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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meysam Alizamir; Ozgur Kisi; Ali Najah Ahmed; Cihan Mert; Chow Ming Fai; Sungwon Kim; Nam-Won Kim; Ahmed El-Shafie;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science

    Soil temperature has a vital importance in biological, physical and chemical processes of terrestrial ecosystem and its modeling at different depths is very important for land-atmosphere interactions. The study compares four machine learning techniques, extreme learning machine (ELM), artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression trees (CART) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating monthly soil temperatures at four different depths. Various combinations of climatic variables are utilized as input to the developed models. The models’ outcomes are also compared with multi-linear regression based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination statistics. ELM is found to be generally performs better than the other four alternatives in estimating soil temperatures. A decrease in performance of the models is observed by an increase in soil depth. It is found that soil temperatures at three depths (5, 10 and 50 cm) could be mapped utilizing only air temperature data as input while solar radiation and wind speed information are also required for estimating soil temperature at the depth of 100 cm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Levan Tielidze; D. Svanadze; Lela Gadrani; Lasha Asanidze; Roger Wheate; Gordon S. Hamilton;
    Publisher: Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    Individual glacier changes are still poorly documented in the Georgian Caucasus. In this paper, the change of Chalaati and Zopkhito glaciers in Georgian Caucasus has been studied between 1960 and 2014. Glacier geometries are reconstructed from archival topographic maps, Corona and Landsat images, along with modern field surveys. For the first time in the Georgian Caucasus aerial photogrammetric survey of both glacier termini was performed (2014) using a drone or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, where high-resolution orthomosaics and digital elevation models were produced. We show that both glaciers have experienced area loss since 1960: 16.2±4.9 per cent for Chalaati Glacier and 14.6±5.1 per cent for Zopkhito Glacier with corresponding respective terminus retreat by ~675 m and ~720 m. These were accompanied by a rise in the equilibrium line altitudes of ~35 m and ~30 m, respectively. The glacier changes are a response to regional warming in surface air temperature over the last half century. We used a long-term temperature record from the town of Mestia and short-term meteorological observations at Chalaati and Zopkhito glaciers to estimate a longer-term air temperature record for both glaciers. This analysis suggests an increase in the duration of the melt season over the 54-year period, indicating the importance of summertime air temperature trends in controlling glacier loss in the Georgian Caucasus. We also observed supra-glacial debris cover increase for both glaciers over the last half century: from 6.16±6.9 per cent to 8.01±6.8 per cent for Chalaati Glacier and from 2.80±6.3 per cent to 8.53±5.7 per cent for Zopkhito Glacier.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Onur Genc; Ozgur Kisi; Mehmet Ardiclioglu;
    Publisher: Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Institute
    Country: Croatia

    U ovoj studiji su za procjenu razdiobe napetosti smicanja u vodotocima korištene umjetne neuronske mreže (ANNs) i prilagodljivi neizraziti sustav zaključivanja (ANFIS). Metode su primijenjene na 145 nizova podataka prikupljenih na četiri različite postaje na vodotocima Sarimsakli i Sosun u Turskoj. Točnost primijenjenih modela uspoređena je s točnošću modela višestruke linearne regresije (MLR). Rezultati su pokazali da su oba modela (ANNs i ANFIS) bili bolji u modeliranju raspodjele napetosti smicanja od MLR modela. Pri korištenju ANFIS modela za procjenu raspodjele napetosti smicanja u testnom razdoblju srednje kvadratne pogreške (RMSE) i srednje apsolutne pogreške (MAE) su u odnosu na MLR model bile smanjene za 47%, odnosno 50%. Utvrđeno je da se za testno razdoblje najbolji ANFIS model, s RMSE = 3.85, MAE = 2.85 i koeficijentom određenosti R2 = 0.921, pokazao superiornim u procjeni napetosti smicanja u odnosu na MLR model, s RMSE = 7.30, MAE = 5.75 i R2 = 0.794. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were used to estimate shear stress distribution in streams. The methods were applied to the 145 field data gauged from four different sites on the Sarimsakli and Sosun streams in Turkey. The accuracy of the applied models was compared with the multiple-linear regression (MLR). The results showed that the ANNs and ANFIS models performed better than the MLR model in modeling shear stress distribution. The root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE) of the MLR model were reduced by 47% and 50% using ANFIS model in estimating shear stress distribution in the test period, respectively. It is found that the best ANFIS model with RMSE of 3.85, MAE of 2.85 and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.921 in test period is superior to the MLR model with RMSE of 7.30, MAE of 5.75 and R2 of 0.794 in estimation of shear stress distribution, respectively.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bayard Roberts; Nino Makhashvili; Jana Darejan Javakhishvili; A Karachevskyy; Natalia Kharchenko; Marina Shpiker; Erica Richardson;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    Country: United Kingdom

