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  • Publications
  • 2013-2022
  • European Commission
  • EPOS IP
  • EU
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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rémy Bossu; Matthieu Landès; Fréderic Roussel; Robert Steed; Gilles Mazet-Roux; Stacey S Martin; Susan E. Hough;
    Country: Singapore
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    The collection of earthquake testimonies (i.e., qualitative descriptions of felt shaking) is essential for macroseismic studies (i.e., studies gathering information on how strongly an earthquake was felt in different places), and when done rapidly and systematically, improves situational awareness and in turn can contribute to efficient emergency response. In this study, we present advances made in the collection of testimonies following earthquakes around the world using a thumbnail‐based questionnaire implemented on the European‐Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) smartphone app and its website compatible for mobile devices. In both instances, the questionnaire consists of a selection of thumbnails, each representing an intensity level of the European Macroseismic Scale 1998. We find that testimonies are collected faster, and in larger numbers, by way of thumbnail‐based questionnaires than by more traditional online questionnaires. Responses were received from all seismically active regions of our planet, suggesting that thumbnails overcome language barriers. We also observed that the app is not sufficient on its own, because the websites are the main source of testimonies when an earthquake strikes a region for the first time in a while; it is only for subsequent shocks that the app is widely used. Notably though, the speed of the collection of testimonies increases significantly when the app is used. We find that automated EMSC intensities as assigned by user‐specified thumbnails are, on average, well correlated with “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) responses and with the three independently and manually derived macroseismic datasets, but there is a tendency for EMSC to be biased low with respect to DYFI at moderate and large intensities. We address this by proposing a simple adjustment that will be verified in future earthquakes. NRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore) MOE (Min. of Education, S’pore) Published version

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chevrot, Sébastien; Sylvander, Matthieu; Diaz, Jordi; Martin, Roland; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Manatschal, Gianreto; Masini, Emmanuel; Calassou, Sylvain; Grimaud, Frank; Pauchet, Hélène; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We exploit the data from five seismic transects deployed across the Pyrenees to characterize the deep architecture of this collisional orogen. We map the main seismic interfaces beneath each transect by depth migration of P-to-S converted phases. The migrated sections, combined with the results of recent tomographic studies and with maps of Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, provide a coherent crustal-scale picture of the belt. In the Western Pyrenees, beneath the North Pyrenean Zone, a continuous band of high density/velocity material is found at a very shallow level (~10 km) beneath the Mauleon basin and near Saint-Gaudens. In the Western Pyrenees, we also find evidence for northward continental subduction of Iberian crust, down to 50–70 km depth. In the Eastern Pyrenees, these main structural features are not observed. The boundary between these two domains is near longitude 1.3 °E, where geological field studies document a major change in the structure of the Cretaceous rift system, and possibly a shift of its polarity, suggesting that the deep orogenic architecture of the Pyrenees is largely controlled by structural inheritance. The PYROPE (Pyrenean Observational Portable Experiment) project was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) Blanc Programme (project PYROPE, ANR-09- BLAN-0229). We also acknowledge SISMOB, the French seismic mobile pool (a component of the RESIF consortium - http://seismology.resif.fr), for providing us with the seismological instrumentation for the temporary deployments. Field work has been also partially funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Project MISTERIOS (CGL2013-48601-C2-2-R). Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Freda, Carmela; Giardini, Domenico; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kohler, Elisabeth; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Lauterjung, Jörn; Pedersen, Helle; +2 more
    Publisher: ETH Zurich
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    EPOS – the European Plate Observing System – is the ESFRI infrastructure serving the need of the solid Earth science community at large. The EPOS mission is to create a single sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework. Thematic Core Services (TCS) and Integrated Core Services (Central Hub, ICS-C and Distributed, ICS-D) are key elements, together with NRIs (National Research Infrastructures), in the EPOS architecture. Following the preparatory phase, EPOS has initiated formal steps to adopt an ERIC legal framework (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). The statutory seat of EPOS will be in Rome, Italy, while the ICS-C will be jointly operated by France, UK and Denmark. The TCS planned so far cover: seismology, near-fault observatories, GNSS data and products, volcano observations, satellite data, geomagnetic observations, anthropogenic hazards, geological information modelling, multiscale laboratories and geo-energy test beds for low carbon energy. In the ERIC process, EPOS and all its services must achieve sustainability from a legal, governance, financial, and technical point of view, as well as full harmonization with national infrastructure roadmaps. As EPOS is a distributed infrastructure, the TCSs have to be linked to the future EPOS ERIC from legal and governance perspectives. For this purpose the TCSs have started to organize themselves as consortia and negotiate agreements to define the roles of the different actors in the consortium as well as their commitment to contribute to the EPOS activities. The link to the EPOS ERIC shall be made by service agreements of dedicated Service Providers. A common EPOS data policy has also been developed, based on the general principles of Open Access and paying careful attention to licensing issues, quality control, and intellectual property rights, which shall apply to the data, data products, software and services (DDSS) accessible through EPOS. From a financial standpoint, EPOS elaborated common guidelines for all institutions providing services, and selected a costing model and funding approach which foresees a mixed support of the services via national contributions and ERIC membership fees. In the EPOS multi-disciplinary environment, harmonization and integration are required at different levels and with a variety of different stakeholders; to this purpose, a Service Coordination Board (SCB) and technical Harmonization Groups (HGs) were established to develop the EPOS metadata standards with the EPOS Integrated Central Services, and to harmonize data and product standards with other projects at European and international level, including e.g. ENVRI+, EUDAT and EarthCube (US). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 19 ISSN:1607-7962 ISSN:1029-7006

