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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Thuan Hoang; Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq; Philippe Gautret;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Purpose of Review We reviewed the occurrence of outbreaks at past Olympics and discuss the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic at the Tokyo Games. Recent Findings Evidence for large respiratory tract infection outbreaks at past Olympics is scant. Nevertheless, in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Tokyo 2020 Olympics were postponed for 2021. Given the high contagiousness of the disease and the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Japan, this decision was appropriate and important in order to safeguard athletes and the public. However, it is a major problem for Japan, involving massive financial losses and a lost opportunity for athletes, coaches, and instructors. Up-to-date epidemiological data is needed on which to base an appropriate decision regarding the Tokyo 2021 Olympics. The actual effect of cancellations of such events in reducing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be determined.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sienna R. Craig; Nawang Gurung; Ross Perlin; Maya Daurio; Daniel Kaufman; Mark Turin; Kunchog Tseten;
    Publisher: Brill
    Country: France

    Abstract This article analyzes the audio diaries of a Tibetan physician, originally from Amdo (Qinghai Province, China), now living in New York City. Dr. Kunchog Tseten describes his experiences during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in spring and summer 2020, when Queens, New York—the location where he lives and works—was the “epicenter of the epicenter” of the novel coronavirus outbreak in the United States. The collaborative research project of which this diary is a part combines innovative methodological approaches to qualitative, ethnographic study during this era of social distancing with an attunement to the relationship between language, culture, and health care. Dr. Kunchog’s diary and our analysis of its contents illustrate the ways that Tibetan medicine and Tibetan cultural practices, including those emergent from Buddhism, have helped members of the Himalayan and Tibetan communities in New York City navigate this unprecedented moment with care and compassion.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Christopher Griffin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In the Economic Impact Payment letter to American citizens in Spring 2020, President Donald Trump wrote that “we wage total war on this invisible enemy.” Trump likely did not intend to explicitly link this to the rich theory about “total war” in military history, but this article examines the American rhetoric surrounding the war on COVID-19 to see whether it corresponds to definitions of total war in military strategic thought. The Clausewitzian origins of the idea of “absolute war” and limited war will also be examined to ascertain their relevance as a framework for understanding the American approach to the conflict with the virus. A total war strategy would have implied either mobilizing the entire population into the health sector or imposing a total national lockdown. This article examines both the strategy outlined by Donald Trump and the reality of what was undertaken by the Federal Government. The military was involved in the war effort against the virus in the U.S., but only in a logistical and financial sense. A national lockdown was never intended due to its potential adverse effects on the economy, and in any case, the Federal Government did not have the authority to impose health policy on individual states and local authorities. The result was a variety of local responses to the crisis with little federal coordination, much like what occurred with the Influenza Epidemic of 1918-19. Despite its military and hyperbolic rhetoric, the Trump Administration did not choose a total war strategy. Instead, it decided to adopt a limited holding strategy that accepted human losses while protecting the economy and waiting for a Government-sponsored vaccine to save the day. Dans la lettre adressée aux citoyens américains au printemps 2020 qui accompagnait un versement censé diminuer l’impact économique de la pandémie, le président Donald Trump écrivait : « nous menons une guerre totale contre cet ennemi invisible. » Trump n'avait probablement pas l’intention d'établir un lien explicite avec la célèbre théorie de la « guerre totale » en histoire militaire, néanmoins cet article examine la rhétorique américaine autour de la guerre contre le COVID-19 pour voir dans quelle mesure elle peut correspondre aux définitions de la « guerre totale » dans la pensée stratégique militaire. Les origines clausewitziennes de la notion de « guerre absolue » et de « guerre limitée » seront également examinées afin de déterminer leur pertinence comme cadre conceptuel pour comprendre l’approche américaine dans sa lutte contre le virus. Une stratégie de guerre totale aurait impliqué soit la mobilisation de l’ensemble de la population dans le secteur de la santé, soit l’imposition d’un confinement national total. Cet article examine la stratégie exposée par Donald Trump et la réalité de ce qui a été entrepris par le gouvernement fédéral. Si l’armée a bien participé à l’effort de guerre contre le virus aux États-Unis, cet effort était uniquement logistique et financier. Un confinement