    AimsThere are an estimated 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine because of the armed conflict in the east of the country. The aim of this paper is to examine utilisation patterns of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) care among IDPs in Ukraine.MethodsA cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from 2203 adult IDPs throughout Ukraine between March and May 2016. Data on mental health care utilisation were collected, along with outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used.ResultsPTSD prevalence was 32%, depression prevalence was 22%, and anxiety prevalence was 17%. Among those that likely required care (screened positive with one of the three disorders, and also self-reporting a problem) there was a large treatment gap, with 74% of respondents who likely required MHPSS care over the past 12 months not receiving it. For the 26% (N = 180) that had sought care, the most common sources of services/support were pharmacies, family or district doctor/paramedic (feldsher), neurologist at a polyclinic, internist/neurologist at a general hospital, psychologists visiting communities, and non-governmental organisations/volunteer mental health/psychosocial centres. Of the 180 respondents who did seek care, 163 could recall whether they had to pay for their care. Of these 163 respondents, 72 (44%) recalled paying for the care they received despite government care officially being free in Ukraine. The average costs they paid for care was US$107 over the previous 12 months. All 180 respondents reported having to pay for medicines and the average costs for medicines was US$109 over the previous 12 months. Among the 74% had not sought care despite likely needing it; the principal reasons for not seeking care were: thought that they would get better by using their own medications, could not afford to pay for health services or medications, no awareness of where to receive help, poor understanding by health care providers, poor quality of services, and stigma/embarrassment. The findings from multivariate regression analysis show the significant influence of a poor household economic situation on not accessing care.ConclusionsThe study highlights a high burden of mental disorders and large MHPSS treatment gap among IDPs in Ukraine. The findings support the need for a scaled-up, comprehensive and trauma-informed response to provision of MHPSS care of IDPs in Ukraine alongside broader health system strengthening.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Man Ling Chau; Sri Harminda Pahm Hartantyo; Min Yap; Joanne Su Lin Kang; Kyaw Thu Aung; Ramona Alikiiteaga Gutiérrez; Lee Ching Ng; Clarence C. Tam; Timothy Barkham;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background Singapore’s diarrhoeal notification system is based on specific pathogens. Official data may thus be skewed towards notifiable diseases. Limited information is available on the profiles of aetiological agents responsible for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among the adult population. To understand the frequency and distribution of potential causative agents of diarrheal disease in Singapore, we screened adults’ stool samples collected from a large public hospital. Methods The stool samples were screened for 18 diarrheagenic pathogens using a combination of commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in-house singleplex PCR and immunochromatographic assays. One hundred adult faecal samples that were collected from October 2013 to January 2014 for routine diagnostic purposes and submitted for culture at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore were used. Results Pathogens were detected in 32 % of the samples. The predominant organisms encountered were norovirus genogroup II (11 %), Aeromonas spp. (9 %) and Campylobacter spp. (5 %). One sample was positive for both verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) and E. coli O157:H7. Two other samples were positive for VTEC only, and one other sample was positive for E. coli O157:H7 only. Astrovirus, C. perfringens, Shigella spp. and toxigenic C. difficile were each detected in 2 % of the samples. Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, group A rotavirus, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. were each detected in 1 % of the samples. No L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica, enteric adenovirus, or norovirus genogroup I were detected. Conclusion Our preliminary findings suggest that pathogens causing non-notifiable diseases might have contributed considerably to the adult hospitalised AGE cases. However, as the samples were from an adult hospital, the data obtained may not be representative of the whole community. Thus, a larger study to collect clinical samples and risk exposure data from primary healthcare clinics and children hospital is planned for, to gain a more holistic perspective on the epidemiology of AGE in Singapore. A larger study may also offer valuable insights for improving the approach of microbiological surveillance of food, as well as strategizing inspection efforts along the food supply chain by public health authorities.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vladimer Papava; Sabit Bagirov; Leonid Grigoriev; Wojciech Paczynski; Marcel Salikhov;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The report reviews key issues in energy trade and cooperation between the EU and CIS countries. It describes historical trends of oil and gas demand in the EU, other European and CIS countries and offers demand forecasts until 2030. Recent developments in oil and gas production and exports from Russia and Caspian countries are covered in detail leading to the discussion of the likely export potential of these regions. The key factors determining the production outlook, trade-offs and competition related to energy resources transportation choices are also discussed. The report also covers the interests and role of transit countries in relations between producer and consumer regions. The analytical section leads to policy recommendations that focus mainly on the EU.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Catola; Srikanta Dani Kaidala Ganesha; Luca Calamai; Francesco Loreto; Annamaria Ranieri; Mauro Centritto;
    Country: Italy

