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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: FAO;

    The 2nd meeting of the Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish of the North Brazil Guianas Shelf was held in Barbados 17-18 May, 2018. The meeting brought together 25 participants including Working Group members, fisheries officers, fisherfolk representatives, academia, government organizations and FAO. The scope of the working group is to provide scientific and management advice for the sustainable management of the shrimp and groundfish resources of the Northern Brazil-Guianas shelf in the WECAFC Region. The participants reviewed and analyzed the current state of data collection and fisheries management for each country in the North Brazil Guianas Shelf. Also, an update was made on the WECAFC-FIRMS partnership and the outcomes of the 1st Meeting of the Fisheries Data and Statistics Working Group that took place in Barbados, 14-16 May 2018.The assessment of data limited fisheries was presented as an approach to consider for the North Brazil Guianas Shelf shrimp and groundfish fisheries. Additionally, the current status and necessary steps to develop a sub-regional EAF management plan for shrimp and groundfish were discussed, as well as the need to enhance capacity in stock assessment techniques in the sub-region.The Governance Effectiveness Assessment Framework (GEAF) was presented as a mean to assess the CLME+ Strategic Action Programme (SAP). This assessment would be developed for the fisheries of the North Brazil Guianas shelf based on indicators covering the main issues in the sub-region: fisheries, pollution and biodiversity/habitats.Working Group participants also reviewed and discussed the draft regional strategy for bycatch management in the WECAFC Area developed by the REBYC II LAC project.Finally, based on working group discussions and the requirements for sustainable management of the shrimp and groundfish resources of the North Brazil Guianas Shelf, a draft recommendation was prepared for consideration of the upcoming 17th session of WECAFC.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bodoy, Alain; Calvas, Jacques; Fuchs, Jacques; Lacroix, Denis; +3 Authors
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pautot, Guy; Auzende, Jean-marie; Olivet, Jean-louis; Mauffret, Alain;

    The alignment of the Balearic Islands, stretching from the Spanish mainland towards the Corsican-Sardinian block, has long intrigued many geologists. Since Suess (1886), we know that the Balearic block (Ibiza, Formentera, and Majorca) is part of the Alpine system. Many authors (Kober, 1914; Staub, 1928; Kober, 1931) have subsequently attempted to comprehensively integrate the history of the Balearic block within the history of the Alpine chain. In this paper, we will use data from marine geology and geophysics to define the location of the Balearic Islands during the diverse phases of distension, shearing, and compression between the European and African plates, which created the present western Mediterranean and the Alpine chain. In particular, we will try to explain the way in which the Balearic Islands have reacted to these diverse drift phenomena, and discuss the manifestations of these phenornena in this area. [NOT CONTROLLED OCR]

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ ArchiMer - Instituti...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Robert, Stephane; Le Moine, Olivier;
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Jean-Marie Saurel; Eric Jacques; Chastity Aiken; Anne Lemoine; +56 Authors

    SUMMARYThe brutal onset of seismicity offshore Mayotte island North of the Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean, that occurred in May 2018 caught the population, authorities and scientific community off guard. Around 20 potentially felt earthquakes were recorded in the first 5 d, up to magnitude Mw 5.9. The scientific community had little pre-existing knowledge of the seismic activity in the region due to poor seismic network coverage. During 2018 and 2019, the MAYOBS/REVOSIMA seismology group was progressively built between four French research institutions to improve instrumentation and data sets to monitor what we know now as an on-going exceptional submarine basaltic eruption. After the addition of 3 medium-band stations on Mayotte island and 1 on Grande Glorieuse island in early 2019, the data recovered from the Ocean Bottom Seismometers were regularly processed by the group to improve the location of the earthquakes detected daily by the land network. We first built a new local 1-D velocity model and established specific data processing procedures. The local 1.66 low VP/VS ratio we estimated is compatible with a volcanic island context. We manually picked about 125 000 P and S phases on land and sea bottom stations to locate more than 5000 events between February 2019 and May 2020. The earthquakes outline two separate seismic clusters offshore that we named Proximal and Distal. The Proximal cluster, located 10 km offshore Mayotte eastern coastlines, is 20–50 km deep and has a cylindrical shape. The Distal cluster start 5 km to the east of the Proximal cluster and extends below Mayotte's new volcanic edifice, from 50 to 25 km depth. The two clusters appear seismically separated, however our data set is insufficient to firmly demonstrate this.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Journal ...arrow_drop_down
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    Geophysical Journal International
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Geophysical Journal International
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geophysical Journal ...arrow_drop_down
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      Geophysical Journal International
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Geophysical Journal International
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: des Aulnois, Maxime Georges; Réveillon, Damien; Robert, Elise; Caruana, Amandine; +5 Authors

