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  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kairit Kaur;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    According to Recke and Napiersky, the first poems in Estonian from the pen of a woman were allegedly published in 1779, in the sheet music book Oden und Lieder in Musik gesetzt by Andeas Traugott Grahl, a private tutor in the Governorate of Estonia, but unfortunately it is not preserved. More luckily another sheet music book by him, Lieder und Handsachen für das Klavier und den Gesang, published in Leipzig in 1784, was available to the researchers before World War II. Two poems by Estonian ladies were published there: Tio, tassane ja helde and Liesole. A variant of the Tio-poem (the so-called Rosi-poem) was published in 1787 in the 5th volume of the reader Lesebuch für Ehst- und Livland by Friedrich Gotthilf Findeisen in Oberpahlen (Põltsamaa) in Livonia, and a year later, in 1788, in a longer version in the German literary magazine Der Teutsche Merkur. To the latter, the poem was mediated by Christian Hieronymus Justus Schlegel, a private tutor in Estonia from 1780 to 1782, and then pastor, who left Estonia in 1783. However, he did not ascribe the Rosi-poem to an Estonian lady, but to a gentleman, von Tiesenhausen of Saus, who wrote the poem on the occasion of the passing of his wife. There are several manors called Saus or Sauß in Estonia. Traditionally the Rosi-poem has been ascribed to Ber(e)nd Heinrich von Tiesenhausen of Groß-Sauß (Sausti or Kaarepere). But there was another manor called Sauß (Sauste) near Wesenberg (Rakvere), which belonged to captain Hans Wen(t)zel(l) von Tiesenhausen from 1779 to 1781. Based on several sources, this paper brings forth arguments to support the thesis that the gentleman, von Tiesenhausen, mentioned by Schlegel was actually Hans Wenzel von Tiesenhausen. This man was probably also identical with the captain von Tiesenhausen, whom Grahl has named as his employer in the subscription call of the Lieder und Handsachen. According to Professor Gustav Suits, Grahl acted as a private tutor somewhere near Wesenberg. The paper also suggests that H. W. von Tiesenhausen was the author of the poem Der Client an seinen Sachwalter, published in the muses almanac Estländische poetische Blumenlese for 1780. Earlier this poem has been ascribed to Johann Georg von Tiesenhausen from Northern Latvia. Dirk Sangmeister has guessed that the Albrechts who published the almanac mentioned the name Wesenberg on the cover of the first issue of their periodical (for 1779) in honour of the owner of the Wesenberg manor, judge Jakob Johann von Tiesenhausen and his family, with whom Sangmeister believes the Albrechts stood in a cordial relationship as Sophie Albrecht dedicated several poems to a certain Ottilie von Tiesenhausen. The last one lets us know that on the 9th of June 1781, the news of the death of her beloved friend had reached Sophie Albrecht. The date 9th of June 1781 (due to calendar differences actually 11 days later) can also be found in the archival materials concerning H. W. von Tiesenhausen – on this day his bankruptcy proceedings were started. Already in January 1781 he had sold Sauß; in March 1781 his other manor – Tuddo (Tudu) – was sold too; these are likely the two manors mentioned in his German poem. The bankruptcy proceedings were evoked by a lawsuit, initiated in March 1780 by J. J. von Tiesenhausen, who from 1774 to 1780 rented his Wesenberg manor to his second cousin Hans Wenzel. From 1779 the latter had difficulties in paying the rent. As at the time of the publication of Estländische poetische Blumenlese it was H. W. von Tiesenhausen who was living in the manor of Wesenberg, the recipient of the poems by Sophie Albrecht was very likely his wife. Neither the given nor the maiden name of this woman or her birth date and the exact death date are preserved. H. W. von Tiesenhausen mentions his wife without her name in his report to the court, Demüthigste Anzeige und Unterlegung der wahren Umstände meines gegenwärtigen unglücklichen und betrübten Schicksaals (The humblest report and interpretation of the true circumstances of my current unhappy and sad fate), signed 26 June 1781. It appears that his wife really died shortly before the composing of the report. Frau Capitainin Tiesenhausen has also been mentioned three times in the birth register of the Wesenberg church in 1777 as a godparent, one of the cases being as godmother of a girl, whose mother was the sister of G. W. von Schwengelm, the employer of mister Schlegel, who mediated the Rosi-poem to the Teutsche Merkur! The paper also presumes that the ladies mentioned by Grahl could have been translators and guesses who these women were, but as we lack confirmed proof, the investigation must continue.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Andrej Pleterski; Jiří J. Mareš;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The authors present a structure of cult points in Prague which was used during the Early Middle Ages and till the 12th century partially destroyed as well as partly substituted during some churches. The structure was composed on the basis of astronomical and ritual principles. The former present a sun calendar, where the St.George’s feast day (23th April, one month after the spring equinox) denotes the beginning of the year. The latter principles led the authors to determine the use of a ritual angle, ritual measuring units and their multiples. The entire structure is thus also a well planned ideogram. It’s ideological core is the age-old belief in three fundamental forces of nature (heaven-sun-fire, earth, water), which humans help tomaintain in balance by carrying out a series of ceremonial deeds. Constructing the landscape ideograms is one of them. The right time of ritual deed is of extreme importance. To match the time the elementary knowledge of astronomy was needed.

