International audience; Author(s) of this paper may load this reprint on their own web site or institutional repository provided that this cover page is retained. Republication of this article or its storage in electronic databases other than as specified above is not permitted without prior permission in writing from the IUCr. For further information see http://journals.iucr.org/services/authorrights.html Many research topics in condensed matter research, materials science and the life sciences make use of crystallographic methods to study crystalline and non-crystalline matter with neutrons, X-rays and electrons. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Crystallography focus on these methods and their use in identifying structural and diffusion-controlled phase transformations, structure–property relationships, structural changes of defects, interfaces and surfaces, etc. Developments of instrumentation and crystallographic apparatus, theory and interpretation, numerical analysis and other related subjects are also covered. The journal is the primary place where crystallographic computer program information is published.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Countries: France, Spain
Abstract The objective of this study was to search for polymorphisms in the coding region of the estrogen receptors 1 and 2 (ESR1 and ESR2 )and to analyze the effects of these variants and the well known intronic ESR1 Pvu II polymorphism on litter size in a Chinese-European pig line. We identified five silent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the ESR1 cDNA: c.669T > C (exon 3), c.1227C > T (exon 5), c.1452C > T (exon 7), c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G (exon 8). One pair of these SNP (c.1665T > C and c.1755A > G) co-segregated in the analyzed line, and the SNP c.669T > C showed the same segregation pattern as the Pvu II polymorphism. These polymorphisms were tested in this study, although the c.1452C > T SNP within exon 7 was not analyzed due to its low informativeness. In the ESR2 cDNA, one missense SNP was found within exon 5, which caused an amino acid substitution in the coded protein: "c.949G > A (p.Val317Met)" and was tested on sow litter size. Information on 1622 litter records from 408 genotyped sows was analyzed to determine whether these SNP influenced the total number of piglets born (TNB) or the number of born alive (NBA). The polymorphisms ESR1: [Pvu II; c.669T > C], ESR1: [c.1665T > C; c.1755A > G] and ESR2: c.949G > A showed no statistically significant association with litter size. However, the ESR1: c.1227T allele was significantly associated with TNB. The additive substitution effect was estimated to be 0.40 piglets born per litter (P < 0.03), and no dominance effects were observed. This SNP could be useful in assisted selection for litter size in some pig lines, as a new genetic marker in linkage disequilibrium with the causative mutation.
International audience; We propose an efficient method for tracking 3D modelled objects in cluttered scenes. Rather than tracking objects in the image, our approach relies on the object recognition aspect of tracking. Candidate matches between image and model features define volumes in the space of transformations. The volumes of the pose space satisfying the maximum number of correspondences are those that best align the model with the image. Object motion defines a trajectory in the pose space. We give some results showing that the presented method allows tracking of objects even when they are totally occluded for a short while, without supposing any motion model and with a low computational cost (below 200 ms per frame on a basic workstation). Furthermore, this algorithm can also be used to initialize the tracking.
WETwin is a research project supported by the European Commission under the Seventh Framework Program. Its overall objective is to enhance the role of wetlands in basin-scale Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), with the aim of improving the community service functions while conserving good ecological status. This report addresses formulation of management responses to the drivers, pressures and impacts on wetlands identified in case study sites. Within the WETwin conceptual framework a range of options are identified from which management solutions can be built up. In principle, each option can be carried out alone, but in practice, combinations of several responses are likely to be combined into comprehensive management solutions. Further this document identifies performance indicators used for the evaluation of the management solutions and describes a set of models and expert assessment tools used for this purpose. An overview of generic responses available for wetland management and rehabilitation is presented. Management responses are separated into groups of similar measures targeting specific wetland components. Such a grouping gives a clearer overview of possible measures, and facilitates transfer of these generic groups to other wetlands. A brief overview of the process of identifying, elaborating and combining management options into implementable packages of management solutions is then provided. Site-specific management options and solutions are presented for seven case studies: Ga-Mampa, Inner Niger Delta, Nabajjuzi, Namatala, Abras de Mantequilla, Lobau and Gemenc wetlands.
