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  • Canadian Journal of Infectious Dise...

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    Authors: Li, Xinke; Yu, Da; Wang, Yushuang; Yuan, Huimin; +6 Authors

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance for the first time during pregnancy,” which can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes and produces divergent effects on mothers and newborns. In recent years, with the continuous expansion of obese people, GDM shows an upward trend. The abundant and diverse members of the human gut microbiota exert critical roles in the maintenance of human health. Studies have shown that GDM may be associated with disordered gut microbiota in both mothers and newborns. Taking into account the potential effects on maternal and consequently neonatal health, in this review, we analyzed the available data and discussed the current knowledge about the potential relationship between GDM and intestinal dysbiosis in mothers and newborns. In addition, we also discussed the influencing factors derived from GDM mothers on the gut microbiome of their newborns, including the vertical transmission of microbiota from mothers, the alteration of milk components of GDM mothers, and using of probiotics. Hoping that new insights into the role of the gut microbiota in GDM could lead to the development of integrated strategies to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders.

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    Authors: Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xiawei; Xu, Zemin; Ying, Chaoqun; +2 Authors

    A 63-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital with severe subungual abscess. Bacteria were isolated from pus samples, and an inconsistent identification was shown by VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena, respectively. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that the isolate is R. terrigena, and this was further demonstrated by sequencing three housekeeping genes (rpoB, gyrA, and parC) with phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subungual abscess caused by R. terrigena, a rare case of human infection due to soil bacterium. Our study highlights the technique importance on this pathogen identification.

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    Authors: Zhanel, George G; Walkty, Andrew J; Karlowsky, James A;

    BACKGROUND: Due to the limitations of existing treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), new therapies are needed.OBJECTIVE: To review the available data on fidaxomicin regarding chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy and safety in clinical trials, and place in therapy.METHODS: A search of PubMed using the terms “fidaxomicin”, “OPT-80”, “PAR-101”, “OP-1118”, “difimicin”, “tiacumicin” and “lipiarmycin” was performed. All English-language articles from January 1983 to November 2014 were reviewed, as well as bibliographies of all articles.RESULTS: Fidaxomicin is the first macrocyclic lactone antibiotic with activity versus C difficile. It inhibits RNA polymerase, therefore, preventing transcription. Fidaxomicin (and its active metabolite OP-1118) is bactericidal against C difficile and exhibits a prolonged postantibiotic effect (approximately 10 h). Other than for C difficile, fidaxomicin demonstrated only moderate inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was a poor inhibitor of normal colonic flora, including anaerobes and enteric Gram-negative bacilli. After oral administration (200 mg two times per day for 10 days), fidaxomicin achieved low serum concentration levels but high fecal concentration levels (mean approximately 1400 μg/g stool). Phase 3 clinical trials involving adults with CDI demonstrated that 200 mg fidaxomicin twice daily for 10 days was noninferior to 125 mg oral vancomycin four times daily for 10 days in regard to clinical response at the end of therapy. Fidaxomicin was, however, reported to be superior to oral vancomycin in reducing recurrent CDI and achieving a sustained clinical response (assessed at day 28) for patients infected with non-BI/NAP1/027 strains.CONCLUSION: Fidaxomicin was noninferior to oral vancomycin with regard to clinical response at the end of CDI therapy. Fidaxomicin has been demonstated to be as safe as oral vancomycin, but superior to vancomycin in achieving a sustained clinical response for CDI in patients infected with non-BI/NAP1/027 strains. Caution should be exercised in using fidaxomicin monotherapy for treatment of severe complicated CDI because limited data are available. Whether fidaxomicin is cost effective (due to its significantly higher acquisition cost versus oral vancomycin) depends on the acceptable willingness to pay threshold per quality-adjusted life year as a measure of assessing cost effectiveness.