national n’a jamais été envisagé en raison de ses effets négatifs potentiels sur l’économie et, de toutes façons, le gouvernement fédéral n’avait pas le pouvoir d’imposer une politique sanitaire aux différents États et autorités locales. Le résultat a été une variété de réponses locales à la crise avec peu de coordination fédérale, un peu comme ce qui s'est passé avec l’épidémie de grippe de 1918-19. Malgré son discours martial et hyperbolique, l’administration Trump n’a pas choisi une stratégie de guerre totale. Au lieu de cela, elle a adopté une stratégie d’attente limitée, acceptant les pertes humaines, tout en cherchant à protéger l’économie jusqu’à ce qu’un vaccin financé par le gouvernement vienne sauver la situation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    B. Jesse Shapiro;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Article paru dans Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology; International audience; A recommendation – based on reviews by Luca Ferretti and two anonymous reviewers – of the article: Danesh, G., Elie, B., Michalakis, Y., Sofonea, M. T., Bal, A., Behillil, S., Destras, G., Boutolleau, D., Burrel, S., Marcelin, A.-G., Plantier, J.-C., Thibault, V., Simon-Loriere, E., van der Werf, S., Lina, B., Josset, L., Enouf, V. and Alizon, S. and the COVID SMIT PSL group (2020) Early phylodynamics analysis of the COVID-19 epidemic in France. medRxiv, 2020.06.03.20119925, ver. 3 peer-reviewed and recommended by PCI Evolutionary Biology. doi: 10.1101/2020.06.03.20119925

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gabriel Wainer; Konrad Hinsen; Kelly Gaither;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The articles in this special issue address the role of computing in battling with the COVID-19 pandemic. We are currently dealing with a third wave of the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Cases are spiking in most European countries, Canada, and the United States. The number of reported cases has reached 55 million worldwide, and over 1.3 million people have died.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wissame Laddada; Lina Fatima Soualmia; Cecilia Zanni-Merk; Ali Ayadi; Claudia Frydman; India L'Hote; Isabelle Imbert;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Understanding the replication machinery of viruses contributes to suggest and try effective antiviral strategies. Exhaustive knowledge about the proteins structure, their function, or their interaction is one of the preconditions for successfully modeling it. In this context, modeling methods based on a formal representation with a high semantic expressiveness would be relevant to extract proteins and their nucleotide or amino acid sequences as an element from the replication process. Consequently, our approach relies on the use of semantic technologies to design the SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. This provides the ability to infer new knowledge related to each step of the virus replication. More specifically, we developed an ontology-based approach enriched with reasoning process of a complete replication machinery process for SARS-CoV-2. We present in this paper a partial overview of our ontology OntoRepliCov to describe one step of this process, namely, the continuous translation or protein synthesis, through classes, properties, axioms, and SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) rules.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leila Chassery; Gaëtan Texier; Vincent Pommier de Santi; Hervé Chaudet; Nathalie Bonnardel; Liliane Pellegrin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In late 2019, an epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 broke out in central China. Within a few months, this new virus had spread right across the globe, officially being classified as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. In France, which was also being affected by the virus, the government applied specific epidemiological management strategies and introduced unprecedented public health measures. This article describes the outbreak management system that was applied within the French military and, more specifically, analyzes an outbreak of COVID-19 that occurred on board a nuclear aircraft carrier. We applied the AcciMap systemic analysis approach to understand the course of events that led to the outbreak and identify the relevant human and organizational failures. Results highlight causal factors at several levels of the outbreak management system. They reveal problems with the benchmarks used for diagnosis and decision-making, and underscore the importance of good communication between different levels. We discuss ways of improving epidemiological management in military context.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Le Coadic, Yves-François;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Face à la pandémie du COVID-19, la science de l’information se trouve confrontée à un certain nombre de nouvelles problématiques, liées aux crises d’information, auxquelles elle n’était pas préparée. Qui dit crise mondiale, crise économique, crise énergétique, changement climatique, etc... dit crise d’information, crise caractérisée par une augmentation drastique de la quantité d’informations, par une épidémie d’information i.e. une infodémie et par de nouvelles et nombreuses mauvaises conduites des pratiques informationnelles. La crise sanitaire liée à la pandémie du COVID-19 n’échappe pas à la règle: infodémie de bonnes informations médicales et sanitaires mais aussi infodémie de mauvaises informations, bonnes pratiques informationnelles mais aussi nombreuses inconduites. Habituée au registre de la vérité scientifique, la science de l’information doit affronter le registre de la post-vérité et du complotisme qui semble caractériser nos sociétés actuelles. Information-soupçon, information-dénonciation, information- mensonge, c’est, pour la science de l’information, un nouvel horizon guère réjouissant qu’elle devrait pouvoir maîtriser sans problème en mobilisant son arsenal de concepts, de méthodes, de lois, de modèles et de théories bien établis en conservant et en développant l’horizon réjouissant de l’information-vérité. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, information science is facing a number of new challenges related to information crises for which it was not prepared. Who says global crisis, economic crisis, energy crisis, climate change, etc ... says information crisis, crisis characterized by a drastic increase in the amount of information, by an information epidemic ie an infodemic and by news and numerous misconduct of information practices. The health crisis linked to the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception to the rule: infodemic of good medical and health information but also infodemic of bad information, good informational practices but also numerous misconduct. Accustomed to the register of scientific truth, information science must confront the register of post-truth and conspiracy that seems to characterize our current societies. Information-suspicion, information-denunciation, information-lies, it is, for the science of information, a hardly encouraging new horizon that it should be able to master without problem by mobilizing its arsenal of concepts, methods, laws, of well- established models and theories by preserving and developing the joyous horizon of information-truth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maqsood Aslam; Etienne Farvaque;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Have negative experiences (in particular, natural disasters) that central bankers’ have known in their early life influenced monetary policy decisions in front of the COVID-19 pandemic? We answer this question using a sample of 19 developing countries. We show that central bankers who experienced episodes of epidemics in their early life lowered interest rates faster and lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personal experience of decision-makers has contributed strongly to explain their behavior during the crisis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian Hervé;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
Advanced search in
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arrow_drop_down
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53 Research products, page 1 of 6
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Van Thuan Hoang; Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq; Philippe Gautret;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Purpose of Review We reviewed the occurrence of outbreaks at past Olympics and discuss the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic at the Tokyo Games. Recent Findings Evidence for large respiratory tract infection outbreaks at past Olympics is scant. Nevertheless, in order to control the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, the Tokyo 2020 Olympics were postponed for 2021. Given the high contagiousness of the disease and the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Japan, this decision was appropriate and important in order to safeguard athletes and the public. However, it is a major problem for Japan, involving massive financial losses and a lost opportunity for athletes, coaches, and instructors. Up-to-date epidemiological data is needed on which to base an appropriate decision regarding the Tokyo 2021 Olympics. The actual effect of cancellations of such events in reducing the spread of COVID-19 needs to be determined.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sienna R. Craig; Nawang Gurung; Ross Perlin; Maya Daurio; Daniel Kaufman; Mark Turin; Kunchog Tseten;
    Publisher: Brill
    Country: France

    Abstract This article analyzes the audio diaries of a Tibetan physician, originally from Amdo (Qinghai Province, China), now living in New York City. Dr. Kunchog Tseten describes his experiences during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, in spring and summer 2020, when Queens, New York—the location where he lives and works—was the “epicenter of the epicenter” of the novel coronavirus outbreak in the United States. The collaborative research project of which this diary is a part combines innovative methodological approaches to qualitative, ethnographic study during this era of social distancing with an attunement to the relationship between language, culture, and health care. Dr. Kunchog’s diary and our analysis of its contents illustrate the ways that Tibetan medicine and Tibetan cultural practices, including those emergent from Buddhism, have helped members of the Himalayan and Tibetan communities in New York City navigate this unprecedented moment with care and compassion.