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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthias Ritter; Martin Odening; Aaron Grau;

    Land market regulations are often justified by the assumption that activities of foreign and nonagricultural investors drive up land prices in countries with low land price levels. However, empirical knowledge about the dynamics of agricultural land prices across borders is sparse. Using the German reunification as a natural experiment, we study the effect of the former inner German border on the dynamics of agricultural land prices in East and West Germany. We apply a land price diffusion model with an error correction specification that estimates to what extent agricultural land markets are spatially integrated. A novel feature of our model is its ability to distinguish price diffusion within states and across state borders. We find that local agricultural land markets in Germany are linked by a long-run equilibrium relationship. Spatial market integration, however, does not hold among all counties in our study area. Regarding our main research question, we provide evidence for a persistent border effect given that the fraction of spatially integrated counties is larger within states than across the former border. Moreover, we observe non-significant error correction terms for many counties along the former border. From a policy perspective, it is striking to realize that even 25 years after German reunification, pronounced land price differences persist. It is quite likely that price diffusion through existing borders within the EU would take even more time given language barriers, different administrative procedures for land acquisitions, different tax systems, and information asymmetries between domestic and foreign market participants.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ edoc-Server. Open-Ac...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: CMS Collaboration; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Erö, Janos; Zaganidis, Nicolas; +466 Authors

    A measurement is presented of the $\mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*} \rightarrow \tau \tau $ cross section in $\text {pp}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13\hbox { TeV}$ , using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2.3\hbox { fb}^{-1}$ . The product of the inclusive cross section and branching fraction is measured to be $\sigma (\text {pp} \rightarrow \mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*}\text {+X}) \, \mathcal {B}(\mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*} \rightarrow \tau \tau ) = 1848 \pm 12\,(\text {stat}) \pm 67\text { (syst \,+\,lumi)}\text { pb} $ , in agreement with the standard model expectation, computed at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The measurement is used to validate new analysis techniques relevant for future measurements of $\tau $ lepton production. The measurement also provides the reconstruction efficiency and energy scale for $\tau $ decays to hadrons $\,+\,\nu _{\tau }$ final states, determined with respective relative uncertainties of 2.2 and 0.9%. The European physical journal / C 78(9), 708 (2018). doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6146-9 Published by Springer, Heidelberg

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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2018
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    arXiv.org e-Print Archive
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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      CERN Document Server
      Other literature type . 2018
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      arXiv.org e-Print Archive
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schippers, Björn; Weber, Robert; Faust, Heiko;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Göttingen Research O...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Kramm, Johanna; Liehr, Stefan; Schramm, Engelbert; Winker, Martina; +3 Authors

    This assessment concept paper provides a methodological approach for the formative assessment and summative assessment of GIZ’s International Water Stewardship Programme (IWaSP) and its component partnerships. IWaSP promotes partnerships between the private sector (corporations and SMEs), the public sector and the society to tackle shared water risks and to manage water equitably to meet competing demands. This evaluative assessment concept describes the generic approach of the assessment, the cycle for the assessment of partnerships, the country coordination and the programme. The overall goal of the assessment is to provide evidence for taxpayers in the donor countries and for citizens in the partnership countries. It also aims to examine the relevance of the programme’s approach, its underlying assumptions, and the heterogeneity of stakeholders and their specific interests. Since the assessment is also formative feedback to GIZ and IWaSP stakeholders, it aims to guide the future implementation of the partnerships and the programme. The assessment is guided by several generic principles: assessing for learning (formative assessment); assessment of learning (summative assessment); iteration; structuring complex problems; unblocking results; and conformity with other assessment criteria set out by the OECD the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and GIZ’s Capacity Works success factors (GTZ 2010). These generic criteria are adapted to the three levels of the IWaSP structure. First, the assessment cycle for partnerships includes the validation of stakeholders (mapping), the analysis of secondary literature, face-to-face interviews and a process for feeding back the findings. Generic tools are provided to guide the assessment, such as a list of key documents and an interview guide. Partnerships will undergo a baseline, interim assessment and final assessment. As progress varies across individual IWaSP partnerships, the steps taken by each partnership to assess shared water risks, prioritise and agree interventions, are expected to differ slightly. In response to these differences the sequencing and content of the assessment may need to be adapted for the different partnerships. Second, the country-level assessment considers issues such as the coordination of partnerships within a country, scoping strategies, and interaction between partnership and the programme. Information gathered during the partnership assessment feeds into the country-level assessment. Third, the assessment cycle for the programme involves a document and monitoring plan analysis, reflection on the different perspectives of the programme staff, country staff and external stakeholders. The final section is concerned with reporting. Several annexes are provided relating to the organisation and preparation of the assessment, including question guidelines and analysis procedures.

