age. We also obtain suggestive evidence that relative employment rates of older workers decline when mean age rises. A decomposition of the heterogeneous regional trends using our estimates shows that ageing of rural regions is mainly driven by supply (reflecting local population dynamics) whereas urban ageing is driven by demand (reflecting responses to economic conditions). We discuss the differential implications of these drivers for regional policy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Merino-Peña, Y.; Pittore, M.; Gomez- Zapata, J.;
    Publisher: GFZ Data Services
    Country: Germany

    The dataset contains a set of structural and non-structural attributes collected using the GFZ RRVS (Remote Rapid Visual Screening) methodology. It is composed by 604 randomly distributed buildings in the urban area of Valparaiso and Viña del Mar (Chile). The survey has been carried out between November and December 2018 using a Remote Rapid Visual Screening system developed by GFZ and employing omnidirectional images from Google StreetView (vintage: December 2018) and footprints from OpenStreetMap (OSM). The buildings were inspected by local structural engineers from the Chilean Research Centre for Integrated Disaster Risk Management (CIGIDEN) while collecting their attribute values in terms of the GEM v.2.0 taxonomy

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . Research . Report . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ece Aşılar; Marko Dragicevic; A. Escalante Del Valle; Jochen Schieck; Daniel Spitzbart; Claudia-Elisabeth Wulz; E. A. De Wolf; H. Van Haevermaet; N. Van Remortel; Freya Blekman; +429 more
    Publisher: Springer Nature
    Countries: Belgium, United States, United States, Germany, Belgium, Italy, Turkey, India, Spain, Italy ...
    Project: EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440), EC | AMVA4NewPhysics (675440)

    A search for charged Higgs boson decaying to a charm and a bottom quark ( $ {\mathrm{H}}^{+}\to \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) is performed using 19.7 fb$^{−1}$ of pp collision data at $ \sqrt{s}=8 $ TeV. The production mechanism investigated in this search is $ \mathrm{t}\overline{\mathrm{t}} $ pair production in which one top quark decays to a charged Higgs boson and a bottom quark and the other decays to a charged lepton, a neutrino, and a bottom quark. Charged Higgs boson decays to $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ are searched for, resulting in a final state containing at least four jets, a charged lepton (muon or electron), and missing transverse momentum. A kinematic fit is performed to identify the pair of jets least likely to be the bottom quarks originating from direct top quark decays and the invariant mass of this pair is used as the final observable in the search. No evidence for the presence of a charged Higgs boson is observed and upper limits at 95% confidence level of 0.8–0.5% are set on the branching fraction ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b), assuming ℬ(H$^{+}$ → $ \mathrm{c}\overline{\mathrm{b}} $ ) = 1.0 and ℬ(t → H$^{+}$b) + ℬ(t → Wb) = 1.0, for the charged Higgs boson mass range 90–150 GeV. Journal of high energy physics 1811(11), 115 (2018). doi:10.1007/JHEP11(2018)115 Published by Springer Nature, Cham

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pyka, Andreas; Fagiolo, Giorgio;
    Country: Germany

    Modellers have had to wrestle with an unavoidable trade-off between the demand of a general theoretical approach and the descriptive accuracy required to model a particular phenomenon. A new class of simulation models has shown to be well adapted to this challenge, basically by shifting outwards this trade- off: So-called agent-based models (ABMs henceforth) are increasingly used for the modelling of socio-economic developments. Our paper deals with the new requirements for modelling entailed by the necessity to focus on qualitative developments, pattern formation, etc. which is generally highlighted within Neo-Schumpeterian Economics and the possibilities given by ABMs.