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulfur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME) is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants subjected to water stress as a model system, we standardized a sensitive and accurate protocol for detecting and quantifying DMSP pool sizes, and potential DMS emissions, in cryoextracted leaves. The method relies on the determination of DMS free and from DMSP pools before and after the alkaline hydrolysis via Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). We found a significant (2.5 time) increase of DMSP content in water-stressed leaves reflecting clear stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. We hypothesize that increased DMSP, and in turn DMS, in water-stressed leaves are produced by carbon sources other than direct photosynthesis, and function to protect plants either osmotically or as antioxidants. Finally, our results suggest that SPME is a powerful and suitable technique for the detection and quantification of biogenic gasses in trace amounts.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2002
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chikovani, Leila; Djobava, Tamar;

    The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment to the top-quark rare decay via flavor-changing neutral currents $t \rightarrow Zq$ ($q$ represents $c$ and $u$ quarks) has been studied at $\sqrt{s}$=14 TeV in two decay modes: 1.The pure leptonic decay of gauge bosons: $t\bar{t} \rightarrow ZqWb \rightarrow l^{+} l^{-} j l^{\pm} \nu b$ , (l=e, $\mu$). 2.The leptonic decay of Z bosons and hadronic decay of W bosons: $t\bar{t} \rightarrow ZqWb \rightarrow l^{+} l^{-} jjjb$ , (l=e, $\mu$). The dominant backgrounds $Z+jets$, $WZ$ and $t\bar{t}$ have been analysed. The signal and backgrounds were generated via PYTHIA 5.7, and simulated and analysed using ATLFAST 2.14. A branching ratio for $t \rightarrow Zq$ as low as 2.0x10$^{-4}$ for the leptonic mode and 5.9x10$^{-4}$ for hadronic mode could be discovered at the 5$\sigma$ level with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb$^{-1}$. Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Merab Svanadze;
    Publisher: Wiley

    In this paper the linear theory of steady vibrations of thermoelasticity with microtemperatures for isotropic solids with microstructure is considered. The uniqueness and existence theorems of solutions of the internal and external second boundary value problems (BVPs) by means of the boundary integral method (potential method) and the theory of singular integral equations are proved. The existence of eigenfrequencies of the internal homogeneous BVP of steady vibrations is studied. (© 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nino Abesadze; Nino Paresashvili; Rusudan Kinkladze;
    Publisher: De Gruyter