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    Authors: Rajabali, Naheed; Lim, Thomas; Sokolowski, Colleen; Prevost, Jason D; +1 Authors

    In an urban centre in Alberta, an otherwise healthy 28-year-old woman presented to hospital with pleuritic chest and abdominal pain after returning from Beijing, China. After several days, this was followed by headache, confusion and, ultimately, respiratory failure, coma and death. Microbiology yielded influenza A subtype H5N1 from various body sites and neuroimaging was consistent with meningoencephalitis. While H5N1 infections in humans have been reported in Asia since 1997, this is the first documented case of H5N1 influenza in the Western Hemisphere. The present case demonstrated the typical manifestation of H5N1 influenza but, for the first time, also confirmed previous suggestions from human and animal studies that H5N1 is neurotropic and can manifest with neurological symptoms and meningoencephalitis.

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    Authors: Vaisben, Eleonora; Brand, Ronen; Kadakh, Anas; Nassar, Faris;

    Hypereosinophilia is usually defined as a blood eosinophil count >1500/μL. A broad variety of conditions are associated with hypereosinophilia. The present report describes three cases of hypereosinophilia, in which a thorough history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigations were unable to detect any abnormalities. Albendazole was empirically administered in all three cases, with complete normalization of eosinophil counts thereafter. Empirical treatment with albendazole for patients presenting with hypereosinophilia should be strongly considered.

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    Authors: Stalteri Mastrangelo, Rosa; Hajizadeh, Anisa; Piggott, Thomas; Loeb, Mark; +8 Authors

    Hospitals continue to face challenges in reducing incorrect antibiotic use due to social and cultural factors at the level of the health system, the care facility, the provider, and the patient. The objective of this paper is to highlight the social and cultural drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance and targeted interventions for secondary and tertiary care settings in Canada and other OECD countries. This paper is an extension of the synthesis conducted for the Public Health Agency of Canada’s 2019 Spotlight Report: Preserving Antibiotics Now and Into the Future. We conducted a systematic review with a few modifications to meet rapid timelines. We conducted a search in Ovid MEDLINE and McMaster University’s evidence databases for systematic reviews and then for individual Canadian studies. To cast a wider net, we searched OECD organization websites and screened reference lists from systematic reviews. We synthesized the evidence narratively and categorized the evidence into macro-, meso-, and microlevel. A total of 70 studies were (a) from OCED countries and summarized evidence of potential sociocultural antimicrobial resistance and use barriers or facilitators and/or interventions addressing these challenges; (b) systematic reviews with 50% of included studies that are situated in secondary and tertiary settings; and (c) published in Canada’s two official languages, English and French. We found that hospital structures and policies may influence antibiotic utilization and variations in antimicrobial management. Microlevel factors may sway inappropriate prescribing among clinicians. The amount and type of antibiotics used may affect resistance rates. Interventions were mainly comprised of antibiotic stewardship and training that modify clinician behavior and that educate patients and carers. This evidence synthesis illustrates the various drivers of, and interventions for, antimicrobial use and resistance at the macro-, meso-, and microlevel in secondary and tertiary settings. We demonstrate that upstream drivers may lead to downstream events that influence antimicrobial resistance.

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    Authors: Zhang, Hao; He, Zhiyi; Zeng, Wenting; Peng, Hong-Juan;

    Dengue infection is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. With the recent outbreaks of Zika disease and its reported correlation with microcephaly, the large number of pregnancies with dengue infection has become a serious concern. This review describes the epidemiological characteristics of pregnancy with dengue and the initial immune response to dengue infection, especially in IFNs production in this group of patients. Dengue is much more prevalent in pregnant women compared with other populations. The severity of dengue is correlated with the level of IFNs, while the serum IFN level must be sufficiently high to maintain the pregnancy and to inhibit virus replication.

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    Authors: Letellier, Marie-Claude; Amini, Rachid; Gilca, Vladimir; Trudeau, Gisele; +1 Authors