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    Authors: Männel, B.; Brandt, A.; Nischan, T.; Brack, A.; +2 Authors

    GFZ acts as a global analysis center of the International GNSS Service (IGS) and provides ultra-rapid (last 24h), rapid (last day), and final (last week) solutions for GPS and GLONASS. The ultra-rapid solution series is published eight times per day with a delay of around three hours. The 3D seismic velocity models are results of a local earthquake tomography which is performed to illuminate the crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath the southern Puna plateau and to test the delamination hypothesis. The Southern Puna is distinctive from the rest of the Central Andean plateau in having a higher topographic elevation, a thinner lithosphere and in being flanked to the south by the Chilean flat slab region. Previous investigations involving geochemical, geological and geophysical observations, have invoked lithospheric delamination to explain the distinctive magmatic and structural history, elevation and lithospheric thickness of the region. In the present study, Vp and Vp/Vs ratios were obtained using travel time variations recorded by 75 temporary seismic stations between 2007 and 2009. The earthquakes catalog (Mulcahy et al., 2014) contains 1903 local earthquakes (25077 P- and 14059 S-picks). A minimum 1D model is derived with software VELEST (Kissling et al., 1995). The 3D tomographic inversion is performed with software SIMULPS (Thurber, 1983; Evans et al., 1994). Spread values are used to define well resolved model domains (6 for Vp and 5.5 for Vp/Vs), which are calculated from the model resolution matrix (Toomey & Foulger, 1989). The data are provided as one tar.gz archive. Individual ASCII files contain, at each depth from 0 to 200 km: - Vp model (model.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp perturbation, absolute Vp - Vp/Vs model (model.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, Vp/Vs perturbation, absolute Vp/Vs - spread values for Vp (spread.vp.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value - spread values for Vp/Vs model (spread.vpvs.depth_???km), format: longitude, latitude, depth, spread value

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    Authors: Jousset, P.; Currenti, G.; Chalari, A.; Tilmann, F.; +1 Authors

    Understanding physical processes prior and during eruptions remains challenging, due to uncertainties about subsurface structures and undetected processes within the volcano. Here, the authors use a dedicated fibre-optic cable to obtain strain data and identify volcanic events and image hidden near-surface volcanic structural features at Etna volcano, Italy. In the paper Jousset et al. (2022), we detect and characterize strain signals associated with explosions, and we find evidences for non-linear grain interactions in a scoria layer of spatially variable thickness. We also demonstrate that wavefield separation allows us to incrementally investigate the ground response to various excitation mechanisms, and we identify very small volcanic events, which we relate to fluid migration and degassing. We recorded seismic signals from natural and man-made sources with 2-m spacing along a 1.5-km-long fibre-optic cable layout near the summit of actives craters of Etna volcano, Italy. Those results provide the basis for improved volcano monitoring and hazard assessment using DAS. This data publication contains the full data set used for the analysis. This data set comprises strain-rate data from 1 iDAS interrogator (~750 traces), velocity data from 15 geophones and 4 broadband seismometers, and infrasonic pressure data from infrasound sensors. For further explanation of the data and related processing steps, please refer to Jousset et al. (2022).

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  • Authors: Martín Oller;
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    Authors: Steering Committee Of The Science Platform Sustainability 2030;

    The Science Platform at a glance In the new version of the German Sustainable Development Strategy, the Federal Government called on the scientific community to create a platform that is systematically involved in the steering, dialogue and implementation processes of the 2030 Agenda and its sustainability architecture. In response to this, the Science Platform Sustainability 2030 was launched on 8 May 2017 and was presented to the public one day later at the 13th BMBF Forum for Sustainability. The platform is supported by three organising institutions: the Sustainable Development Solutions Network Germany (SDSN Germany), the German Committee Future Earth (DKN Future Earth) and the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies (IASS), which houses the platform’s secretariat. A steering committee consisting of 26 members from science, the business community, and civil society is responsible for the platform’s activities and operative management. The committee also links the platform with other actors from science, politics, economics and civil society in an effort to build an effective, representative and internationally anchored platform. Additional support is provided by a circle of government agencies (open to all federal ministries) – currently including the BMBF, the BMUB, the BMZ, the BMEL and the Federal Chancellery. IASS Brochure

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    IASSpublic
    Research . 2017
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: IASSpublic
    https://doi.org/10.2312/iass.2...
    Other literature type . 2017
    License: CC BY SA
    Data sources: Datacite
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      IASSpublic
      Research . 2017
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  • Authors: Kroeker, Lena; Gez, Yonatan N.; Bayreuth Academy Of Advanced African Studies;

    In Kenya today, churches serve as a central pillar of socio-economic support to people in their hour of need. Drawing on ethnographic research at a small Pentecostal church in Kisumu, Western Kenya, we present four modes of such material support. This classification allows us to examine the provision of church assistance as a subtle balancing act in which leaders and so-called ‘super-members’ seek to bind lay members into greater commitment by projecting institutional dependability while carefully avoiding excessive demands. Rejecting the caricature of the self-enriching charismatic leader, and focused on the intertwinement of religious commitment and class, we offer a fresh examination of churches’ mechanisms of welfare assistance beyond a simple vertical/horizontal (or institutional/congregational) binarism.