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Christopher Griffin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In the Economic Impact Payment letter to American citizens in Spring 2020, President Donald Trump wrote that “we wage total war on this invisible enemy.” Trump likely did not intend to explicitly link this to the rich theory about “total war” in military history, but this article examines the American rhetoric surrounding the war on COVID-19 to see whether it corresponds to definitions of total war in military strategic thought. The Clausewitzian origins of the idea of “absolute war” and limited war will also be examined to ascertain their relevance as a framework for understanding the American approach to the conflict with the virus. A total war strategy would have implied either mobilizing the entire population into the health sector or imposing a total national lockdown. This article examines both the strategy outlined by Donald Trump and the reality of what was undertaken by the Federal Government. The military was involved in the war effort against the virus in the U.S., but only in a logistical and financial sense. A national lockdown was never intended due to its potential adverse effects on the economy, and in any case, the Federal Government did not have the authority to impose health policy on individual states and local authorities. The result was a variety of local responses to the crisis with little federal coordination, much like what occurred with the Influenza Epidemic of 1918-19. Despite its military and hyperbolic rhetoric, the Trump Administration did not choose a total war strategy. Instead, it decided to adopt a limited holding strategy that accepted human losses while protecting the economy and waiting for a Government-sponsored vaccine to save the day. Dans la lettre adressée aux citoyens américains au printemps 2020 qui accompagnait un versement censé diminuer l’impact économique de la pandémie, le président Donald Trump écrivait : « nous menons une guerre totale contre cet ennemi invisible. » Trump n'avait probablement pas l’intention d'établir un lien explicite avec la célèbre théorie de la « guerre totale » en histoire militaire, néanmoins cet article examine la rhétorique américaine autour de la guerre contre le COVID-19 pour voir dans quelle mesure elle peut correspondre aux définitions de la « guerre totale » dans la pensée stratégique militaire. Les origines clausewitziennes de la notion de « guerre absolue » et de « guerre limitée » seront également examinées afin de déterminer leur pertinence comme cadre conceptuel pour comprendre l’approche américaine dans sa lutte contre le virus. Une stratégie de guerre totale aurait impliqué soit la mobilisation de l’ensemble de la population dans le secteur de la santé, soit l’imposition d’un confinement national total. Cet article examine la stratégie exposée par Donald Trump et la réalité de ce qui a été entrepris par le gouvernement fédéral. Si l’armée a bien participé à l’effort de guerre contre le virus aux États-Unis, cet effort était uniquement logistique et financier. Un confinement national n’a jamais été envisagé en raison de ses effets négatifs potentiels sur l’économie et, de toutes façons, le gouvernement fédéral n’avait pas le pouvoir d’imposer une politique sanitaire aux différents États et autorités locales. Le résultat a été une variété de réponses locales à la crise avec peu de coordination fédérale, un peu comme ce qui s'est passé avec l’épidémie de grippe de 1918-19. Malgré son discours martial et hyperbolique, l’administration Trump n’a pas choisi une stratégie de guerre totale. Au lieu de cela, elle a adopté une stratégie d’attente limitée, acceptant les pertes humaines, tout en cherchant à protéger l’économie jusqu’à ce qu’un vaccin financé par le gouvernement vienne sauver la situation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    B. Jesse Shapiro;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Article paru dans Peer Community in Evolutionary Biology; International audience; A recommendation – based on reviews by Luca Ferretti and two anonymous reviewers – of the article: Danesh, G., Elie, B., Michalakis, Y., Sofonea, M. T., Bal, A., Behillil, S., Destras, G., Boutolleau, D., Burrel, S., Marcelin, A.-G., Plantier, J.-C., Thibault, V., Simon-Loriere, E., van der Werf, S., Lina, B., Josset, L., Enouf, V. and Alizon, S. and the COVID SMIT PSL group (2020) Early phylodynamics analysis of the COVID-19 epidemic in France. medRxiv, 2020.06.03.20119925, ver. 3 peer-reviewed and recommended by PCI Evolutionary Biology. doi: 10.1101/2020.06.03.20119925

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gabriel Wainer; Konrad Hinsen; Kelly Gaither;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The articles in this special issue address the role of computing in battling with the COVID-19 pandemic. We are currently dealing with a third wave of the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Cases are spiking in most European countries, Canada, and the United States. The number of reported cases has reached 55 million worldwide, and over 1.3 million people have died.