International audience; Author(s) of this paper may load this reprint on their own web site or institutional repository provided that this cover page is retained. Republication of this article or its storage in electronic databases other than as specified above is not permitted without prior permission in writing from the IUCr. For further information see http://journals.iucr.org/services/authorrights.html Many research topics in condensed matter research, materials science and the life sciences make use of crystallographic methods to study crystalline and non-crystalline matter with neutrons, X-rays and electrons. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Crystallography focus on these methods and their use in identifying structural and diffusion-controlled phase transformations, structure–property relationships, structural changes of defects, interfaces and surfaces, etc. Developments of instrumentation and crystallographic apparatus, theory and interpretation, numerical analysis and other related subjects are also covered. The journal is the primary place where crystallographic computer program information is published.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Countries: France, Spain
Abstract The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms in the coding region of the estrogen receptors 1 and 2 (ESR1 and ESR2 )and to analyze the effects of these variants and the well known intronic ESR1 Pvu II polymorphism on litter size in a Chinese-European pig line. We identified five silent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ESR1 cDNA: c.669T > C (exon 3), c.1227C > T (exon 5), c.1452C > T (exon 7), c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G (exon 8). One pair of these SNP (c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G) co-segregated in the analyzed line, and the SNP c.669T > C showed the same segregation pattern as the Pvu II polymorphism. These polymorphisms were tested in this study, although the c.1452C > T SNP within exon 7 was not analyzed due to its low informativeness. In the ESR2 cDNA, one missense SNP was found within exon 5, which caused an amino acid substitution in the coded protein: "c.949G > A (p.Val317Met)" and was tested on sow litter size. Information on 1622 litter records from 408 genotyped sows was analyzed to determine whether these SNP influenced the total number of piglets born (TNB) or the number of born alive (NBA). The polymorphisms ESR1: [Pvu II; c.669T > C], ESR1: [c.1665T > C; c.1755A > G] and ESR2: c.949G > A showed no statistically significant association with litter size. However, the ESR1: c.1227T allele was significantly associated with TNB. The additive substitution effect was estimated to be 0.40 piglets born per litter (P < 0.03), and no dominance effects were observed. This SNP could be useful in assisted selection for litter size in some pig lines, as a new genetic marker in linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutation.
Mitochondria are involved in the production of various vitamins, such as biotin, in plants. It is unclear why these biosynthetic pathways have been maintained partly or entirely within the mitochondria throughout evolution. The last step in biotin biosynthesis occurs within the mitochondria and is catalyzed by the biotin synthase complex containing the BIO2 gene product. We investigated whether the Arabidopsis Bio2 enzyme could function outside mitochondria, by trying to complement a bio2 mutant with a truncated version of BIO2 lacking the region encoding the mitochondrial targeting sequence. We describe the characterization of a new T-DNA allele of bio2, with the sole phenotype of an absence of biotin production, in contrast to the previously characterized EMS bio2 allele (Patton et al. 1998, Plant Physiol 116(3):935–946). We found that a cytosolic version of the Bio2 protein could not complement this mutant. Supplementation with the substrate dethiobiotin (DTB) also failed to rescue the mutant phenotype. Thus, the lack of availability of DTB in the cytosol is not the only factor preventing this reaction from occurring outside mitochondria. Bio2 requires mitochondrial targeting for activity, enabling it to fulfill its role in biotin synthesis. The reaction catalyzed by Bio2 may be subject to biochemical constraints, and the apparent close connection with the mitochondrial Fe-S machinery may account for the reaction being retained within the organelle.
Published in IFAC-PapersOnLine, 54(14):96:101, 2021; International audience; The coupled tanks system is a widely used nonlinear system for testing control and estimation methods. This system has various applications such as wastewater treatment, water desalination, pharmaceutical industries, and petrochemical plants. Among the challenging problems is the water level estimation which is needed for controlling the system. In this paper, a high-gain like observer is proposed for the estimation of the water level from delayed output measurement. This observer tolerates a larger bound of the time-delay compared to that obtained by using standard high-gain approach. We show the effectiveness of such observer design and how the standard approach fails to reconstruct the water level in the tanks in the presence of a larger bound on the time-delay.
Abstract The green macroalgal biomass corresponds to an emerging and promising biofuel feedstock. Their biological pretreatment and energetic conversion to biomethane were investigated and the enhancement of biogas production using the solid-state fermentation (SSF) as an eco-friendly innovative pretreatment of Ulva sp. was precisely assessed. Compared to conventional acid and alkali pretreatments, the highest methane potential of 153 ± 3 mL CH 4 g − 1 VS with an anaerobic biodegradability of 57% was obtained using SSF pretreatment with a locally isolated Aspergillus fumigatus SL1 strain. It was 132 ± 2 mL CH 4 g − 1 VS for raw Ulva sp. with biodegradability of 49%. Acid pretreatment with 4% HCl at 150 °C had a negative effect on Ulva sp.'s methane potential while alkali pretreatment with 4% NaOH at 20 °C showed a significant effect. The proposed SSF-based pretreatment enhanced therefore biogas production of 21% and permitted an eco-friendly valorization of large amounts of abundant macroalgae.
In this work, nanoimprint lithography combined with standard anodization etching is used to make perfectly organised triangular arrays of vertical cylindrical alumina nanopores onto standard −oriented silicon wafers. Both the pore diameter and the period of alumina porous array are well controlled and can be tuned: the periods vary from 80 to 460 nm, and the diameters vary from 15 nm to any required diameter. These porous thin layers are then successfully used as templates for the guided epitaxial growth of organised mono-crystalline silicon nanowire arrays in a chemical vapour deposition chamber. We report the densities of silicon nanowires up to 9 × 109 cm−2 organised in highly regular arrays with excellent diameter distribution. All process steps are demonstrated on surfaces up to 2 × 2 cm2. Specific emphasis was made to select techniques compatible with microelectronic fabrication standards, adaptable to large surface samples and with a reasonable cost. Achievements made in the quality of the porous alumina array, therefore on the silicon nanowire array, widen the number of potential applications for this technology, such as optical detectors or biological sensors.
Très peu répertoriée, la littérature franco-américaine de la Nouvelle-Angleterre est devenue une présence invisible dans le champ des littératures francophone mais aussi ethnique américaine. Néanmoins, qu'elle s'exprime en français ou en anglais, elle est la gardienne d'une mémoire francophone, d'un patrimoine culturel et linguistique qui réfute l'oubli. Il sera donc question d'analyser la place de la langue française dans ces romans, quelle que soit la forme qu'elle prenne (discours métissé, forme dialectale, français littéraire) et la fonction qu'elle occupe (incise, dialogue, narration, monologue). Pour cela, il faudra recontextualiser l'évolution de cette langue dans ce contexte nord-américain particulier et son rapport à l'idéologie de la survivance telle qu'elle était véhiculée par le clergé canadien français. De la même façon, l'image de la langue française dans ces romans permet de mieux comprendre cette dialectique du bon et du mauvais français qui est sûrement à l'origine de la disparition de cette langue au sein de cette communauté.