  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Liisa Granbom-Herranen;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1) control of one’s own life and living with others; 2) work; 3) livelihood, support and care; 4) Christian way ofliving, and 5) proverbs without a context. As a conclusion it can be said that for a child proverbs are combinations of socio-cultural contexts, people, emotions and information in various situations. For a child as a listener the content of the proverb is, above all,connected with the situation and the person involved, and it serves primarily as a piece of concrete advice.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Art Leete;
    Publisher: INALCO

    Kokkuvote Artiklis analuusin 1996. aasta aprillis Laane-Siberis Num-to jarve aares toimunud hantide ja metsaneenetsite kollektiivset pohjapodraohverdust tiheda kirjelduse meetodil. Viibisin ise kirjeldataval ohverdustseremoonial, aga oma vaatlusandmetele lisaks kasutan poliselanike seletusi rituaali sisulise terviklikkuse ning selle elementide semantilise tausta avamisel. Uldisema konteksti kirjeldamise eesmargil arutlen ka vaadeldava ohverduse seoste ule naftatoostuse surve vastu voitlemisel...

  • Estonian
    Authors: 
    Raudsepp, Anu;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi

    Training high school teachers in post-war Tartu State University After World War II the heavy sovietisation of Estonian education began. The key persons of this process were undoubtedly teachers, preferably those who had arrived from the Soviet Union (especially Estonians from Russia) or young people taught in Estonia in the spirit of new educational ideas. A great shift took place in the Estonian teacher community at that time. Altogether 4,176 teachers are known to have been fired, dismissed at their own request or transferred to another position during the period of 1946–1950. The only counterbalance was preparing new teachers locally. In the post-war years, high school teachers were trained only at Tartu State University, which was exceptional in the Soviet Union because elsewhere it was mainly done in pedagogical institutes. The article studies the substantial and formal changes in the sovietisation of teacher training that were realised through complying with union-wide regulations and pedagogical trends. Similarities and differences are also outlined. Secondly, the process of making teacher training obligatory at Tartu State University and its importance in providing Estonian schools with local staff is explored. Thirdly, the article attempts to disclose the role and activity of various people related to pedagogy at the time in this process. The study is mainly based on new and practically unused archive sources related to the history of the University of Tartu. During the era of Stalinism, teacher training became obligatory for everyone in the University of Tartu faculties that taught subjects also covered by general education schools. In the 1940s there were few university graduates, incl. teachers, but since the spring of 1950 the number of people who were appointed as teachers from Tartu State University increased significantly. The establishment of the Tallinn Pedagogical Institute in 1952 added a second educational institution in Estonia that trained high school teachers and helped provide the schools with local staff. It was mainly the service of the chairs of pedagogy that teacher training persisted at the University of Tartu. However, it was the service of the specialisation chairs that teachers received an education, which was, to a great extent, in the spirit of the traditions of the independence era. Therefore, the compulsory teacher training of the university contributed much to educating university graduate, Estonian-minded, Estonian and Russian speaking teachers for Estonian schools to counter the Russian-minded and Russian speaking teachers who were appointed to Estonia from elsewhere. Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi, No 44 (2016): Rahvusülikooli omad ja võõrad

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Marju Torp-Kõivupuu;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The topic of cross-trees and related events is an illustrative example of folklorisation process, quite unanticipated by both local and western folklorists. On the example of cross-tree tradition were may agree that the factors driving the folklorisation process, such as, for example, the ownership of land or forest, may often function independently from active lore bearers. We may agree that these objects of cultural heritage, which people have a passive relationship with and which reflect the values of the past, are slightly better protected. The fate of such ritual objects or sacred trees in the landscape, with which tradition bearers have retained an active ritual relationship, often depends of the ability and wish of tradition bearers to establish them in modern legal space.