    Background. The main aim of this review was to assess incidence rates and trends of medically attended and death cases of herpes zoster in Canada. Methods. The search was conducted in five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, PsycNET, and Web of Science). Data on herpes zoster-related consultations and hospitalisations and deaths were also extracted from three Quebec provincial administrative databases (RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and ISQ). Results. The electronic search yielded 587 publications. Seventeen publications satisfied inclusion criteria. These publications reported data from eleven studies. Ten studies used provincial databases, and one study used the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network electronic database. Seven studies evaluated overall rates of medically attended cases (consultations and hospitalisations). Four of these studies reported an increase in rates of medically attended cases during the study period; one study reported stable rates, and two studies reported only an average rate. The rates varied from 316 to 450/100,000 p.y. The Quebec analysis shows similar rates with a slight decreasing trend (from 369 to 350/100,000 p.y.). Incidence rates of consultations were reported separately in three studies. Two studies reported an increase in rates (from 258 to 348/100,000 p.y. and from 324 to 366/100,000 p.y.), and the third study reported a decrease (from 525 to 479/100,000 p.y.). Hospitalization rates were reported separately in two studies, both reporting a decrease (from 12 to 8 cases/100,000 p.y. and from 9 to 4 cases/100,000 p.y.). Quebec data also showed a decrease, from 9 to 6 cases/100,000 p.y. One study reported herpes zoster-related deaths. In this study, the reported death rate was 0.7/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 5.5/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Quebec analysis showed a death rate of 1.2/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 8.6/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Conclusions. The results of the reviewed studies and our analysis of Quebec provincial data indicate important variations in the reported overall incidence rates of medically attended herpes zoster cases in Canada. The trends in time are heterogeneous in studies in which hospitalisations and medical consultations were pooled together. We observed a decrease in hospitalization rates and a slight increase in consultation rates in studies reporting hospitalisations and consultations separately. These results consolidate the understanding of the herpes zoster burden in Canada and might be used as a tool in decision-making regarding future preventive interventions.

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    Authors: Edagiz, Safa; Lagace-Wiens, Phil; Embil, John; Karlowsky, James; +1 Authors

    A case of pneumonia with associated empyema caused by Clostridium bifermentans is described. C bifermentans is an anaerobic, spore-forming, Gram-positive bacillus. This organism is infrequently reported as a cause of infection in humans, and older publications tended to regard it as nonpathogenic. However, in more recent reports, C bifermentans has been documented as a cause of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, abdominal infections, brain abscess, bacteremia and endocarditis. The present case is the third reported case of empyema caused by C bifermentans, and it serves to further define the spectrum of illness due to this uncommon organism.

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    Authors: Shokrollahi, Parya; Hasani, Alka; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; +4 Authors

    Different clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are dominating geographically. One of the significant, hypervirulent, CA-MRSA and a significant health concern clones is USA3000, found worldwide regionally with varying frequencies. The clone harbors several mobile genetic elements (MGEs) including, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and copper and mercury resistance genes (COMER), accomplished by horizontal gene transfer from S. epidermidis. Evidence suggests that ACME and COMER have a more prominent role in enhancing biofilm capacity and ultimately persistent infections. This review highlights the comprehensive view on ACME and COMER structure, their distribution, and the mechanism of action along with pathogenetic features of USA3000 encompassing their role in biofilm formation, adhesion, quorum sensing, resistance to antibiotics, chemotaxis, and nutrient uptake. We also provided an insight into the role of ACME and COMER genes in the survival of bacterium. Our results shed light on the emergence of two independent clones possessing ACME (North American) and COMER (South American) elements which later disseminated to other regions. ACME and COMER both are adjacent to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (SCCmec IV). The acquisition of mecA, followed by COMER or ACME has been shown as a significant factor in the rise and fall of MRSA strains and their complex ability to adapt to hostile environments. The presence of ACME increases fitness, thereby allowing bacteria to colonize the skin and mucous membrane while COMER contributes to genetic stability by knocking over the copper-mediated killing in macrophages. Evidence suggests that ACME and COMER have a more prominent role in enhancing biofilm capacity and ultimately persistent infections. Interestingly, ACME strains have been shown to possess the ability to counteract skin acidity, thereby allowing increased skin colonization. A profound understanding of MGEs in S. aureus plays an important role in the prevention of epidemic clones.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Li, Xinke; Yu, Da; Wang, Yushuang; Yuan, Huimin; +6 Authors