    Abstract Violence against women is relevant both in the world and in Georgia. Therefore, the aim of the work is Statistical analysis of violence against women in Georgia, according to the causes, forms, revealed forms and results of violence. The methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis were used in the research process. The graphical expression method is widely used. Apart from them, the methods of induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis, and selective observation were also used. Relative indicators of structure, dynamics, and comparison were calculated. Violence against women is a taboo topic for Georgian society and rarely becomes disclosed. Violence against women and girls in Georgia includes sexual abuse, rape, sexual harassment, early marriages, or forced marriage. The cases of violence against women are much more common in residents of Tbilisi, Samtskhe-Javakheti and Mtskheta-Mtianeti. It is relatively low in Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo and Imereti regions. Besides physical violence, there is frequent psychological violence, such as constant control of the wife, threatening, intimidation, etc. Violence indicators are different for age groups and nationalities. The survey is intended for a wide segment. In the future, it is possible to further expand the area by considering sources of financing. The results of this research will help increase public awareness and the need for women’s rights. Since 2009, research about women’s violence in Georgia has not been conducted. Therefore, the statistical data presented here is completely most recent.

Advanced search in
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8,907 Research products, page 1 of 891
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Meysam Alizamir; Ozgur Kisi; Ali Najah Ahmed; Cihan Mert; Chow Ming Fai; Sungwon Kim; Nam-Won Kim; Ahmed El-Shafie;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science

    Soil temperature has a vital importance in biological, physical and chemical processes of terrestrial ecosystem and its modeling at different depths is very important for land-atmosphere interactions. The study compares four machine learning techniques, extreme learning machine (ELM), artificial neural networks (ANN), classification and regression trees (CART) and group method of data handling (GMDH) in estimating monthly soil temperatures at four different depths. Various combinations of climatic variables are utilized as input to the developed models. The models’ outcomes are also compared with multi-linear regression based on Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency, root mean square error, and coefficient of determination statistics. ELM is found to be generally performs better than the other four alternatives in estimating soil temperatures. A decrease in performance of the models is observed by an increase in soil depth. It is found that soil temperatures at three depths (5, 10 and 50 cm) could be mapped utilizing only air temperature data as input while solar radiation and wind speed information are also required for estimating soil temperature at the depth of 100 cm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Levan Tielidze; D. Svanadze; Lela Gadrani; Lasha Asanidze; Roger Wheate; Gordon S. Hamilton;
    Publisher: Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences

    Individual glacier changes are still poorly documented in the Georgian Caucasus. In this paper, the change of Chalaati and Zopkhito glaciers in Georgian Caucasus has been studied between 1960 and 2014. Glacier geometries are reconstructed from archival topographic maps, Corona and Landsat images, along with modern field surveys. For the first time in the Georgian Caucasus aerial photogrammetric survey of both glacier termini was performed (2014) using a drone or Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, where high-resolution orthomosaics and digital elevation models were produced. We show that both glaciers have experienced area loss since 1960: 16.2±4.9 per cent for Chalaati Glacier and 14.6±5.1 per cent for Zopkhito Glacier with corresponding respective terminus retreat by ~675 m and ~720 m. These were accompanied by a rise in the equilibrium line altitudes of ~35 m and ~30 m, respectively. The glacier changes are a response to regional warming in surface air temperature over the last half century. We used a long-term temperature record from the town of Mestia and short-term meteorological observations at Chalaati and Zopkhito glaciers to estimate a longer-term air temperature record for both glaciers. This analysis suggests an increase in the duration of the melt season over the 54-year period, indicating the importance of summertime air temperature trends in controlling glacier loss in the Georgian Caucasus. We also observed supra-glacial debris cover increase for both glaciers over the last half century: from 6.16±6.9 per cent to 8.01±6.8 per cent for Chalaati Glacier and from 2.80±6.3 per cent to 8.53±5.7 per cent for Zopkhito Glacier.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Onur Genc; Ozgur Kisi; Mehmet Ardiclioglu;
    Publisher: Andrija Mohorovicic Geophysical Institute
    Country: Croatia