  • Publication . Article . 1998
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Aado Lintrop;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The third part of the research on the folk belief of the Ob-Ugrians.

  • Publication . Article . 1996
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kadi Sarv;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    A political anecdote is first all, a popular and not a scientific concept. It is a forbidden story told only to those you trusted, who thought like the speaker did. This phenomenon characterises primarily a society of repression where people have no opportunities to express their dissatisfaction in a legal way.Political subject is just as often found in conundrums as in anecdotes. For some subjects, it even seems that the conundrum expresses attitudes and opinions more colourfully and precisely than the anecdote. An old-fashioned anecdote, the longer style of delivery of which has been forgotten over time, may sometimes take on the form of a conundrum. The so-called introduction falls away and the colourful punch line of the anecdote is used in the new conundrum.Political background may occur in anecdotes about persons, ethinics or animals.Political anecdotes and conundrums can be divided into three groups:1. Anecdotes and conundrums about statesmen. Typical subjects are a visit, competition or outdoing each other;2. Anecdotes which poke fun at the socialist or communist system, but in which specific statesmen are not mentioned;3. Anecdotes about life conditions, in which situations created by the crumbling system are described. Most of the information used in this article originates from the collections of the Estonian Folklore Archive, especially from the collection of materials handed in during the children's competition of school traditions in 1992.In the first part of the series of articles, an overview of political anecdotes at the time of the Estonian Republic (1920-1939).