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Louis De Barros; Frédéric Cappa; Yves Guglielmi; Laure Duboeuf; Jean-Robert Grasso;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | SERA (730900), ANR | HYDROSEIS (ANR-13-JS06-0004)

    AbstractThe ability to predict the magnitude of an earthquake caused by deep fluid injections is an important factor for assessing the safety of the reservoir storage and the seismic hazard. Here, we propose a new approach to evaluate the seismic energy released during fluid injection by integrating injection parameters, induced aseismic deformation, and the distance of earthquake sources from injection. We use data from ten injection experiments performed at a decameter scale into fault zones in limestone and shale formations. We observe that the seismic energy and the hydraulic energy similarly depend on the injected fluid volume (V), as they both scale as V3/2. They show, however, a large discrepancy, partly related to a large aseismic deformation. Therefore, to accurately predict the released seismic energy, aseismic deformation should be considered in the budget through the residual deformation measured at the injection. Alternatively, the minimal hypocentral distance from injection points and the critical fluid pressure for fault reactivation can be used for a better prediction of the seismic moment in the total compilation of earthquakes observed during these experiments. Complementary to the prediction based only on the injected fluid volume, our approach opens the possibility of using alternative monitoring parameters to improve traffic-light protocols for induced earthquakes and the regulation of operational injection activities.

