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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrej Dvornik; Catherine Heymans; Marika Asgari; Constance Mahony; +13 Authors

    We present constraints on the flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model through a joint analysis of galaxy abundance, galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing observables with the Kilo-Degree Survey. Our theoretical model combines a flexible conditional stellar mass function, to describe the galaxy-halo connection, with a cosmological N-body simulation-calibrated halo model to describe the non-linear matter field. Our magnitude-limited bright galaxy sample combines 9-band optical-to-near-infrared photometry with an extensive and complete spectroscopic training sample to provide accurate redshift and stellar mass estimates. Our faint galaxy sample provides a background of accurately calibrated lensing measurements. We constrain the structure growth parameter $S_8=\sigma_8\sqrt{\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.3}=0.773^{+0.028}_{-0.030}$, and the matter density parameter $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}=0.290^{+0.021}_{-0.017}$. The galaxy-halo connection model adopted in the work is shown to be in agreement with previous studies. Our constraints on cosmological parameters are comparable to, and consistent with, joint $3\times2{\mathrm{pt}}$ clustering-lensing analyses that additionally include a cosmic shear observable. This analysis therefore brings attention to the significant constraining power in the often-excluded non-linear scales for galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing observables. By adopting a theoretical model that accounts for non-linear halo bias, halo exclusion, scale-dependent galaxy bias and the impact of baryon feedback, this work demonstrates the potential and a way forward to include non-linear scales in cosmological analyses. Varying the width of the satellite galaxy distribution with an additional parameter yields a strong preference for sub-Poissonian variance, improving the goodness of fit by 0.18 in reduced $\chi^{2}$ value compared to a fixed Poisson distribution. Comment: 25 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Utrecht University Repository
    Preprint . Other ORP type . 2022
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    NARCIS
    Other literature type . Article . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    arXiv.org e-Print Archive
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Utrecht University R...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Utrecht University Repository
      Preprint . Other ORP type . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2023
      Data sources: UCL Discovery
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other literature type . Article . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite; NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      arXiv.org e-Print Archive
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Anna-Selma van der Kaaden; Dick van Oevelen; Christian Mohn; Karline Soetaert; +3 Authors

    Abstract. Internal tides are known to be an important source of mixing in the oceans, especially in the bottom boundary layer. The depth of internal-tide generation therefore seems important for benthic life and the formation of cold-water coral mounds, but internal-tidal conversion is generally investigated in a depth-integrated sense. Using both idealized and realistic simulations on continental slopes, we found that the depth of internal-tide generation increases with increasing slope steepness and decreases with intensified shallow stratification. The depth of internal-tide generation also shows a typical latitudinal dependency. Using a global database of cold-water corals, we found that the depth-pattern of internal-tide generation is remarkably similar to the depth-pattern of cold-water corals globally: shallowest near the poles and deepest around the equator with a shoaling around 25 degrees South and North and shallower north of the equator than south of the equator. We further found that cold-water corals are, more than what would be expected by chance, associated to the (super)critical reflection of internal tides (i.e., situated on topography that is steeper than the internal tidal beam) and to trapped internal tides (i.e., above the critical latitude of 70 degrees for semidiurnal tides and 30 degrees for diurnal tides). The (super)critical reflection of internal tides and trapped internal tides therefore provide an interesting new angle of food supply mechanisms that has not yet been considered in cold-water coral studies. With climate change, stratification is expected to increase. Based on our results, this would cause a shoaling of internal-tide generation, possibly creating new shallower suitable habitat for cold-water corals on continental slopes.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
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    NARCIS
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Copernicus Publications
    Other literature type . 2023
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Utrecht University Repository
    Preprint . Other ORP type . 2023
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ NARCISarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      NARCIS
      Other literature type . Preprint . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref; NARCIS
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      Utrecht University Repository
      Preprint . Other ORP type . 2023
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vater, Kerstin; Stender, Merten; Hoffmann, Norbert;