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Anu Korb;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article is based on manuscripts as well as sound and video recordings on folk medicine collected during fieldwork conducted by the researchers of the Estonian Folklore Archives in 1991–2013 from Estonians born and raised in different Siberian Estonian communities. The ancestors of the visited Estonians had either left their homeland in search of land in the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries or were descendants of those deported and exiled by the Russian tsarist authorities in the first half of the 19th century. Fieldwork at Siberian Estonians in the last decade of the 20th century enriched the Estonian Folklore Archives with invaluable lore material, including the material related to folk medicine. Although the advance of the state medicine system with small hospitals and first aid posts had reached Siberian villages half a century before, and the activity of healers had been banned for decades, the collectors were surprised by the number of healers in villages and the extent of the practical use of folk medicine. The folk medicine tradition was upheld mostly by older women (as was the case also with other fields of lore), which resulted, on the one hand, from the demographic situation, and, on the other hand, from women’s leading position in the preservation of communal traditions. In the older Siberian Estonian communities, which had been established by the deportees (e.g. Ülem(Upper)-Suetuk, Ryzhkovo), it was believed that healing words and skills were available and could be learned by anyone; they were often compared to God’s word. Some people thought that knowledge and skills could only be shared with those younger than yourself. In the villages established by exiles people were considerably more cautious about passing on healing words and the like. In most villages with southern Estonian background, healing charms were kept in secret, as it was believed that when sharing their knowledge, the healers would lose their abilities. It was only at their death’s door that the healers selected their successor. Not all the people who were offered to learn the healing skills were ready to accept the responsibility. The first or last child in the family was thought to have more prerequisites for becoming a good healer. In the first decade of the 21st century, the situation with passing on the healing words and skills had changed considerably in older Siberian villages. Many of the healers had passed away, and there were not enough young people who were interested in continuing the tradition. So the healing skills inevitably concentrated into the hands of a few wise women. Currently, the folk healing tradition in Siberian Estonian communities is fading away, above all, due to the fast aging and diminishing of the communities.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Ave Tupits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Interview with Emily Lyle at the 14th Congress of the ISFNR, 27 July 2005, Tartu. Emily Lyle from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, speaks about two main lines in her research activities – editing 19th-century and early 20th-century Scottish ballads and songs and studying the element of the supernatural in fairy ballads, and how these evolved into the study of ritual year. Lyle introduces her two favourite fairy ballads categorised as the Child Ballads, speaks about scholarly influences on her work and current activities at the university and as the president of Traditional Cosmology Society and her fieldwork in Scotland and Australia. Interviewed by Ave Tupits.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
496 Research products, page 1 of 50
  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kairit Kaur;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    According to Recke and Napiersky, the first poems in Estonian from the pen of a woman were allegedly published in 1779, in the sheet music book Oden und Lieder in Musik gesetzt by Andeas Traugott Grahl, a private tutor in the Governorate of Estonia, but unfortunately it is not preserved. More luckily another sheet music book by him, Lieder und Handsachen für das Klavier und den Gesang, published in Leipzig in 1784, was available to the researchers before World War II. Two poems by Estonian ladies were published there: Tio, tassane ja helde and Liesole. A variant of the Tio-poem (the so-called Rosi-poem) was published in 1787 in the 5th volume of the reader Lesebuch für Ehst- und Livland by Friedrich Gotthilf Findeisen in Oberpahlen (Põltsamaa) in Livonia, and a year later, in 1788, in a longer version in the German literary magazine Der Teutsche Merkur. To the latter, the poem was mediated by Christian Hieronymus Justus Schlegel, a private tutor in Estonia from 1780 to 1782, and then pastor, who left Estonia in 1783. However, he did not ascribe the Rosi-poem to an Estonian lady, but to a gentleman, von Tiesenhausen of Saus, who wrote the poem on the occasion of the passing of his wife. There are several manors called Saus or Sauß in Estonia. Traditionally the Rosi-poem has been ascribed to Ber(e)nd Heinrich von Tiesenhausen of Groß-Sauß (Sausti or Kaarepere). But there was another manor called Sauß (Sauste) near Wesenberg (Rakvere), which belonged to captain Hans Wen(t)zel(l) von Tiesenhausen from 1779 to 1781. Based on several sources, this paper brings forth arguments to support the thesis that the gentleman, von Tiesenhausen, mentioned by Schlegel was actually Hans Wenzel von Tiesenhausen. This man was probably also identical with the captain von Tiesenhausen, whom Grahl has named as his employer in the subscription call of the Lieder und Handsachen. According to Professor Gustav Suits, Grahl acted as a private tutor somewhere near Wesenberg. The paper also suggests that H. W. von Tiesenhausen was the author of the poem Der Client an seinen Sachwalter, published in the muses almanac Estländische poetische Blumenlese for 1780. Earlier this poem has been ascribed to Johann Georg von Tiesenhausen from Northern Latvia. Dirk Sangmeister has guessed that the Albrechts who published the almanac mentioned the name Wesenberg on the cover of the first issue of their periodical (for 1779) in honour of the owner of the Wesenberg manor, judge Jakob Johann von Tiesenhausen and his family, with whom Sangmeister believes the Albrechts stood in a cordial relationship as Sophie Albrecht dedicated several poems to a certain Ottilie von Tiesenhausen. The last one lets us know that on the 9th of June 1781, the news of the death of her beloved friend had reached Sophie Albrecht. The date 9th of June 1781 (due to calendar differences actually 11 days later) can also be found in the archival materials concerning H. W. von Tiesenhausen – on this day his bankruptcy proceedings were started. Already in January 1781 he had sold Sauß; in March 1781 his other manor – Tuddo (Tudu) – was sold too; these are likely the two manors mentioned in his German poem. The bankruptcy proceedings were evoked by a lawsuit, initiated in March 1780 by J. J. von Tiesenhausen, who from 1774 to 1780 rented his Wesenberg manor to his second cousin Hans Wenzel. From 1779 the latter had difficulties in paying the rent. As at the time of the publication of Estländische poetische Blumenlese it was H. W. von Tiesenhausen who was living in the manor of Wesenberg, the recipient of the poems by Sophie Albrecht was very likely his wife. Neither the given nor the maiden name of this woman or her birth date and the exact death date are preserved. H. W. von Tiesenhausen mentions his wife without her name in his report to the court, Demüthigste Anzeige und Unterlegung der wahren Umstände meines gegenwärtigen unglücklichen und betrübten Schicksaals (The humblest report and interpretation of the true circumstances of my current unhappy and sad fate), signed 26 June 1781. It appears that his wife really died shortly before the composing of the report. Frau Capitainin Tiesenhausen has also been mentioned three times in the birth register of the Wesenberg church in 1777 as a godparent, one of the cases being as godmother of a girl, whose mother was the sister of G. W. von Schwengelm, the employer of mister Schlegel, who mediated the Rosi-poem to the Teutsche Merkur! The paper also presumes that the ladies mentioned by Grahl could have been translators and guesses who these women were, but as we lack confirmed proof, the investigation must continue.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Andrej Pleterski; Jiří J. Mareš;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The authors present a structure of cult points in Prague which was used during the Early Middle Ages and till the 12th century partially destroyed as well as partly substituted during some churches. The structure was composed on the basis of astronomical and ritual principles. The former present a sun calendar, where the St.George’s feast day (23th April, one month after the spring equinox) denotes the beginning of the year. The latter principles led the authors to determine the use of a ritual angle, ritual measuring units and their multiples. The entire structure is thus also a well planned ideogram. It’s ideological core is the age-old belief in three fundamental forces of nature (heaven-sun-fire, earth, water), which humans help tomaintain in balance by carrying out a series of ceremonial deeds. Constructing the landscape ideograms is one of them. The right time of ritual deed is of extreme importance. To match the time the elementary knowledge of astronomy was needed.