    U ovoj studiji su za procjenu razdiobe napetosti smicanja u vodotocima korištene umjetne neuronske mreže (ANNs) i prilagodljivi neizraziti sustav zaključivanja (ANFIS). Metode su primijenjene na 145 nizova podataka prikupljenih na četiri različite postaje na vodotocima Sarimsakli i Sosun u Turskoj. Točnost primijenjenih modela uspoređena je s točnošću modela višestruke linearne regresije (MLR). Rezultati su pokazali da su oba modela (ANNs i ANFIS) bili bolji u modeliranju raspodjele napetosti smicanja od MLR modela. Pri korištenju ANFIS modela za procjenu raspodjele napetosti smicanja u testnom razdoblju srednje kvadratne pogreške (RMSE) i srednje apsolutne pogreške (MAE) su u odnosu na MLR model bile smanjene za 47%, odnosno 50%. Utvrđeno je da se za testno razdoblje najbolji ANFIS model, s RMSE = 3.85, MAE = 2.85 i koeficijentom određenosti R2 = 0.921, pokazao superiornim u procjeni napetosti smicanja u odnosu na MLR model, s RMSE = 7.30, MAE = 5.75 i R2 = 0.794. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) were used to estimate shear stress distribution in streams. The methods were applied to the 145 field data gauged from four different sites on the Sarimsakli and Sosun streams in Turkey. The accuracy of the applied models was compared with the multiple-linear regression (MLR). The results showed that the ANNs and ANFIS models performed better than the MLR model in modeling shear stress distribution. The root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean absolute errors (MAE) of the MLR model were reduced by 47% and 50% using ANFIS model in estimating shear stress distribution in the test period, respectively. It is found that the best ANFIS model with RMSE of 3.85, MAE of 2.85 and determination coefficient (R2) of 0.921 in test period is superior to the MLR model with RMSE of 7.30, MAE of 5.75 and R2 of 0.794 in estimation of shear stress distribution, respectively.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bayard Roberts; Nino Makhashvili; Jana Darejan Javakhishvili; A Karachevskyy; Natalia Kharchenko; Marina Shpiker; Erica Richardson;
    Publisher: Cambridge University Press (CUP)
    Country: United Kingdom

    AimsThere are an estimated 1.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ukraine because of the armed conflict in the east of the country. The aim of this paper is to examine utilisation patterns of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) care among IDPs in Ukraine.MethodsA cross-sectional survey design was used. Data were collected from 2203 adult IDPs throughout Ukraine between March and May 2016. Data on mental health care utilisation were collected, along with outcomes including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. Descriptive and multivariate regression analyses were used.ResultsPTSD prevalence was 32%, depression prevalence was 22%, and anxiety prevalence was 17%. Among those that likely required care (screened positive with one of the three disorders, and also self-reporting a problem) there was a large treatment gap, with 74% of respondents who likely required MHPSS care over the past 12 months not receiving it. For the 26% (N = 180) that had sought care, the most common sources of services/support were pharmacies, family or district doctor/paramedic (feldsher), neurologist at a polyclinic, internist/neurologist at a general hospital, psychologists visiting communities, and non-governmental organisations/volunteer mental health/psychosocial centres. Of the 180 respondents who did seek care, 163 could recall whether they had to pay for their care. Of these 163 respondents, 72 (44%) recalled paying for the care they received despite government care officially being free in Ukraine. The average costs they paid for care was US$107 over the previous 12 months. All 180 respondents reported having to pay for medicines and the average costs for medicines was US$109 over the previous 12 months. Among the 74% had not sought care despite likely needing it; the principal reasons for not seeking care were: thought that they would get better by using their own medications, could not afford to pay for health services or medications, no awareness of where to receive help, poor understanding by health care providers, poor quality of services, and stigma/embarrassment. The findings from multivariate regression analysis show the significant influence of a poor household economic situation on not accessing care.ConclusionsThe study highlights a high burden of mental disorders and large MHPSS treatment gap among IDPs in Ukraine. The findings support the need for a scaled-up, comprehensive and trauma-informed response to provision of MHPSS care of IDPs in Ukraine alongside broader health system strengthening.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Man Ling Chau; Sri Harminda Pahm Hartantyo; Min Yap; Joanne Su Lin Kang; Kyaw Thu Aung; Ramona Alikiiteaga Gutiérrez; Lee Ching Ng; Clarence C. Tam; Timothy Barkham;
    Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
    Country: United Kingdom