International audience; The formation and evolution of relief in subduction-related orogens result from a variety of processes acting at different scales of time and space. The interplay between tectonics and erosion (river incision, glacial erosion. . . ) is generally the principal contributor to the relief development. However, Earth's surface topography is also shaped by mantle convection, the latter generally producing a low amplitude, long-wavelength deflection of the surface as a response to the distribution of density anomalies in the mantle. For regions where mantle dynamics may change rapidly, e.g. in subduction zones where slab windows form, the signal of dynamic topography may also be variable in time and space, and exert an important control on landscape evolution, but this issue has been poorly addressed so far. Patagonian is one of the few regions on Earth where a slab window is currently developing. The arrival at trench of the Chile Ridge separating the Nazca and Antarctic plates at the latitude of 54 S ca. 16 Ma ago and the westward motion of South America led to the intermittent migration toward the north of the associated triple junction and the progressive enlargement of the Patagonian slab window, which is clearly identified on tomographic images as a low seismic velocity anomaly in the upper mantle. The contribution of slab-window-related dynamic topography in the topographic evolution of the Patagonian Cordillera has generally not been considered mainly because local flexural and isostatic adjustments due to tectonics and erosion obscure the dynamic topography signal. In particular, glaciations recorded by the oldest glacial till preserved in South America, played an important role in shaping the Andean landscape as early as ca. 5-7.4 Ma. In this study, we combine low-temperature thermochronology apatite (U-Th)/He data and semi-analytical modeling of dynamic topography to investigate the role of slab window and climate on cooling/heating history and relief evolution in the Patagonian Cordillera. In particular, we discuss a new thermochronological dataset consisting in 22 samples divided into four elevation transects. Sampling sites were chosen at the same distance from the trench (250-300 km), on the leeward eastern side of the orogen, for latitudes ranging between 45 S and 48 S to detect a potential northward migration of the thermal signal associated with the northward migration of the slab window. We show that history of heating and cooling for this region of the southern Andes compares well with the time-evolution of slab window and that present-day latitudinal topographic variations cannot be explained by climate alone but require an additional support by dynamic topography.
This paper introduces a fuzzy inclusion indicator derived from a connective aimed at modulating a fuzzy criterion according to the satisfaction of another one. The idea is to express that one is all the more demanding as to the degree attached to an element x in a set B as this element has a high degree of membership degree to a set A. The use of this reinforced inclusion indicator is illustrated in the context of database querying.
Mitochondria are involved in the production of various vitamins, such as biotin, in plants. It is unclear why these biosynthetic pathways have been maintained partly or entirely within the mitochondria throughout evolution. The last step in biotin biosynthesis occurs within the mitochondria and is catalyzed by the biotin synthase complex containing the BIO2 gene product. We investigated whether the Arabidopsis Bio2 enzyme could function outside mitochondria, by trying to complement a bio2 mutant with a truncated version of BIO2 lacking the region encoding the mitochondrial targeting sequence. We describe the characterization of a new T-DNA allele of bio2, with the sole phenotype of an absence of biotin production, in contrast to the previously characterized EMS bio2 allele (Patton et al. 1998, Plant Physiol 116(3):935–946). We found that a cytosolic version of the Bio2 protein could not complement this mutant. Supplementation with the substrate dethiobiotin (DTB) also failed to rescue the mutant phenotype. Thus, the lack of availability of DTB in the cytosol is not the only factor preventing this reaction from occurring outside mitochondria. Bio2 requires mitochondrial targeting for activity, enabling it to fulfill its role in biotin synthesis. The reaction catalyzed by Bio2 may be subject to biochemical constraints, and the apparent close connection with the mitochondrial Fe-S machinery may account for the reaction being retained within the organelle.