  • Publication . Research . 2017
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Moreira, Sonia Virgínia; Hanitzsch, Thomas;
    Country: Germany
  • Publication . Preprint . Article . Research . Other literature type . 2018
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arne Raasakka; Salla Ruskamo; Julia Kowal; Huijong Han; Anne Baumann; Matti Myllykoski; A. Fasano; Rocco Rossano; Paolo Riccio; Jochen Bürck; +3 more
    Publisher: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    Countries: Switzerland, Norway, Finland, Germany, Germany, Switzerland

    Compact myelin forms the basis of nerve insulation essential for higher vertebrates. Dozens of myelin membrane bilayers undergo tight stacking, and in the peripheral nervous system, this is partially enabled by myelin protein zero (P0). Consisting of an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like extracellular domain, a single transmembrane helix, and a cytoplasmic extension (P0ct), P0 harbours an important task in ensuring the integrity of compact myelin in the extracellular compartment, referred to as the intraperiod line. Several disease mutations resulting in peripheral neuropathies have been identified for P0, reflecting its physiological importance, but the arrangement of P0 within the myelin ultrastructure remains obscure. We performed a biophysical characterization of recombinant P0ct. P0ct contributes to the binding affinity between apposed cytoplasmic myelin membrane leaflets, which not only results in changes of the bilayer properties, but also potentially involves the arrangement of the Ig-like domains in a manner that stabilizes the intraperiod line. Transmission electron cryomicroscopy of native full-length P0 showed that P0 stacks lipid membranes by forming antiparallel dimers between the extracellular Ig-like domains. The zipper-like arrangement of the P0 extracellular domains between two membranes explains the double structure of the myelin intraperiod line. Our results contribute to the understanding of PNS myelin, the role of P0 therein, and the underlying molecular foundation of compact myelin stability in health and disease. Scientific Reports, 9 ISSN:2045-2322

  • Open Access German
    Authors: 
    Klammer, Ute;
    Publisher: Duisburg: DuEPublico, 2020
    Country: Germany

    Kurz gefasst Durch die mit den Rentenreformen 2001ff. eingeleitete Absenkung des Rentenniveaus ist das Risiko gestiegen, trotz langjähriger Systemzugehörigkeit und Beitragszahlung keinen Rentenanspruch oberhalb des Grundsicherungsniveaus zu erreichen, und es wird weiter steigen. Für Personen mit Niedrigeinkommen oder Teilzeitarbeit ist es auch bei langjähriger Versicherung kaum möglich, einen armutsvermeidenden Rentenanspruch oberhalb der Grundsicherungsschwelle zu erzielen. Das untergräbt die Akzeptanz der GRV als wichtigstem deutschen Alterssicherungssystem. Die Einführung einer Grundrente für langjährig Versicherte der GRV wurde im Koalitionsvertrag der GroKo für die laufende Legislaturperiode vereinbart. Das Vorhaben jetzt auch umzusetzen, ist ein Beitrag zum Vertrauen in das politische Handeln. Vor dem Hintergrund der in 2020 im Zuge der Corona-Pandemie beschlossenen Konjunkturpakete und ihrer Finanzvolumina erscheint das veranschlagte Finanzvolumen für die Grundrente (1,3 Mrd. € in 2021, steigend auf 1,6 Mrd. € 2025) moderat. Im Einzelnen wirft der nun vorliegende Gesetzentwurf allerdings noch eine Reihe von Fragen und Problemen auf. Hierzu gehören – neben absehbaren administrativen Herausforderungen – Fragen nach der gerechten Ausgestaltung (Arbeitszeiterfassung), dem Verhältnis zu anderen Sozialleistungen (Grundsicherung) und möglichen Fehlanreizen (Verfestigung geschlechtsspezifischer Arbeitszeitarrangements in der Familie). In Abgrenzung zur mehrheitlich vertretenen Auffassung, es handle sich bei der geplanten Grundrente um eine gesamtgesellschaftliche Aufgabe, die ggf. aus Steuern zu finanzieren sei, wird im Folgenden argumentiert, dass es sich hier um eine Versicherung gegen das Risiko, trotz langjähriger Mitgliedschaft und Beitragszahlung keine armutsvermeidenden Alterssicherungsansprüche aufbauen zu können handelt und daher eine Finanzierung aus Versicherungsbeiträgen sachgerecht wäre.

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