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as “diagnosed as impaired glucose tolerance for the first time during pregnancy,” which can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes and produces divergent effects on mothers and newborns. In recent years, with the continuous expansion of obese people, GDM shows an upward trend. The abundant and diverse members of the human gut microbiota exert critical roles in the maintenance of human health. Studies have shown that GDM may be associated with disordered gut microbiota in both mothers and newborns. Taking into account the potential effects on maternal and consequently neonatal health, in this review, we analyzed the available data and discussed the current knowledge about the potential relationship between GDM and intestinal dysbiosis in mothers and newborns. In addition, we also discussed the influencing factors derived from GDM mothers on the gut microbiome of their newborns, including the vertical transmission of microbiota from mothers, the alteration of milk components of GDM mothers, and using of probiotics. Hoping that new insights into the role of the gut microbiota in GDM could lead to the development of integrated strategies to prevent and treat these metabolic disorders.

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    Authors: Wang, Yu; Jiang, Xiawei; Xu, Zemin; Ying, Chaoqun; +2 Authors

    A 63-year-old-man was admitted to our hospital with severe subungual abscess. Bacteria were isolated from pus samples, and an inconsistent identification was shown by VITEK 2 system and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry as Raoultella planticola and Raoultella terrigena, respectively. Molecular identification by 16S rRNA sequencing suggested that the isolate is R. terrigena, and this was further demonstrated by sequencing three housekeeping genes (rpoB, gyrA, and parC) with phylogenetic analysis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of subungual abscess caused by R. terrigena, a rare case of human infection due to soil bacterium. Our study highlights the technique importance on this pathogen identification.

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    Authors: Zhanel, George G; Walkty, Andrew J; Karlowsky, James A;

    BACKGROUND: Due to the limitations of existing treatment options for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), new therapies are needed.OBJECTIVE: To review the available data on fidaxomicin regarding chemistry, mechanisms of action and resistance, in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, efficacy and safety in clinical trials, and place in therapy.METHODS: A search of PubMed using the terms “fidaxomicin”, “OPT-80”, “PAR-101”, “OP-1118”, “difimicin”, “tiacumicin” and “lipiarmycin” was performed. All English-language articles from January 1983 to November 2014 were reviewed, as well as bibliographies of all articles.RESULTS: Fidaxomicin is the first macrocyclic lactone antibiotic with activity versus C difficile. It inhibits RNA polymerase, therefore, preventing transcription. Fidaxomicin (and its active metabolite OP-1118) is bactericidal against C difficile and exhibits a prolonged postantibiotic effect (approximately 10 h). Other than for C difficile, fidaxomicin demonstrated only moderate inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was a poor inhibitor of normal colonic flora, including anaerobes and enteric Gram-negative bacilli. After oral administration (200 mg two times per day for 10 days), fidaxomicin achieved low serum concentration levels but high fecal concentration levels (mean approximately 1400 μg/g stool). Phase 3 clinical trials involving adults with CDI demonstrated that 200 mg fidaxomicin twice daily for 10 days was noninferior to 125 mg oral vancomycin four times daily for 10 days in regard to clinical response at the end of therapy. Fidaxomicin was, however, reported to be superior to oral vancomycin in reducing recurrent CDI and achieving a sustained clinical response (assessed at day 28) for patients infected with non-BI/NAP1/027 strains.CONCLUSION: Fidaxomicin was noninferior to oral vancomycin with regard to clinical response at the end of CDI therapy. Fidaxomicin has been demonstated to be as safe as oral vancomycin, but superior to vancomycin in achieving a sustained clinical response for CDI in patients infected with non-BI/NAP1/027 strains. Caution should be exercised in using fidaxomicin monotherapy for treatment of severe complicated CDI because limited data are available. Whether fidaxomicin is cost effective (due to its significantly higher acquisition cost versus oral vancomycin) depends on the acceptable willingness to pay threshold per quality-adjusted life year as a measure of assessing cost effectiveness.

