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  • Canadian Journal of Infectious Dise...

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stalteri Mastrangelo, Rosa; Hajizadeh, Anisa; Piggott, Thomas; Loeb, Mark; +8 Authors

    Hospitals continue to face challenges in reducing incorrect antibiotic use due to social and cultural factors at the level of the health system, the care facility, the provider, and the patient. The objective of this paper is to highlight the social and cultural drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance and targeted interventions for secondary and tertiary care settings in Canada and other OECD countries. This paper is an extension of the synthesis conducted for the Public Health Agency of Canada’s 2019 Spotlight Report: Preserving Antibiotics Now and Into the Future. We conducted a systematic review with a few modifications to meet rapid timelines. We conducted a search in Ovid MEDLINE and McMaster University’s evidence databases for systematic reviews and then for individual Canadian studies. To cast a wider net, we searched OECD organization websites and screened reference lists from systematic reviews. We synthesized the evidence narratively and categorized the evidence into macro-, meso-, and microlevel. A total of 70 studies were (a) from OCED countries and summarized evidence of potential sociocultural antimicrobial resistance and use barriers or facilitators and/or interventions addressing these challenges; (b) systematic reviews with 50% of included studies that are situated in secondary and tertiary settings; and (c) published in Canada’s two official languages, English and French. We found that hospital structures and policies may influence antibiotic utilization and variations in antimicrobial management. Microlevel factors may sway inappropriate prescribing among clinicians. The amount and type of antibiotics used may affect resistance rates. Interventions were mainly comprised of antibiotic stewardship and training that modify clinician behavior and that educate patients and carers. This evidence synthesis illustrates the various drivers of, and interventions for, antimicrobial use and resistance at the macro-, meso-, and microlevel in secondary and tertiary settings. We demonstrate that upstream drivers may lead to downstream events that influence antimicrobial resistance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Canadian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Canadian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Yang, Jialiang; Liao, Bo; Ye, Jianqiang; Wu, Taoyang;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2018
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      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stokes, William; Janvier, Jack; Vaughan, Stephen;

    Chronic Q fever is a potentially life-threatening infection from the intracellular, Gram-negative Coxiella burnetii. It presents most commonly as endocarditis or vascular infection in people with underlying cardiac or vascular disease. We discuss a case of a 67-year-old male with Coxiella burnetii vascular infection of a perirenal abdominal aortic graft. The patient had a history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair 5 years earlier. He presented with a 12 × 6 × 8 cm perirenal pseudoaneurysm and concomitant L1, L2, and L3 vertebral body discitis. He underwent an open repair which revealed a grossly infected graft perioperatively. Q fever serology revealed phase I serological IgG titer of 1 : 2048 and phase II 1 : 1024 consistent with chronic Q fever. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on infected vascular tissue was positive for C. burnetii. The patient was started on doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine with good clinical response and decreasing serological titers. Recognizing chronic Q fever is a difficult task as symptoms are nonspecific, exposure risk is difficult to ascertain, and diagnosis is hidden from conventional microbiological investigations. Its recognition, however, is critical as C. burnetii is inherently resistant to standard empiric therapies used in cardiovascular infections.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Canadian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Knox, David C.; Pilarski, Robert; Dhunna, Harvinder S.; Kaushal, Amit; +1 Authors

    According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, approximately 62,050 people were living with HIV in Canada in 2018, and of those, 13% were undiagnosed. Currently, no single strategy provides complete protection or is universally effective across all demographic groups at risk for HIV. However, HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest HIV prevention strategy that shows promise. To date, two products have received an indication for PrEP by Health Canada: emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada®; FTC/TDF) and emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy®; FTC/TAF). Despite the high efficacy of these PrEP intervention methods, access to PrEP in Canada remains low. Identifying and addressing barriers to PrEP access, especially in high-risk groups, are necessary to reduce HIV transmission in Canada. While guidelines published by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) include FTC/TAF information, the efficacy of FTC/TAF for PrEP has not yet been considered in Canada’s clinical practice guidelines. Thus, the current paper reviews data regarding the use of FTC/TDF and FTC/TAF for PrEP, which may be useful for Canadian healthcare providers when counseling and implementing HIV prevention methods. The authors highlight these data in relation to various at-risk populations and review ongoing clinical trials investigating novel PrEP agents. Overall, FTC/TDF PrEP is effective for many populations, including men who have sex with men, transgender women, heterosexuals with partners living with HIV, and people who use drugs. While there is fewer data reported on the efficacy of FTC/TAF to date, recent clinical trials have demonstrated noninferiority of FTC/TAF in comparison to FTC/TDF. Notably, as studies have shown that FTC/TAF maintains renal function and bone mineral density to a greater extent than FTC/TDF, FTC/TAF may be a safer option for patients experiencing renal and/or bone dysfunction, for those at risk of renal and bone complications, and for those who develop FTC/TDF-related adverse events.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Hull, Mark; Shafran, Stephen; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; +6 Authors

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stalteri Mastrangelo, Rosa; Hajizadeh, Anisa; Piggott, Thomas; Loeb, Mark; +8 Authors