    Background Singapore’s diarrhoeal notification system is based on specific pathogens. Official data may thus be skewed towards notifiable diseases. Limited information is available on the profiles of aetiological agents responsible for acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among the adult population. To understand the frequency and distribution of potential causative agents of diarrheal disease in Singapore, we screened adults’ stool samples collected from a large public hospital. Methods The stool samples were screened for 18 diarrheagenic pathogens using a combination of commercial multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in-house singleplex PCR and immunochromatographic assays. One hundred adult faecal samples that were collected from October 2013 to January 2014 for routine diagnostic purposes and submitted for culture at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore were used. Results Pathogens were detected in 32 % of the samples. The predominant organisms encountered were norovirus genogroup II (11 %), Aeromonas spp. (9 %) and Campylobacter spp. (5 %). One sample was positive for both verocytotoxigenic E. coli (VTEC) and E. coli O157:H7. Two other samples were positive for VTEC only, and one other sample was positive for E. coli O157:H7 only. Astrovirus, C. perfringens, Shigella spp. and toxigenic C. difficile were each detected in 2 % of the samples. Cryptosporidium parvum, Giardia lamblia, group A rotavirus, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. were each detected in 1 % of the samples. No L. monocytogenes, Y. enterocolitica, enteric adenovirus, or norovirus genogroup I were detected. Conclusion Our preliminary findings suggest that pathogens causing non-notifiable diseases might have contributed considerably to the adult hospitalised AGE cases. However, as the samples were from an adult hospital, the data obtained may not be representative of the whole community. Thus, a larger study to collect clinical samples and risk exposure data from primary healthcare clinics and children hospital is planned for, to gain a more holistic perspective on the epidemiology of AGE in Singapore. A larger study may also offer valuable insights for improving the approach of microbiological surveillance of food, as well as strategizing inspection efforts along the food supply chain by public health authorities.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Vladimer Papava; Sabit Bagirov; Leonid Grigoriev; Wojciech Paczynski; Marcel Salikhov;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    The report reviews key issues in energy trade and cooperation between the EU and CIS countries. It describes historical trends of oil and gas demand in the EU, other European and CIS countries and offers demand forecasts until 2030. Recent developments in oil and gas production and exports from Russia and Caspian countries are covered in detail leading to the discussion of the likely export potential of these regions. The key factors determining the production outlook, trade-offs and competition related to energy resources transportation choices are also discussed. The report also covers the interests and role of transit countries in relations between producer and consumer regions. The analytical section leads to policy recommendations that focus mainly on the EU.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Stefano Catola; Srikanta Dani Kaidala Ganesha; Luca Calamai; Francesco Loreto; Annamaria Ranieri; Mauro Centritto;
    Country: Italy

    Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) are compounds found mainly in marine phytoplankton and in some halophytic plants. DMS is a globally important biogenic volatile in regulating of global sulfur cycle and planetary albedo, whereas DMSP is involved in the maintenance of plant-environment homeostasis. Plants emit minute amounts of DMS compared to marine phytoplankton and there is a need for hypersensitive analytic techniques to enable its quantification in plants. Solid Phase Micro Extraction from Head Space (HS-SPME) is a simple, rapid, solvent-free and cost-effective extraction mode, which can be easily hyphenated with GC-MS for the analysis of volatile organic compounds. Using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants subjected to water stress as a model system, we standardized a sensitive and accurate protocol for detecting and quantifying DMSP pool sizes, and potential DMS emissions, in cryoextracted leaves. The method relies on the determination of DMS free and from DMSP pools before and after the alkaline hydrolysis via Headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). We found a significant (2.5 time) increase of DMSP content in water-stressed leaves reflecting clear stress to the photosynthetic apparatus. We hypothesize that increased DMSP, and in turn DMS, in water-stressed leaves are produced by carbon sources other than direct photosynthesis, and function to protect plants either osmotically or as antioxidants. Finally, our results suggest that SPME is a powerful and suitable technique for the detection and quantification of biogenic gasses in trace amounts.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Article . Preprint . 2002
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chikovani, Leila; Djobava, Tamar;

    The sensitivity of the ATLAS experiment to the top-quark rare decay via flavor-changing neutral currents $t \rightarrow Zq$ ($q$ represents $c$ and $u$ quarks) has been studied at $\sqrt{s}$=14 TeV in two decay modes: 1.The pure leptonic decay of gauge bosons: $t\bar{t} \rightarrow ZqWb \rightarrow l^{+} l^{-} j l^{\pm} \nu b$ , (l=e, $\mu$). 2.The leptonic decay of Z bosons and hadronic decay of W bosons: $t\bar{t} \rightarrow ZqWb \rightarrow l^{+} l^{-} jjjb$ , (l=e, $\mu$). The dominant backgrounds $Z+jets$, $WZ$ and $t\bar{t}$ have been analysed. The signal and backgrounds were generated via PYTHIA 5.7, and simulated and analysed using ATLFAST 2.14. A branching ratio for $t \rightarrow Zq$ as low as 2.0x10$^{-4}$ for the leptonic mode and 5.9x10$^{-4}$ for hadronic mode could be discovered at the 5$\sigma$ level with an integrated luminosity of 100 fb$^{-1}$. Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Merab Svanadze;
    Publisher: Wiley

    In this paper the linear theory of steady vibrations of thermoelasticity with microtemperatures for isotropic solids with microstructure is considered. The uniqueness and existence theorems of solutions of the internal and external second boundary value problems (BVPs) by means of the boundary integral method (potential method) and the theory of singular integral equations are proved. The existence of eigenfrequencies of the internal homogeneous BVP of steady vibrations is studied. (© 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Nino Abesadze; Nino Paresashvili; Rusudan Kinkladze;
    Publisher: De Gruyter

    Abstract Violence against women is relevant both in the world and in Georgia. Therefore, the aim of the work is Statistical analysis of violence against women in Georgia, according to the causes, forms, revealed forms and results of violence. The methods of statistical observation, grouping and analysis were used in the research process. The graphical expression method is widely used. Apart from them, the methods of induction, deduction, analysis and synthesis, and selective observation were also used. Relative indicators of structure, dynamics, and comparison were calculated. Violence against women is a taboo topic for Georgian society and rarely becomes disclosed. Violence against women and girls in Georgia includes sexual abuse, rape, sexual harassment, early marriages, or forced marriage. The cases of violence against women are much more common in residents of Tbilisi, Samtskhe-Javakheti and Mtskheta-Mtianeti. It is relatively low in Adjara, Guria, Samegrelo and Imereti regions. Besides physical violence, there is frequent psychological violence, such as constant control of the wife, threatening, intimidation, etc. Violence indicators are different for age groups and nationalities. The survey is intended for a wide segment. In the future, it is possible to further expand the area by considering sources of financing. The results of this research will help increase public awareness and the need for women’s rights. Since 2009, research about women’s violence in Georgia has not been conducted. Therefore, the statistical data presented here is completely most recent.

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