  • Publication . Article . 2012
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Liisa Granbom-Herranen;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    This article focuses on the relationship between proverbs and pedagogical situations in bringing up children. The research deals with the life-stories that speak about the childhood in the early 20th century Finland. As research material two collections fromthe Folklore Archives of the Finnish Literature Society in Helsinki have been used. The themes of the proverbs in pedagogical speech were the following: 1) control of one’s own life and living with others; 2) work; 3) livelihood, support and care; 4) Christian way ofliving, and 5) proverbs without a context. As a conclusion it can be said that for a child proverbs are combinations of socio-cultural contexts, people, emotions and information in various situations. For a child as a listener the content of the proverb is, above all,connected with the situation and the person involved, and it serves primarily as a piece of concrete advice.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Art Leete;
    Publisher: INALCO

    Kokkuvote Artiklis analuusin 1996. aasta aprillis Laane-Siberis Num-to jarve aares toimunud hantide ja metsaneenetsite kollektiivset pohjapodraohverdust tiheda kirjelduse meetodil. Viibisin ise kirjeldataval ohverdustseremoonial, aga oma vaatlusandmetele lisaks kasutan poliselanike seletusi rituaali sisulise terviklikkuse ning selle elementide semantilise tausta avamisel. Uldisema konteksti kirjeldamise eesmargil arutlen ka vaadeldava ohverduse seoste ule naftatoostuse surve vastu voitlemisel...

  • Estonian
    Authors: 
    Raudsepp, Anu;
    Publisher: Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi

    Training high school teachers in post-war Tartu State University After World War II the heavy sovietisation of Estonian education began. The key persons of this process were undoubtedly teachers, preferably those who had arrived from the Soviet Union (especially Estonians from Russia) or young people taught in Estonia in the spirit of new educational ideas. A great shift took place in the Estonian teacher community at that time. Altogether 4,176 teachers are known to have been fired, dismissed at their own request or transferred to another position during the period of 1946–1950. The only counterbalance was preparing new teachers locally. In the post-war years, high school teachers were trained only at Tartu State University, which was exceptional in the Soviet Union because elsewhere it was mainly done in pedagogical institutes. The article studies the substantial and formal changes in the sovietisation of teacher training that were realised through complying with union-wide regulations and pedagogical trends. Similarities and differences are also outlined. Secondly, the process of making teacher training obligatory at Tartu State University and its importance in providing Estonian schools with local staff is explored. Thirdly, the article attempts to disclose the role and activity of various people related to pedagogy at the time in this process. The study is mainly based on new and practically unused archive sources related to the history of the University of Tartu. During the era of Stalinism, teacher training became obligatory for everyone in the University of Tartu faculties that taught subjects also covered by general education schools. In the 1940s there were few university graduates, incl. teachers, but since the spring of 1950 the number of people who were appointed as teachers from Tartu State University increased significantly. The establishment of the Tallinn Pedagogical Institute in 1952 added a second educational institution in Estonia that trained high school teachers and helped provide the schools with local staff. It was mainly the service of the chairs of pedagogy that teacher training persisted at the University of Tartu. However, it was the service of the specialisation chairs that teachers received an education, which was, to a great extent, in the spirit of the traditions of the independence era. Therefore, the compulsory teacher training of the university contributed much to educating university graduate, Estonian-minded, Estonian and Russian speaking teachers for Estonian schools to counter the Russian-minded and Russian speaking teachers who were appointed to Estonia from elsewhere. Tartu Ülikooli ajaloo küsimusi, No 44 (2016): Rahvusülikooli omad ja võõrad

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Marju Torp-Kõivupuu;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The topic of cross-trees and related events is an illustrative example of folklorisation process, quite unanticipated by both local and western folklorists. On the example of cross-tree tradition were may agree that the factors driving the folklorisation process, such as, for example, the ownership of land or forest, may often function independently from active lore bearers. We may agree that these objects of cultural heritage, which people have a passive relationship with and which reflect the values of the past, are slightly better protected. The fate of such ritual objects or sacred trees in the landscape, with which tradition bearers have retained an active ritual relationship, often depends of the ability and wish of tradition bearers to establish them in modern legal space.