    The transfer of Microcystis aeruginosa from freshwater to estuaries has been described worldwide and salinity is reported as the main factor controlling the expansion of M. aeruginosa to coastal environments. Analyzing the expression levels of targeted genes and employing both targeted and non-targeted metabolomic approaches, this study investigated the effect of a sudden salt increase on the physiological and metabolic responses of two toxic M. aeruginosa strains separately isolated from fresh and brackish waters, respectively, PCC 7820 and 7806. Supported by differences in gene expressions and metabolic profiles, salt tolerance was found to be strain specific. An increase in salinity decreased the growth of M. aeruginosa with a lesser impact on the brackish strain. The production of intracellular microcystin variants in response to salt stress correlated well to the growth rate for both strains. Furthermore, the release of microcystins into the surrounding medium only occurred at the highest salinity treatment when cell lysis occurred. This study suggests that the physiological responses of M. aeruginosa involve the accumulation of common metabolites but that the intraspecific salt tolerance is based on the accumulation of specific metabolites. While one of these was determined to be sucrose, many others remain to be identified. Taken together, these results provide evidence that M. aeruginosa is relatively salt tolerant in the mesohaline zone and microcystin (MC) release only occurs when the capacity of the cells to deal with salt increase is exceeded. Postprints der Universität Potsdam : Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Reihe; 1130

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Toxins
    Other literature type . Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Toxins
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Toxins
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    https://doi.org/10.25932/publi...
    Other literature type . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Europe PubMed Centra...arrow_drop_down
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      Europe PubMed Central
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: PubMed Central
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      Toxins
      Other literature type . Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Toxins
      Article . 2020
      Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Toxins
      Article
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: UnpayWall
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
      Hal-Diderot
      Article . 2020
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Hal-Diderot
      https://doi.org/10.25932/publi...
      Other literature type . 2021
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Menesguen, Alain; Cugier, Philippe; Loyer, Sophie; Vanhoutte-Brunier, Alice; +3 Authors

    The general trend in ecosystem modelling is to improve the spatial resolution by shifting from rough box-models to fine 3D models. Despite the continuous speeding-up of computing, 3D models involving numerous state variables may remain intractable, especially for parameter calibration, when processes with long half-life periods (i.e, from years to decades) are introduced, such as the behaviour of organic matter in sediment and population dynamics of benthic species. In these cases, a first approach can be provided by fast-running box-models, if they take into account the most crucial hydrodynamic properties of the system. In a macrotidal shelf sea such as the English Channel, the long-term horizontal transport can be summarized by the tidal residual circulation, and the vertical stratification can be sketched by a two- or three-layered integral model. This paper compares the results obtained in the English Channel area by the same biogeochemical equations of pelagic primary production, coupled to 1) a two-layered box-model 2) a three-layered box-model (i.e., with an intermediate cline layer between surface and bottom ones) and 3) a fine-gridded 3D model. Comparison is focused firstly on thermal stratification and summer dinoflagellate blooms in the north-western Channel and secondly on the haline stratification and the sequence of blooms obtained in the eutrophicated Seine river plume. Comparison shows that box-models act as low-pass filters which reproduce correctly the weekly mean time-course, but greatly reduce the variance locally observed in a tide-oscillating plume region. As far as global characteristics are concerned, such as the annual primary production, or the percentage of variation in annual production after reducing the nutrient loadings, the box and 3D models gave very similar results. This conclusion reinforces the usefulness of using box-models as a first approach in long-term processes, for which a long transient phase is expected before reaching the annual periodic solution. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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    Journal of Marine Systems
    Article . 2007
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      Journal of Marine Systems
      Article . 2007
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    Authors: Fromentin, Jean-marc; Fonteneau, Alain;