    Hospitals continue to face challenges in reducing incorrect antibiotic use due to social and cultural factors at the level of the health system, the care facility, the provider, and the patient. The objective of this paper is to highlight the social and cultural drivers of antimicrobial use and resistance and targeted interventions for secondary and tertiary care settings in Canada and other OECD countries. This paper is an extension of the synthesis conducted for the Public Health Agency of Canada’s 2019 Spotlight Report: Preserving Antibiotics Now and Into the Future. We conducted a systematic review with a few modifications to meet rapid timelines. We conducted a search in Ovid MEDLINE and McMaster University’s evidence databases for systematic reviews and then for individual Canadian studies. To cast a wider net, we searched OECD organization websites and screened reference lists from systematic reviews. We synthesized the evidence narratively and categorized the evidence into macro-, meso-, and microlevel. A total of 70 studies were (a) from OCED countries and summarized evidence of potential sociocultural antimicrobial resistance and use barriers or facilitators and/or interventions addressing these challenges; (b) systematic reviews with 50% of included studies that are situated in secondary and tertiary settings; and (c) published in Canada’s two official languages, English and French. We found that hospital structures and policies may influence antibiotic utilization and variations in antimicrobial management. Microlevel factors may sway inappropriate prescribing among clinicians. The amount and type of antibiotics used may affect resistance rates. Interventions were mainly comprised of antibiotic stewardship and training that modify clinician behavior and that educate patients and carers. This evidence synthesis illustrates the various drivers of, and interventions for, antimicrobial use and resistance at the macro-, meso-, and microlevel in secondary and tertiary settings. We demonstrate that upstream drivers may lead to downstream events that influence antimicrobial resistance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Canadian Journal of ...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Yang, Jialiang; Liao, Bo; Ye, Jianqiang; Wu, Taoyang;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ University of East A...arrow_drop_down
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    https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
    Other literature type . 2018
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      https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.go...
      Other literature type . 2018
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Stokes, William; Janvier, Jack; Vaughan, Stephen;

    Chronic Q fever is a potentially life-threatening infection from the intracellular, Gram-negative Coxiella burnetii. It presents most commonly as endocarditis or vascular infection in people with underlying cardiac or vascular disease. We discuss a case of a 67-year-old male with Coxiella burnetii vascular infection of a perirenal abdominal aortic graft. The patient had a history of an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair 5 years earlier. He presented with a 12 × 6 × 8 cm perirenal pseudoaneurysm and concomitant L1, L2, and L3 vertebral body discitis. He underwent an open repair which revealed a grossly infected graft perioperatively. Q fever serology revealed phase I serological IgG titer of 1 : 2048 and phase II 1 : 1024 consistent with chronic Q fever. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on infected vascular tissue was positive for C. burnetii. The patient was started on doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine with good clinical response and decreasing serological titers. Recognizing chronic Q fever is a difficult task as symptoms are nonspecific, exposure risk is difficult to ascertain, and diagnosis is hidden from conventional microbiological investigations. Its recognition, however, is critical as C. burnetii is inherently resistant to standard empiric therapies used in cardiovascular infections.

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    Authors: Knox, David C.; Pilarski, Robert; Dhunna, Harvinder S.; Kaushal, Amit; +1 Authors

    According to the Public Health Agency of Canada, approximately 62,050 people were living with HIV in Canada in 2018, and of those, 13% were undiagnosed. Currently, no single strategy provides complete protection or is universally effective across all demographic groups at risk for HIV. However, HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the newest HIV prevention strategy that shows promise. To date, two products have received an indication for PrEP by Health Canada: emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (Truvada®; FTC/TDF) and emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (Descovy®; FTC/TAF). Despite the high efficacy of these PrEP intervention methods, access to PrEP in Canada remains low. Identifying and addressing barriers to PrEP access, especially in high-risk groups, are necessary to reduce HIV transmission in Canada. While guidelines published by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) include FTC/TAF information, the efficacy of FTC/TAF for PrEP has not yet been considered in Canada’s clinical practice guidelines. Thus, the current paper reviews data regarding the use of FTC/TDF and FTC/TAF for PrEP, which may be useful for Canadian healthcare providers when counseling and implementing HIV prevention methods. The authors highlight these data in relation to various at-risk populations and review ongoing clinical trials investigating novel PrEP agents. Overall, FTC/TDF PrEP is effective for many populations, including men who have sex with men, transgender women, heterosexuals with partners living with HIV, and people who use drugs. While there is fewer data reported on the efficacy of FTC/TAF to date, recent clinical trials have demonstrated noninferiority of FTC/TAF in comparison to FTC/TDF. Notably, as studies have shown that FTC/TAF maintains renal function and bone mineral density to a greater extent than FTC/TDF, FTC/TAF may be a safer option for patients experiencing renal and/or bone dysfunction, for those at risk of renal and bone complications, and for those who develop FTC/TDF-related adverse events.

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    Authors: Hull, Mark; Shafran, Stephen; Wong, Alex; Tseng, Alice; +6 Authors

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection occurs in 20–30% of Canadians living with HIV and is responsible for a heavy burden of morbidity and mortality. Purpose. To update national standards for management of HCV-HIV coinfected adults in the Canadian context with evolving evidence for and accessibility of effective and tolerable DAA therapies. The document addresses patient workup and treatment preparation, antiviral recommendations overall and in specific populations, and drug-drug interactions. Methods. A standing working group with HIV-HCV expertise was convened by The Canadian Institute of Health Research HIV Trials Network to review recently published HCV antiviral data and update Canadian HIV-HCV Coinfection Guidelines. Results. The gap in sustained virologic response between HCV monoinfection and HIV-HCV coinfection has been eliminated with newer HCV antiviral regimens. All coinfected individuals should be assessed for interferon-free, Direct Acting Antiviral HCV therapy. Regimens vary in content, duration, and success based largely on genotype. Reimbursement restrictions forcing the use of pegylated interferon is not acceptable if optimal patient care is to be provided. Discussion. Recommendations may not supersede individual clinical judgement. Treatment advances published since December 2015 are not considered in this document.

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