  • English
    Authors: 
    F. Casu1; M. Bonano1; 2; R. Castaldo1; C. De Luca1; V. De Novellis1; R. Lanari1; M. Manunta1; M. Manzo1; G. Onorato1; +5 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We present an unsupervised and automatic system for volcano deformation monitoring via the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data. The system relies on the Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS) approach, permitting us to generate updated displacement time series at every new Sentinel-1 acquisition over a selected area of interest in a fast and accurate way. The service is currently operative to monitor the main active Italian volcanoes in the framework of cooperation with the Italian Department of Civil Protection. The system is potentially extendable to every area on the Earth, thus making it suitable for surface displacement monitoring of a large variety of phenomena. Finally, the obtained results are made available to the scientific community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Walpersdorf, A.; Pinget, L.; Vernant, P.; Sue, C.; Deprez, A.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | RESIF-CORE (ANR-11-EQPX-0040), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    International audience; The availability of GPS survey data spanning 22 years, along with several independent velocity solutions including up to 16 years of permanent GPS data, presents a unique opportunity to search for persistent (and thus reliable) deformation patterns in the Western Alps, which in turn allow a reinterpretation of the active tectonics of this region. While GPS velocities are still too uncertain to be interpreted on an individual basis, the analysis of range-perpendicular GPS velocity profiles clearly highlights zones of extension in the center of the belt (15.3 to 3.1 nanostrain/year from north to south), with shortening in the forelands. The contrasting geodetic deformation pattern is coherent with earthquake focal mechanisms and related strain/stress patterns over the entire Western Alps. The GPS results finally provide a reliable and robust quantification of the regional strain rates. The observed vertical motions of 2.0 to 0.5 mm/year of uplift from north to south in the core of the Western Alps is interpreted to result from buoyancy forces related to postglacial rebound, erosional unloading, and/or viscosity anomalies in the crustal and lithospheric root. Spatial decorrelation between vertical and horizontal (seismicity related) deformation calls for a combination of processes to explain the complex present-day dynamics of the Western Alps.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Presentation . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lazzeri, Emma; Cocco, Massimo; Bailo, Daniele; Sarretta, Alessandro; Locati, Mario;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EOSC-Pillar (857650), EC | OpenAIRE-Advance (777541), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    A cycle of four webinars on Open Science and Open Access for earth and environmental sciences, with discipline-specific tools and practical resources. Course outline: Module 1: - Introduction and motivations - Open Science in Solid Earth Science Module 2: - Research Data Management - OS in solid Earth sciences: the EPOS research infrastructure experience Module 3: - FAIR principles and Open Data - Implementing FAIR. Considerations from the solid Earth domain Module 4: - The Data Management Plan - The adoption of Open Science Paradigm at INGV - Practical Tips Scientific committee: Maria Silvia Giamberini, IGG/CNR Gina Pavone, ISTI/CNR

  • English
    Authors: 
    Casu, Francesco1; Bonano, Manuela1,2; Buonanno, Sabatino1; De Luca, Claudio1; Lanari, Riccardo1; Manunta, Michele1; Manzo, Mariarosaria1; Onorato, Giovanni1; Zinno, Ivana1;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raffaele Castaldo; R. de Nardis; V. DeNovellis; Federica Ferrarini; Riccardo Lanari; Giusy Lavecchia; Susi Pepe; Giuseppe Solaro; Pietro Tizzani;
    Publisher: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., Hoboken, N. J., Stati Uniti d'America
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We investigate the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake (AQE, M-w 6.3, Italy) through a 3-D Finite Element (FE) mechanical model based on the exploitation of ENVISAT DInSAR and GPS measurements and an independently generated fault model. The proposed approach mainly consists of (a) the generation of a 3-D fault model of the active structures involved in the sequence and those neighboring to them, benefiting of a large geological and seismological data set; (b) the implementation of the generated 3-D fault model in a FE environment, by exploiting the elastic dislocation theory and considering the curved fault geometry and the crustal heterogeneities information; and (c) the optimization of the seismogenic crustal blocks model parameters in order to reproduce the geodetic measurements. We show that our modeling approach allows us to well reproduce the coseismic surface displacements, including their significant asymmetric pattern, as shown by the very good fit between the modeled ground deformations and the geodetic measurements. Moreover, a comparative analysis between our FE model results and those obtained by considering a classical analytical (Okada) model, for both the surface displacements and the Coulomb stress changes, has been performed. Our model permits to investigate the coseismic stress and strain field changes relevant to the investigated volume and their relationships with the surrounding geological structures; moreover, it highlights the very good correlation with the seismicity spatial distribution. The retrieved stress field changes show different maxima: (a) at few kilometers depth, within the main event surface rupture zone; (b) at depths of 5-9 km in correspondence of main event hypocentral area, along the SW dipping Paganica Fault System (PFS); and (c) at depths of 12-14 km, in correspondence of the largest aftershock hypocentral area, along a steep segment of an underlying east dipping basal detachment. Moreover, the main event hypocenter is localized in a region of high-gradient strain field changes, while a deeper volumetric dilatation lobe involves the largest aftershock zone. From these findings, we argue that the AQE hanging wall downward movement along the steep portion of PFS might have been modulated by the underlying basal detachment; on the other hand, the coseismic eastward motion of the PFS footwall might have triggered further slip on the OS, thus releasing the largest aftershock on an independent source. The retrieved stress and strain field changes, which support the active role of the OS, have been also validated through a comparative analysis with those obtained from independent geological, seismological, and GPS measurements.