    This study aims to test whether exploitation affects tunas and tuna-like species displaying contrasting life history traits similarly. We first collected information on life history of 10 commercial Atlantic species and then compared this information using multivariate analysis. On one hand, tropical tunas are characterised by small to medium size, rapid growth, early age-at-maturity, long spawning duration and short life span. These species, therefore, display a rapid turnover, characteristic of r-selected species. On the other hand, temperate tunas display differing life history traits, i.e., large size, slow growth, late age-at-maturity, short spawning duration and long life span. The turnover of these species is slow and present characteristics similar to 'K-selected' species (with a conservative strategy adapted to a colder and more variable environment). We, then, selected the two tuna species displaying the most contrasting life histories, i.e., skipjack (SKJ) and bluefin tuna (BFT), and investigated their respective responses to various levels of exploitation, using simulation modelling. If fishing activity starts at age I (a situation which is close to the actual exploitation pattern), differences in life history traits make the BFT population much more fragile to exploitation and less productive than SKJ. However, if the fisheries only target adults, both SKJ and BFT populations are able to sustain high F. Spawning stocks and yields of BFT also display conspicuous long-term fluctuations, resulting from the combination of year-to-year variations in the recruitment and a long life span. This variability makes it difficult to detect overfishing or depletion risks in the BFT population. Because of its short life span, SKI does not display such long-term variations in its SSB. Our simulations also showed that current management measures based on a minimum size limit are much more critical for BFT than SKJ. This difference stresses the importance of taking account of differences in life history traits into management measures.

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    Fisheries Research
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    Fisheries Research
    Article . 2001
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      Fisheries Research
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      Fisheries Research
      Article . 2001
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    Authors: Lafond, Augustin; Leblanc, Karine; Legras, Justine; Cornet, Veronique; +1 Authors

    International audience; In the context of climate change, understanding the ecological processes controlling the functioning and the efficiency of the biological pump is of primary importance. Plankton community structure and species-specific properties are often invoked as likely to affect biogeochemistry and the export of organic and biogenic mate- rial to the ocean interior. Although a major player in this respect, diatoms are still viewed as a single functional type whose diversity is generally overlooked. Here we examine that question, building on the results achieved during the MOBYDICK expedition, which occurred in the vicinity of the Kerguelen Islands (Southern Ocean) in late summer, a time window corresponding to the demise of the annually recurrent phytoplankton blooms already known to be controlled by iron availability. The Si/C/N stoichiometry of the particulate matter was studied in conjunction with the different diatom community structures, their physiological states, as well as their species-specific carbon contents and silicification degrees. Our results show that diatoms outside the iron- fertilized plateau were more heavily silicified, due to the combined effects of both taxonomic composition of the resident community and a direct physiological response to iron stress, resulting in higher Si:C elemental ratios in diatoms as well as in the bulk particulate matter. Despite low silicic acid concentrations, large chains of weakly silicified Corethron inerme were able to grow in the upper mixed layer above the plateau, while in adjacent high nutrient low chlorophyll (HNLC) waters, communities were dominated by Fragilariopsis spp., Cylindrotheca closterium and the centric genera Actinocyclus/Thalassiosira spp. Depth was also an important factor shaping diatom communities, with the presence of a deep and inactive assemblage located within the pycnocline gradient, both on- and off-plateau, which likely resulted from the differential sinking and accumulation of species previously grown at the surface. In HNLC waters, below the mixed layer, detrital frustules of the heavily silicified species Fragilariopsis kerguelensis carried mostly Si, while above the plateau, Eucampia antarctica and Chaetoceros spp. (resting spores and vegetative stages) were efficient vectors of both Si and C to the deeper layers. Our study shows that the stoichiometry of the biological pump cannot be considered solely as a simple response to a single limiting factor (here iron) highlighting the importance of a species-centered approach in order to finely resolve biogeochemical fluxes and improve our understanding of the biological pump.