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    Authors: Aichele, Markus;

    I model the strategic interaction between firms, that face decisions on investment, forward contracts and spot market quantities. For an investment decision that takes place after firms have contracted forward but before firms compete on the spot market (medium term investment), competition becomes fierce. Thus, the efficiency gains from forward trading found by Allaz and Villa (1993) still are present. However, for an investment that takes place before firms contract forward (long term investment), competition becomes rather weak. When investment matters, from a welfare point of view the desirability of forward trading critically depends on the structure of decision making.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Matthias Ritter; Martin Odening; Aaron Grau;

    Land market regulations are often justified by the assumption that activities of foreign and nonagricultural investors drive up land prices in countries with low land price levels. However, empirical knowledge about the dynamics of agricultural land prices across borders is sparse. Using the German reunification as a natural experiment, we study the effect of the former inner German border on the dynamics of agricultural land prices in East and West Germany. We apply a land price diffusion model with an error correction specification that estimates to what extent agricultural land markets are spatially integrated. A novel feature of our model is its ability to distinguish price diffusion within states and across state borders. We find that local agricultural land markets in Germany are linked by a long-run equilibrium relationship. Spatial market integration, however, does not hold among all counties in our study area. Regarding our main research question, we provide evidence for a persistent border effect given that the fraction of spatially integrated counties is larger within states than across the former border. Moreover, we observe non-significant error correction terms for many counties along the former border. From a policy perspective, it is striking to realize that even 25 years after German reunification, pronounced land price differences persist. It is quite likely that price diffusion through existing borders within the EU would take even more time given language barriers, different administrative procedures for land acquisitions, different tax systems, and information asymmetries between domestic and foreign market participants.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: CMS Collaboration; Sirunyan, Albert M.; Erö, Janos; Zaganidis, Nicolas; +466 Authors

    A measurement is presented of the $\mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*} \rightarrow \tau \tau $ cross section in $\text {pp}$ collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 13\hbox { TeV}$ , using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $2.3\hbox { fb}^{-1}$ . The product of the inclusive cross section and branching fraction is measured to be $\sigma (\text {pp} \rightarrow \mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*}\text {+X}) \, \mathcal {B}(\mathrm {Z}/\gamma ^{*} \rightarrow \tau \tau ) = 1848 \pm 12\,(\text {stat}) \pm 67\text { (syst \,+\,lumi)}\text { pb} $ , in agreement with the standard model expectation, computed at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The measurement is used to validate new analysis techniques relevant for future measurements of $\tau $ lepton production. The measurement also provides the reconstruction efficiency and energy scale for $\tau $ decays to hadrons $\,+\,\nu _{\tau }$ final states, determined with respective relative uncertainties of 2.2 and 0.9%. The European physical journal / C 78(9), 708 (2018). doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-018-6146-9 Published by Springer, Heidelberg

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    CERN Document Server
    Other literature type . 2018
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    arXiv.org e-Print Archive
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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      arXiv.org e-Print Archive
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2018
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    Authors: Schippers, Björn; Weber, Robert; Faust, Heiko;
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    Authors: Kramm, Johanna; Liehr, Stefan; Schramm, Engelbert; Winker, Martina; +3 Authors

    This assessment concept paper provides a methodological approach for the formative assessment and summative assessment of GIZ’s International Water Stewardship Programme (IWaSP) and its component partnerships. IWaSP promotes partnerships between the private sector (corporations and SMEs), the public sector and the society to tackle shared water risks and to manage water equitably to meet competing demands. This evaluative assessment concept describes the generic approach of the assessment, the cycle for the assessment of partnerships, the country coordination and the programme. The overall goal of the assessment is to provide evidence for taxpayers in the donor countries and for citizens in the partnership countries. It also aims to examine the relevance of the programme’s approach, its underlying assumptions, and the heterogeneity of stakeholders and their specific interests. Since the assessment is also formative feedback to GIZ and IWaSP stakeholders, it aims to guide the future implementation of the partnerships and the programme. The assessment is guided by several generic principles: assessing for learning (formative assessment); assessment of learning (summative assessment); iteration; structuring complex problems; unblocking results; and conformity with other assessment criteria set out by the OECD the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) and GIZ’s Capacity Works success factors (GTZ 2010). These generic criteria are adapted to the three levels of the IWaSP structure. First, the assessment cycle for partnerships includes the validation of stakeholders (mapping), the analysis of secondary literature, face-to-face interviews and a process for feeding back the findings. Generic tools are provided to guide the assessment, such as a list of key documents and an interview guide. Partnerships will undergo a baseline, interim assessment and final assessment. As progress varies across individual IWaSP partnerships, the steps taken by each partnership to assess shared water risks, prioritise and agree interventions, are expected to differ slightly. In response to these differences the sequencing and content of the assessment may need to be adapted for the different partnerships. Second, the country-level assessment considers issues such as the coordination of partnerships within a country, scoping strategies, and interaction between partnership and the programme. Information gathered during the partnership assessment feeds into the country-level assessment. Third, the assessment cycle for the programme involves a document and monitoring plan analysis, reflection on the different perspectives of the programme staff, country staff and external stakeholders. The final section is concerned with reporting. Several annexes are provided relating to the organisation and preparation of the assessment, including question guidelines and analysis procedures.

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