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38 Research products, page 1 of 4
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rémy Bossu; Matthieu Landès; Fréderic Roussel; Robert Steed; Gilles Mazet-Roux; Stacey S Martin; Susan E. Hough;
    Country: Singapore
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    The collection of earthquake testimonies (i.e., qualitative descriptions of felt shaking) is essential for macroseismic studies (i.e., studies gathering information on how strongly an earthquake was felt in different places), and when done rapidly and systematically, improves situational awareness and in turn can contribute to efficient emergency response. In this study, we present advances made in the collection of testimonies following earthquakes around the world using a thumbnail‐based questionnaire implemented on the European‐Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC) smartphone app and its website compatible for mobile devices. In both instances, the questionnaire consists of a selection of thumbnails, each representing an intensity level of the European Macroseismic Scale 1998. We find that testimonies are collected faster, and in larger numbers, by way of thumbnail‐based questionnaires than by more traditional online questionnaires. Responses were received from all seismically active regions of our planet, suggesting that thumbnails overcome language barriers. We also observed that the app is not sufficient on its own, because the websites are the main source of testimonies when an earthquake strikes a region for the first time in a while; it is only for subsequent shocks that the app is widely used. Notably though, the speed of the collection of testimonies increases significantly when the app is used. We find that automated EMSC intensities as assigned by user‐specified thumbnails are, on average, well correlated with “Did You Feel It?” (DYFI) responses and with the three independently and manually derived macroseismic datasets, but there is a tendency for EMSC to be biased low with respect to DYFI at moderate and large intensities. We address this by proposing a simple adjustment that will be verified in future earthquakes. NRF (Natl Research Foundation, S’pore) MOE (Min. of Education, S’pore) Published version

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chevrot, Sébastien; Sylvander, Matthieu; Diaz, Jordi; Martin, Roland; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Manatschal, Gianreto; Masini, Emmanuel; Calassou, Sylvain; Grimaud, Frank; Pauchet, Hélène; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Spain
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We exploit the data from five seismic transects deployed across the Pyrenees to characterize the deep architecture of this collisional orogen. We map the main seismic interfaces beneath each transect by depth migration of P-to-S converted phases. The migrated sections, combined with the results of recent tomographic studies and with maps of Bouguer and isostatic anomalies, provide a coherent crustal-scale picture of the belt. In the Western Pyrenees, beneath the North Pyrenean Zone, a continuous band of high density/velocity material is found at a very shallow level (~10 km) beneath the Mauleon basin and near Saint-Gaudens. In the Western Pyrenees, we also find evidence for northward continental subduction of Iberian crust, down to 50–70 km depth. In the Eastern Pyrenees, these main structural features are not observed. The boundary between these two domains is near longitude 1.3 °E, where geological field studies document a major change in the structure of the Cretaceous rift system, and possibly a shift of its polarity, suggesting that the deep orogenic architecture of the Pyrenees is largely controlled by structural inheritance. The PYROPE (Pyrenean Observational Portable Experiment) project was supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR) Blanc Programme (project PYROPE, ANR-09- BLAN-0229). We also acknowledge SISMOB, the French seismic mobile pool (a component of the RESIF consortium - http://seismology.resif.fr), for providing us with the seismological instrumentation for the temporary deployments. Field work has been also partially funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through Project MISTERIOS (CGL2013-48601-C2-2-R). Peer reviewed