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    Journal of Marine Systems
    Article . 2020
    License: Elsevier TDM
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
    HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: HAL AMU; HAL-IRD
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      Article . 2020
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    Authors: L'Haridon, Stephane;

     Since 1983, the existence of Deep Hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) has been revealed in the Eastern Mediterranean basin. These basins which represent extremes environments (anoxic, hypersalty, dark, high hydrostatic pressure) have been under investigation and increasing interest the last fifteen years. The molecular approaches revealed the presence of active and uncultivated microbial communities in the DHABs with two main metabolic processes such as methanogenesis and sulphate-reduction. Until now, no representative strain of the different uncultivated lineages thriving in the DHABs (ex : lineages MSBL, Mediteranean Sea Brine Lake) or involved in the two processes have been yet cultivated. The main objectives of the thesis work were to (i) identify the microbial key players in the processes of methanogenesis and sulphate-reduction, (ii) isolate new microbes adapted to hypersaline conditions and to study their physiology, (iii) to compare the genome and the physiology of the strains belonging to the genus Methanohalophilus, isolated from three different basins (Thetis, Kryos, Tyro), (iv) attempt to cultivate and isolate strains belonging to the uncultivated lineages described in the DHABs. Our cultivation approach allow to cultivate and isolate three methanogenic methylotrophic moderately halophile strains belonging to the genus Methanohalophilus from the basins Thetis, Kryos and Tyro. A chemo-taxonomic and genomic characterization of the isolates revealed the capacity of the strains to grow under in situ conditions. Genome analysis revealed the streamlining reduction (by 10%) of the 3 genomes of our deep sea isolates compared to the terrestrial species of the genus Methanohalophilus and also an adaptation of the isolates to the in situ conditions. The isolate SLHTYRO represent a new species of the genus for which we propose the name M. profundus strain SLHTYRO. Other microbial isolates belonging to genus Marinobacter, Halomonas, and Halanaerobium obtained could be involved in a syntrophic relationship with archaeal partners of the Methanohalophilus genus in order to produce methylated compounds from betaine which in turn is used as catabolic substrates in the methanogenesis process. A new strain belonging to a new genus affiliated the the Bacteroidetes phylum and phylogenetically close to clones identified in the DHABs has been cultivated and isolated in pure culture. This hard to grow isolate represents the first cultivated members of the diverse uncultivated lineages discovered in the DHABs  Depuis 1983, l’existence de bassins hypersalés profonds anoxiques (DHABs Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basin) dans la Méditerranée orientale a été révélée. Ces bassins qui représentent un environnement extrême (anoxie, hypersalé, pression hydrostatique, absence de lumière) font l’objet de nombreuses études microbiologiques qui se sont intensifiées depuis une quinzaine d’années. Les approches moléculaires ont révélé l’existence de communautés microbiennes actives mais encore incultivées (ex : lignées MSBL, Mediteranean Sea Brine Lake) dans ces DHABS, avec notamment des métabolismes microbiens tels que la méthanogénèse et la sulfato-réduction. A ce jour, aucun représentant cultivé affilié à ces groupes d’incultivés ou réalisant les deux processus microbiens cités n’ont été caractérisé. Les objectifs majeurs de ce travail de thèse portaient sur l’identification des principaux groupes métaboliques microbiens et particulièrement les acteurs microbiens impliqués dans les processus dominants de méthanogénèse et de sulfato-réduction. Les approches culturales ont conduit à l’isolement de 3 souches de méthanogènes halophiles modérées de trois bassins (Thetis, Kryos, Tyro) affiliées phylogénétiquement au genre Methanohalophilus. Une caractérisation chimio-taxonomique et génomique de ces souches a été menée. Les résultats ont démontré la capacité des souches isolées à se développer dans les conditions in situ (température, salinité et pression). L’analyse des génomes des souches des bassins hypersalés (milieux profonds vs milieux de surface) a révélé d’une part une réduction de 10% de la taille des génomes des souches isolées du milieu profond et d’autre part indique une adaptation des souches aux conditions in situ. L’isolement de microorganismes appartenant notamment au genre Marinobacter, Halomomas et Halanaerobium permet de proposer un modèle d’interaction syntrophique conduisant à la production des composés méthylés nécessaires aux souches du genre Methanohalophilus pour la réaction de méthanogénèse méthylotrophe dans ces bassins. Un nouveau genre bactérien proche de séquences issues des DHABS et appartenant au phylum des Bacteroidetes a été isolé et est maintenu en culture stable. Ce microorganisme très difficile à cultiver représente le premier isolat appartenant à un des groupes d’incultivés mis en évidence dans les DHABs.