  • Publication . Article . 1998
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Aado Lintrop;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The third part of the research on the folk belief of the Ob-Ugrians.

  • Publication . Article . 1996
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Kadi Sarv;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    A political anecdote is first all, a popular and not a scientific concept. It is a forbidden story told only to those you trusted, who thought like the speaker did. This phenomenon characterises primarily a society of repression where people have no opportunities to express their dissatisfaction in a legal way.Political subject is just as often found in conundrums as in anecdotes. For some subjects, it even seems that the conundrum expresses attitudes and opinions more colourfully and precisely than the anecdote. An old-fashioned anecdote, the longer style of delivery of which has been forgotten over time, may sometimes take on the form of a conundrum. The so-called introduction falls away and the colourful punch line of the anecdote is used in the new conundrum.Political background may occur in anecdotes about persons, ethinics or animals.Political anecdotes and conundrums can be divided into three groups:1. Anecdotes and conundrums about statesmen. Typical subjects are a visit, competition or outdoing each other;2. Anecdotes which poke fun at the socialist or communist system, but in which specific statesmen are not mentioned;3. Anecdotes about life conditions, in which situations created by the crumbling system are described. Most of the information used in this article originates from the collections of the Estonian Folklore Archive, especially from the collection of materials handed in during the children's competition of school traditions in 1992.In the first part of the series of articles, an overview of political anecdotes at the time of the Estonian Republic (1920-1939).

  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Anu Korb;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article is based on manuscripts as well as sound and video recordings on folk medicine collected during fieldwork conducted by the researchers of the Estonian Folklore Archives in 1991–2013 from Estonians born and raised in different Siberian Estonian communities. The ancestors of the visited Estonians had either left their homeland in search of land in the last decades of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries or were descendants of those deported and exiled by the Russian tsarist authorities in the first half of the 19th century. Fieldwork at Siberian Estonians in the last decade of the 20th century enriched the Estonian Folklore Archives with invaluable lore material, including the material related to folk medicine. Although the advance of the state medicine system with small hospitals and first aid posts had reached Siberian villages half a century before, and the activity of healers had been banned for decades, the collectors were surprised by the number of healers in villages and the extent of the practical use of folk medicine. The folk medicine tradition was upheld mostly by older women (as was the case also with other fields of lore), which resulted, on the one hand, from the demographic situation, and, on the other hand, from women’s leading position in the preservation of communal traditions. In the older Siberian Estonian communities, which had been established by the deportees (e.g. Ülem(Upper)-Suetuk, Ryzhkovo), it was believed that healing words and skills were available and could be learned by anyone; they were often compared to God’s word. Some people thought that knowledge and skills could only be shared with those younger than yourself. In the villages established by exiles people were considerably more cautious about passing on healing words and the like. In most villages with southern Estonian background, healing charms were kept in secret, as it was believed that when sharing their knowledge, the healers would lose their abilities. It was only at their death’s door that the healers selected their successor. Not all the people who were offered to learn the healing skills were ready to accept the responsibility. The first or last child in the family was thought to have more prerequisites for becoming a good healer. In the first decade of the 21st century, the situation with passing on the healing words and skills had changed considerably in older Siberian villages. Many of the healers had passed away, and there were not enough young people who were interested in continuing the tradition. So the healing skills inevitably concentrated into the hands of a few wise women. Currently, the folk healing tradition in Siberian Estonian communities is fading away, above all, due to the fast aging and diminishing of the communities.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Ave Tupits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Interview with Emily Lyle at the 14th Congress of the ISFNR, 27 July 2005, Tartu. Emily Lyle from the University of Edinburgh, Scotland, speaks about two main lines in her research activities – editing 19th-century and early 20th-century Scottish ballads and songs and studying the element of the supernatural in fairy ballads, and how these evolved into the study of ritual year. Lyle introduces her two favourite fairy ballads categorised as the Child Ballads, speaks about scholarly influences on her work and current activities at the university and as the president of Traditional Cosmology Society and her fieldwork in Scotland and Australia. Interviewed by Ave Tupits.

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