  • English
    Authors: 
    Fernando Monterroso (1; 2); Manuela Bonano (2; 3); Claudio de Luca (2); De Novellis Vincenzo (2); Riccardo Lanari (2); Michelle Manunta (2); Mariarosaria Manzo (2); Giovanni Onorato (2); +3 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    During the last decades, the availability of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite missions, such as the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT ones operating at C-band who have worked since 1992 to 2011, as well as the X-band COSMOSkyMed and TerraSAR-X constellations, up to the brand new Sentinel-1 mission, have strongly contributed to SAR data diffusion and popularity in the generation of different studies at different scales and in different research fields. One of the most popular SAR technique is the one referred to as Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR), which allows measuring with centimeter accuracy the Earth's surface deformation entity related to both natural and man-made hazards. Nowadays, with the increasing of SAR data availability provided by Sentinel-1 constellation of Copernicus European Program, which is composed by two twin satellites operating in C-band since 2014 and 2016, with a repeat pass of 6 days and with a global (i.e. worldwide) data acquisition policy, the SAR EO scenario is becoming more and more operational, thus mainly providing support for natural hazards monitoring. This allows, in theory, and disposing of sufficient computing power, the EO community to monitor, for instance, the deformation of every volcano or to obtain co-seismic displacement maps in a short time frame and anywhere in the world. Accordingly, in this work, we present a fully automatic and fast processing service for the generation of co-seismic displacement maps by using Sentinel-1 data. The implemented system is completely unsupervised and is triggered by the all significant (i.e. larger than a defined magnitude) seismic event registered by the online catalog as those provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology of Italy (INGV). The service has been specifically designed to operate for Civil Protection purposes. The generated DInSAR measurements are made available to the geoscience community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure and they will contribute to the creation of a global database of co-seismic displacement maps. Finally, it is worth noting that the developed system relies on widely common IT methods and protocols and is not specifically tied to a defined computing architecture, thus implying its portability, in view also of the European Commission Data and Information Access Services (DIAS) where satellite data (mainly Sentinel) and processing facilities are co-located to reduce the data transfer time during their processing.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Atakan, Kuvvet; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Freda, Carmela; Giardini, Domenico; Hoffmann, Thomas; Kohler, Elisabeth; Kontkanen, Pirjo; Lauterjung, Jörn; Pedersen, Helle; +2 more
    Publisher: ETH Zurich
    Country: Switzerland
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    EPOS – the European Plate Observing System – is the ESFRI infrastructure serving the need of the solid Earth science community at large. The EPOS mission is to create a single sustainable, and distributed infrastructure that integrates the diverse European Research Infrastructures for solid Earth science under a common framework. Thematic Core Services (TCS) and Integrated Core Services (Central Hub, ICS-C and Distributed, ICS-D) are key elements, together with NRIs (National Research Infrastructures), in the EPOS architecture. Following the preparatory phase, EPOS has initiated formal steps to adopt an ERIC legal framework (European Research Infrastructure Consortium). The statutory seat of EPOS will be in Rome, Italy, while the ICS-C will be jointly operated by France, UK and Denmark. The TCS planned so far cover: seismology, near-fault observatories, GNSS data and products, volcano observations, satellite data, geomagnetic observations, anthropogenic hazards, geological information modelling, multiscale laboratories and geo-energy test beds for low carbon energy. In the ERIC process, EPOS and all its services must achieve sustainability from a legal, governance, financial, and technical point of view, as well as full harmonization with national infrastructure roadmaps. As EPOS is a distributed infrastructure, the TCSs have to be linked to the future EPOS ERIC from legal and governance perspectives. For this purpose the TCSs have started to organize themselves as consortia and negotiate agreements to define the roles of the different actors in the consortium as well as their commitment to contribute to the EPOS activities. The link to the EPOS ERIC shall be made by service agreements of dedicated Service Providers. A common EPOS data policy has also been developed, based on the general principles of Open Access and paying careful attention to licensing issues, quality control, and intellectual property rights, which shall apply to the data, data products, software and services (DDSS) accessible through EPOS. From a financial standpoint, EPOS elaborated common guidelines for all institutions providing services, and selected a costing model and funding approach which foresees a mixed support of the services via national contributions and ERIC membership fees. In the EPOS multi-disciplinary environment, harmonization and integration are required at different levels and with a variety of different stakeholders; to this purpose, a Service Coordination Board (SCB) and technical Harmonization Groups (HGs) were established to develop the EPOS metadata standards with the EPOS Integrated Central Services, and to harmonize data and product standards with other projects at European and international level, including e.g. ENVRI+, EUDAT and EarthCube (US). Geophysical Research Abstracts, 19 ISSN:1607-7962 ISSN:1029-7006