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    Authors: Rajabali, Naheed; Lim, Thomas; Sokolowski, Colleen; Prevost, Jason D; +1 Authors

    In an urban centre in Alberta, an otherwise healthy 28-year-old woman presented to hospital with pleuritic chest and abdominal pain after returning from Beijing, China. After several days, this was followed by headache, confusion and, ultimately, respiratory failure, coma and death. Microbiology yielded influenza A subtype H5N1 from various body sites and neuroimaging was consistent with meningoencephalitis. While H5N1 infections in humans have been reported in Asia since 1997, this is the first documented case of H5N1 influenza in the Western Hemisphere. The present case demonstrated the typical manifestation of H5N1 influenza but, for the first time, also confirmed previous suggestions from human and animal studies that H5N1 is neurotropic and can manifest with neurological symptoms and meningoencephalitis.

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    Authors: Vaisben, Eleonora; Brand, Ronen; Kadakh, Anas; Nassar, Faris;

    Hypereosinophilia is usually defined as a blood eosinophil count >1500/μL. A broad variety of conditions are associated with hypereosinophilia. The present report describes three cases of hypereosinophilia, in which a thorough history, physical examination, laboratory and imaging investigations were unable to detect any abnormalities. Albendazole was empirically administered in all three cases, with complete normalization of eosinophil counts thereafter. Empirical treatment with albendazole for patients presenting with hypereosinophilia should be strongly considered.

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    Authors: Stalteri Mastrangelo, Rosa; Hajizadeh, Anisa; Piggott, Thomas; Loeb, Mark; +8 Authors

    Hospitals continue to face challenges in reducing incorrect antibiotic use due to social and cultural factors at the level of the health system, the care facility, the provider, and the patient. The objective of this paper is to highlight the social and cultural drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance and targeted interventions for secondary and tertiary care settings in Canada and other OECD countries. This paper is an extension of the synthesis conducted for the Public Health Agency of Canada’s 2019 Spotlight Report: Preserving Antibiotics Now and Into the Future. We conducted a systematic review with a few modifications to meet rapid timelines. We conducted a search in Ovid MEDLINE and McMaster University’s evidence databases for systematic reviews and then for individual Canadian studies. To cast a wider net, we searched OECD organization websites and screened reference lists from systematic reviews. We synthesized the evidence narratively and categorized the evidence into macro-, meso-, and microlevel. A total of 70 studies were (a) from OCED countries and summarized evidence of potential sociocultural antimicrobial resistance and use barriers or facilitators and/or interventions addressing these challenges; (b) systematic reviews with 50% of included studies that are situated in secondary and tertiary settings; and (c) published in Canada’s two official languages, English and French. We found that hospital structures and policies may influence antibiotic utilization and variations in antimicrobial management. Microlevel factors may sway inappropriate prescribing among clinicians. The amount and type of antibiotics used may affect resistance rates. Interventions were mainly comprised of antibiotic stewardship and training that modify clinician behavior and that educate patients and carers. This evidence synthesis illustrates the various drivers of, and interventions for, antimicrobial use and resistance at the macro-, meso-, and microlevel in secondary and tertiary settings. We demonstrate that upstream drivers may lead to downstream events that influence antimicrobial resistance.

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    Authors: Zhang, Hao; He, Zhiyi; Zeng, Wenting; Peng, Hong-Juan;

    Dengue infection is a serious public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. With the recent outbreaks of Zika disease and its reported correlation with microcephaly, the large number of pregnancies with dengue infection has become a serious concern. This review describes the epidemiological characteristics of pregnancy with dengue and the initial immune response to dengue infection, especially in IFNs production in this group of patients. Dengue is much more prevalent in pregnant women compared with other populations. The severity of dengue is correlated with the level of IFNs, while the serum IFN level must be sufficiently high to maintain the pregnancy and to inhibit virus replication.