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    Authors: FAO;

    The 2nd meeting of the Working Group on Shrimp and Groundfish of the North Brazil Guianas Shelf was held in Barbados 17-18 May, 2018. The meeting brought together 25 participants including Working Group members, fisheries officers, fisherfolk representatives, academia, government organizations and FAO. The scope of the working group is to provide scientific and management advice for the sustainable management of the shrimp and groundfish resources of the Northern Brazil-Guianas shelf in the WECAFC Region. The participants reviewed and analyzed the current state of data collection and fisheries management for each country in the North Brazil Guianas Shelf. Also, an update was made on the WECAFC-FIRMS partnership and the outcomes of the 1st Meeting of the Fisheries Data and Statistics Working Group that took place in Barbados, 14-16 May 2018.The assessment of data limited fisheries was presented as an approach to consider for the North Brazil Guianas Shelf shrimp and groundfish fisheries. Additionally, the current status and necessary steps to develop a sub-regional EAF management plan for shrimp and groundfish were discussed, as well as the need to enhance capacity in stock assessment techniques in the sub-region.The Governance Effectiveness Assessment Framework (GEAF) was presented as a mean to assess the CLME+ Strategic Action Programme (SAP). This assessment would be developed for the fisheries of the North Brazil Guianas shelf based on indicators covering the main issues in the sub-region: fisheries, pollution and biodiversity/habitats.Working Group participants also reviewed and discussed the draft regional strategy for bycatch management in the WECAFC Area developed by the REBYC II LAC project.Finally, based on working group discussions and the requirements for sustainable management of the shrimp and groundfish resources of the North Brazil Guianas Shelf, a draft recommendation was prepared for consideration of the upcoming 17th session of WECAFC.

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    Authors: Bodoy, Alain; Calvas, Jacques; Fuchs, Jacques; Lacroix, Denis; +3 Authors
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    Authors: Pautot, Guy; Auzende, Jean-marie; Olivet, Jean-louis; Mauffret, Alain;

    The alignment of the Balearic Islands, stretching from the Spanish mainland towards the Corsican-Sardinian block, has long intrigued many geologists. Since Suess (1886), we know that the Balearic block (Ibiza, Formentera, and Majorca) is part of the Alpine system. Many authors (Kober, 1914; Staub, 1928; Kober, 1931) have subsequently attempted to comprehensively integrate the history of the Balearic block within the history of the Alpine chain. In this paper, we will use data from marine geology and geophysics to define the location of the Balearic Islands during the diverse phases of distension, shearing, and compression between the European and African plates, which created the present western Mediterranean and the Alpine chain. In particular, we will try to explain the way in which the Balearic Islands have reacted to these diverse drift phenomena, and discuss the manifestations of these phenornena in this area. [NOT CONTROLLED OCR]

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    Authors: Robert, Stephane; Le Moine, Olivier;
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    Authors: Jean-Marie Saurel; Eric Jacques; Chastity Aiken; Anne Lemoine; +56 Authors

    SUMMARYThe brutal onset of seismicity offshore Mayotte island North of the Mozambique Channel, Indian Ocean, that occurred in May 2018 caught the population, authorities and scientific community off guard. Around 20 potentially felt earthquakes were recorded in the first 5 d, up to magnitude Mw 5.9. The scientific community had little pre-existing knowledge of the seismic activity in the region due to poor seismic network coverage. During 2018 and 2019, the MAYOBS/REVOSIMA seismology group was progressively built between four French research institutions to improve instrumentation and data sets to monitor what we know now as an on-going exceptional submarine basaltic eruption. After the addition of 3 medium-band stations on Mayotte island and 1 on Grande Glorieuse island in early 2019, the data recovered from the Ocean Bottom Seismometers were regularly processed by the group to improve the location of the earthquakes detected daily by the land network. We first built a new local 1-D velocity model and established specific data processing procedures. The local 1.66 low VP/VS ratio we estimated is compatible with a volcanic island context. We manually picked about 125 000 P and S phases on land and sea bottom stations to locate more than 5000 events between February 2019 and May 2020. The earthquakes outline two separate seismic clusters offshore that we named Proximal and Distal. The Proximal cluster, located 10 km offshore Mayotte eastern coastlines, is 20–50 km deep and has a cylindrical shape. The Distal cluster start 5 km to the east of the Proximal cluster and extends below Mayotte's new volcanic edifice, from 50 to 25 km depth. The two clusters appear seismically separated, however our data set is insufficient to firmly demonstrate this.

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    Geophysical Journal International
    Article
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: UnpayWall
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    Geophysical Journal International
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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    Hal-Diderot
    Article . 2021
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Hal-Diderot
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