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Wissame Laddada; Lina Fatima Soualmia; Cecilia Zanni-Merk; Ali Ayadi; Claudia Frydman; India L'Hote; Isabelle Imbert;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Understanding the replication machinery of viruses contributes to suggest and try effective antiviral strategies. Exhaustive knowledge about the proteins structure, their function, or their interaction is one of the preconditions for successfully modeling it. In this context, modeling methods based on a formal representation with a high semantic expressiveness would be relevant to extract proteins and their nucleotide or amino acid sequences as an element from the replication process. Consequently, our approach relies on the use of semantic technologies to design the SARS-CoV-2 replication machinery. This provides the ability to infer new knowledge related to each step of the virus replication. More specifically, we developed an ontology-based approach enriched with reasoning process of a complete replication machinery process for SARS-CoV-2. We present in this paper a partial overview of our ontology OntoRepliCov to describe one step of this process, namely, the continuous translation or protein synthesis, through classes, properties, axioms, and SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) rules.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leila Chassery; Gaëtan Texier; Vincent Pommier de Santi; Hervé Chaudet; Nathalie Bonnardel; Liliane Pellegrin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In late 2019, an epidemic of SARS-CoV-2 broke out in central China. Within a few months, this new virus had spread right across the globe, officially being classified as a pandemic on 11 March 2020. In France, which was also being affected by the virus, the government applied specific epidemiological management strategies and introduced unprecedented public health measures. This article describes the outbreak management system that was applied within the French military and, more specifically, analyzes an outbreak of COVID-19 that occurred on board a nuclear aircraft carrier. We applied the AcciMap systemic analysis approach to understand the course of events that led to the outbreak and identify the relevant human and organizational failures. Results highlight causal factors at several levels of the outbreak management system. They reveal problems with the benchmarks used for diagnosis and decision-making, and underscore the importance of good communication between different levels. We discuss ways of improving epidemiological management in military context.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Le Coadic, Yves-François;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Face à la pandémie du COVID-19, la science de l’information se trouve confrontée à un certain nombre de nouvelles problématiques, liées aux crises d’information, auxquelles elle n’était pas préparée. Qui dit crise mondiale, crise économique, crise énergétique, changement climatique, etc... dit crise d’information, crise caractérisée par une augmentation drastique de la quantité d’informations, par une épidémie d’information i.e. une infodémie et par de nouvelles et nombreuses mauvaises conduites des pratiques informationnelles. La crise sanitaire liée à la pandémie du COVID-19 n’échappe pas à la règle: infodémie de bonnes informations médicales et sanitaires mais aussi infodémie de mauvaises informations, bonnes pratiques informationnelles mais aussi nombreuses inconduites. Habituée au registre de la vérité scientifique, la science de l’information doit affronter le registre de la post-vérité et du complotisme qui semble caractériser nos sociétés actuelles. Information-soupçon, information-dénonciation, information- mensonge, c’est, pour la science de l’information, un nouvel horizon guère réjouissant qu’elle devrait pouvoir maîtriser sans problème en mobilisant son arsenal de concepts, de méthodes, de lois, de modèles et de théories bien établis en conservant et en développant l’horizon réjouissant de l’information-vérité. In the face of the COVID-19 pandemic, information science is facing a number of new challenges related to information crises for which it was not prepared. Who says global crisis, economic crisis, energy crisis, climate change, etc ... says information crisis, crisis characterized by a drastic increase in the amount of information, by an information epidemic ie an infodemic and by news and numerous misconduct of information practices. The health crisis linked to the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception to the rule: infodemic of good medical and health information but also infodemic of bad information, good informational practices but also numerous misconduct. Accustomed to the register of scientific truth, information science must confront the register of post-truth and conspiracy that seems to characterize our current societies. Information-suspicion, information-denunciation, information-lies, it is, for the science of information, a hardly encouraging new horizon that it should be able to master without problem by mobilizing its arsenal of concepts, methods, laws, of well- established models and theories by preserving and developing the joyous horizon of information-truth.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maqsood Aslam; Etienne Farvaque;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Have negative experiences (in particular, natural disasters) that central bankers’ have known in their early life influenced monetary policy decisions in front of the COVID-19 pandemic? We answer this question using a sample of 19 developing countries. We show that central bankers who experienced episodes of epidemics in their early life lowered interest rates faster and lower during the COVID-19 pandemic. Personal experience of decision-makers has contributed strongly to explain their behavior during the crisis.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christian Hervé;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
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