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Louis De Barros; Frédéric Cappa; Yves Guglielmi; Laure Duboeuf; Jean-Robert Grasso;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564), EC | SERA (730900), ANR | HYDROSEIS (ANR-13-JS06-0004)

    AbstractThe ability to predict the magnitude of an earthquake caused by deep fluid injections is an important factor for assessing the safety of the reservoir storage and the seismic hazard. Here, we propose a new approach to evaluate the seismic energy released during fluid injection by integrating injection parameters, induced aseismic deformation, and the distance of earthquake sources from injection. We use data from ten injection experiments performed at a decameter scale into fault zones in limestone and shale formations. We observe that the seismic energy and the hydraulic energy similarly depend on the injected fluid volume (V), as they both scale as V3/2. They show, however, a large discrepancy, partly related to a large aseismic deformation. Therefore, to accurately predict the released seismic energy, aseismic deformation should be considered in the budget through the residual deformation measured at the injection. Alternatively, the minimal hypocentral distance from injection points and the critical fluid pressure for fault reactivation can be used for a better prediction of the seismic moment in the total compilation of earthquakes observed during these experiments. Complementary to the prediction based only on the injected fluid volume, our approach opens the possibility of using alternative monitoring parameters to improve traffic-light protocols for induced earthquakes and the regulation of operational injection activities.

  • English
    Authors: 
    F. Casu1; M. Bonano1; 2; R. Castaldo1; C. De Luca1; V. De Novellis1; R. Lanari1; M. Manunta1; M. Manzo1; G. Onorato1; +5 more
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We present an unsupervised and automatic system for volcano deformation monitoring via the Copernicus Sentinel-1 data. The system relies on the Parallel Small BAseline Subset (P-SBAS) approach, permitting us to generate updated displacement time series at every new Sentinel-1 acquisition over a selected area of interest in a fast and accurate way. The service is currently operative to monitor the main active Italian volcanoes in the framework of cooperation with the Italian Department of Civil Protection. The system is potentially extendable to every area on the Earth, thus making it suitable for surface displacement monitoring of a large variety of phenomena. Finally, the obtained results are made available to the scientific community through the EPOS Research Infrastructure.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Walpersdorf, A.; Pinget, L.; Vernant, P.; Sue, C.; Deprez, A.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | RESIF-CORE (ANR-11-EQPX-0040), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    International audience; The availability of GPS survey data spanning 22 years, along with several independent velocity solutions including up to 16 years of permanent GPS data, presents a unique opportunity to search for persistent (and thus reliable) deformation patterns in the Western Alps, which in turn allow a reinterpretation of the active tectonics of this region. While GPS velocities are still too uncertain to be interpreted on an individual basis, the analysis of range-perpendicular GPS velocity profiles clearly highlights zones of extension in the center of the belt (15.3 to 3.1 nanostrain/year from north to south), with shortening in the forelands. The contrasting geodetic deformation pattern is coherent with earthquake focal mechanisms and related strain/stress patterns over the entire Western Alps. The GPS results finally provide a reliable and robust quantification of the regional strain rates. The observed vertical motions of 2.0 to 0.5 mm/year of uplift from north to south in the core of the Western Alps is interpreted to result from buoyancy forces related to postglacial rebound, erosional unloading, and/or viscosity anomalies in the crustal and lithospheric root. Spatial decorrelation between vertical and horizontal (seismicity related) deformation calls for a combination of processes to explain the complex present-day dynamics of the Western Alps.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Presentation . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lazzeri, Emma; Cocco, Massimo; Bailo, Daniele; Sarretta, Alessandro; Locati, Mario;
    Publisher: Zenodo
    Project: EC | EOSC-Pillar (857650), EC | OpenAIRE-Advance (777541), EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    A cycle of four webinars on Open Science and Open Access for earth and environmental sciences, with discipline-specific tools and practical resources. Course outline: Module 1: - Introduction and motivations - Open Science in Solid Earth Science Module 2: - Research Data Management - OS in solid Earth sciences: the EPOS research infrastructure experience Module 3: - FAIR principles and Open Data - Implementing FAIR. Considerations from the solid Earth domain Module 4: - The Data Management Plan - The adoption of Open Science Paradigm at INGV - Practical Tips Scientific committee: Maria Silvia Giamberini, IGG/CNR Gina Pavone, ISTI/CNR