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    Authors: Letellier, Marie-Claude; Amini, Rachid; Gilca, Vladimir; Trudeau, Gisele; +1 Authors

    Background. The main aim of this review was to assess incidence rates and trends of medically attended and death cases of herpes zoster in Canada. Methods. The search was conducted in five databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, PsycNET, and Web of Science). Data on herpes zoster-related consultations and hospitalisations and deaths were also extracted from three Quebec provincial administrative databases (RAMQ, MED-ECHO, and ISQ). Results. The electronic search yielded 587 publications. Seventeen publications satisfied inclusion criteria. These publications reported data from eleven studies. Ten studies used provincial databases, and one study used the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network electronic database. Seven studies evaluated overall rates of medically attended cases (consultations and hospitalisations). Four of these studies reported an increase in rates of medically attended cases during the study period; one study reported stable rates, and two studies reported only an average rate. The rates varied from 316 to 450/100,000 p.y. The Quebec analysis shows similar rates with a slight decreasing trend (from 369 to 350/100,000 p.y.). Incidence rates of consultations were reported separately in three studies. Two studies reported an increase in rates (from 258 to 348/100,000 p.y. and from 324 to 366/100,000 p.y.), and the third study reported a decrease (from 525 to 479/100,000 p.y.). Hospitalization rates were reported separately in two studies, both reporting a decrease (from 12 to 8 cases/100,000 p.y. and from 9 to 4 cases/100,000 p.y.). Quebec data also showed a decrease, from 9 to 6 cases/100,000 p.y. One study reported herpes zoster-related deaths. In this study, the reported death rate was 0.7/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 5.5/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Quebec analysis showed a death rate of 1.2/1,000,000 p.y. in the overall population and 8.6/1,000,000 p.y. in those aged ≥65 years. Conclusions. The results of the reviewed studies and our analysis of Quebec provincial data indicate important variations in the reported overall incidence rates of medically attended herpes zoster cases in Canada. The trends in time are heterogeneous in studies in which hospitalisations and medical consultations were pooled together. We observed a decrease in hospitalization rates and a slight increase in consultation rates in studies reporting hospitalisations and consultations separately. These results consolidate the understanding of the herpes zoster burden in Canada and might be used as a tool in decision-making regarding future preventive interventions.

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    Authors: Edagiz, Safa; Lagace-Wiens, Phil; Embil, John; Karlowsky, James; +1 Authors

    A case of pneumonia with associated empyema caused by Clostridium bifermentans is described. C bifermentans is an anaerobic, spore-forming, Gram-positive bacillus. This organism is infrequently reported as a cause of infection in humans, and older publications tended to regard it as nonpathogenic. However, in more recent reports, C bifermentans has been documented as a cause of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis, soft tissue infection, abdominal infections, brain abscess, bacteremia and endocarditis. The present case is the third reported case of empyema caused by C bifermentans, and it serves to further define the spectrum of illness due to this uncommon organism.

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    Authors: Shokrollahi, Parya; Hasani, Alka; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Memar, Mohammad Yousef; +4 Authors

    Different clones of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) are dominating geographically. One of the significant, hypervirulent, CA-MRSA and a significant health concern clones is USA3000, found worldwide regionally with varying frequencies. The clone harbors several mobile genetic elements (MGEs) including, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME) and copper and mercury resistance genes (COMER), accomplished by horizontal gene transfer from S. epidermidis. Evidence suggests that ACME and COMER have a more prominent role in enhancing biofilm capacity and ultimately persistent infections. This review highlights the comprehensive view on ACME and COMER structure, their distribution, and the mechanism of action along with pathogenetic features of USA3000 encompassing their role in biofilm formation, adhesion, quorum sensing, resistance to antibiotics, chemotaxis, and nutrient uptake. We also provided an insight into the role of ACME and COMER genes in the survival of bacterium. Our results shed light on the emergence of two independent clones possessing ACME (North American) and COMER (South American) elements which later disseminated to other regions. ACME and COMER both are adjacent to staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type IV (SCCmec IV). The acquisition of mecA, followed by COMER or ACME has been shown as a significant factor in the rise and fall of MRSA strains and their complex ability to adapt to hostile environments. The presence of ACME increases fitness, thereby allowing bacteria to colonize the skin and mucous membrane while COMER contributes to genetic stability by knocking over the copper-mediated killing in macrophages. Evidence suggests that ACME and COMER have a more prominent role in enhancing biofilm capacity and ultimately persistent infections. Interestingly, ACME strains have been shown to possess the ability to counteract skin acidity, thereby allowing increased skin colonization. A profound understanding of MGEs in S. aureus plays an important role in the prevention of epidemic clones.

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