  • English
    Authors: 
    Casu, Francesco1; Bonano, Manuela1,2; Buonanno, Sabatino1; De Luca, Claudio1; Lanari, Riccardo1; Manunta, Michele1; Manzo, Mariarosaria1; Onorato, Giovanni1; Zinno, Ivana1;
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Raffaele Castaldo; R. de Nardis; V. DeNovellis; Federica Ferrarini; Riccardo Lanari; Giusy Lavecchia; Susi Pepe; Giuseppe Solaro; Pietro Tizzani;
    Publisher: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., Hoboken, N. J., Stati Uniti d'America
    Country: Italy
    Project: EC | EPOS IP (676564)

    We investigate the L'Aquila 2009 earthquake (AQE, M-w 6.3, Italy) through a 3-D Finite Element (FE) mechanical model based on the exploitation of ENVISAT DInSAR and GPS measurements and an independently generated fault model. The proposed approach mainly consists of (a) the generation of a 3-D fault model of the active structures involved in the sequence and those neighboring to them, benefiting of a large geological and seismological data set; (b) the implementation of the generated 3-D fault model in a FE environment, by exploiting the elastic dislocation theory and considering the curved fault geometry and the crustal heterogeneities information; and (c) the optimization of the seismogenic crustal blocks model parameters in order to reproduce the geodetic measurements. We show that our modeling approach allows us to well reproduce the coseismic surface displacements, including their significant asymmetric pattern, as shown by the very good fit between the modeled ground deformations and the geodetic measurements. Moreover, a comparative analysis between our FE model results and those obtained by considering a classical analytical (Okada) model, for both the surface displacements and the Coulomb stress changes, has been performed. Our model permits to investigate the coseismic stress and strain field changes relevant to the investigated volume and their relationships with the surrounding geological structures; moreover, it highlights the very good correlation with the seismicity spatial distribution. The retrieved stress field changes show different maxima: (a) at few kilometers depth, within the main event surface rupture zone; (b) at depths of 5-9 km in correspondence of main event hypocentral area, along the SW dipping Paganica Fault System (PFS); and (c) at depths of 12-14 km, in correspondence of the largest aftershock hypocentral area, along a steep segment of an underlying east dipping basal detachment. Moreover, the main event hypocenter is localized in a region of high-gradient strain field changes, while a deeper volumetric dilatation lobe involves the largest aftershock zone. From these findings, we argue that the AQE hanging wall downward movement along the steep portion of PFS might have been modulated by the underlying basal detachment; on the other hand, the coseismic eastward motion of the PFS footwall might have triggered further slip on the OS, thus releasing the largest aftershock on an independent source. The retrieved stress and strain field changes, which support the active role of the OS, have been also validated through a comparative analysis with those obtained from independent geological, seismological, and GPS measurements.

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