    Friction contacts can be found in almost all mechanical systems and are often of great technical importance. However, they are usually difficult to describe, and their behavior and influence on the whole system are hard to predict accurately. Modern product design and system operation strongly benefit from numerical simulation approaches today, but reliable friction models still represent a major challenge in this context. To tackle this problem, we employ neural network regression to capture the characteristics of frictional contacts and make them accessible for numerical methods in a minimal intrusive fashion. In particular, we test our approach using a Finite Element model of a 2D cantilever beam subject to stick-slip vibrations induced by a moving conveyor belt at its free end. As a reference solution, we perform a transient analysis based on a simple analytical friction model, where the kinetic friction force only depends on the normal load and the relative sliding velocity. We take the same friction model, add some artificial noise to mimic uncertainties coming with experimental measurements, and pick a limited set of data points to train a regression neural network. The machine learning friction model is then deployed in the Finite Element code to predict the kinetic friction force acting on the beam tip during the slip phases. The deflection curves obtained by the transient numerical analysis using the new neural network friction model agree well with the reference solution based on the underlying analytical model. The results indicate that data-driven approaches may also be capable of capturing more complex frictional contacts, including effects of temperature, humidity, and load history. The trained neural network friction models can then be employed in numerical simulations in a minimally intrusive manner. This approach opens up new possibilities to predict individual mechanical system behavior as accurately as possible.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ TUHH Open Research (...arrow_drop_down
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    TUHH Open Research (TORE)
    Other ORP type . Conference object . 2023
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    TUHH Open Research
    Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: TUHH Open Research
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ TUHH Open Research (...arrow_drop_down
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      TUHH Open Research (TORE)
      Other ORP type . Conference object . 2023
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      TUHH Open Research
      Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: TUHH Open Research
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Ozlem Ozmen Garibay; Brent Winslow; Salvatore Andolina; Margherita Antona; +22 Authors

    Widespread adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is substantially affecting the human condition in ways that are not yet well understood. Negative unintended consequences abound including the perpetuation and exacerbation of societal inequalities and divisions via algorithmic decision making. We present six grand challenges for the scientific community to create AI technologies that are human-centered, that is, ethical, fair, and enhance the human condition. These grand challenges are the result of an international collaboration across academia, industry and government and represent the consensus views of a group of 26 experts in the field of human-centered artificial intelligence (HCAI). In essence, these challenges advocate for a human-centered approach to AI that (1) is centered in human well-being, (2) is designed responsibly, (3) respects privacy, (4) follows human-centered design principles, (5) is subject to appropriate governance and oversight, and (6) interacts with individuals while respecting human’s cognitive capacities. We hope that these challenges and their associated research directions serve as a call for action to conduct research and development in AI that serves as a force multiplier towards more fair, equitable and sustainable societies.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Oxford University Re...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Hasan, Saadia; Fernandopulle, Michael S.; Humble, Stewart W.; Frankenfield, Ashley M.; +7 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Apolloarrow_drop_down
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    Apollo
    Other ORP type . 2023
    Data sources: Apollo
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Apolloarrow_drop_down
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      Apollo
      Other ORP type . 2023
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    Authors: Hosking, DN; Schekochihin, AA;

    It has been suggested that the weak magnetic field hosted by the intergalactic medium in cosmic voids could be a relic from the early Universe. However, accepted models of turbulent magnetohydrodynamic decay predict that the present-day strength of fields originally generated at the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) without parity violation would be too low to explain the observed scattering of γ-rays from TeV blazars. Here, we propose that the decay is mediated by magnetic reconnection and conserves the mean square fluctuation level of magnetic helicity. We find that the relic fields would be stronger by several orders of magnitude under this theory than was indicated by previous treatments, which restores the consistency of the EWPT-relic hypothesis with the observational constraints. Moreover, efficient EWPT magnetogenesis would produce relics at the strength required to resolve the Hubble tension via magnetic effects at recombination and seed galaxy-cluster fields close to their present-day strength.

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    Authors: Short, Michael; Fiorentino, Stefania; Bunce, Susannah; Livingstone, Nicola;
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    Apollo
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      Apollo
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    Authors: D'Angour, A;

    This chapter gives an overview of the elements of Greek and Latin metre, introduces the main technical terms and symbols used, and offers some suggestions for learning and for further study. It is written to be read continuously; technical terms are indicated in bold when they are first introduced or explained, and later paragraphs assume a grasp of the explanations given in previous paragraphs.

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    Authors: D’Avino, Pier Paolo; Vagnarelli, Paola; Wilde, Andrew;

    Acknowledgements: We are very grateful to all the authors who contributed to this Research Topic with their insightful and inspiring manuscripts. Peer reviewed: True

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    Authors: Hugenroth, D; Kocaoğullar, C; Beresford, AR;

    Anonymity networks protect the metadata of communication between participants. This is an important privacy guarantee for whistleblowers, activists, journalists and others who rely on anonymity networks. However, these same guarantees can also help criminals and disruptive users evade the consequences of their actions. Existing literature and research has little to say on what designers and operators of such networks can do to maximize beneficial uses while minimizing harm. We build on lessons learned from the widespread deployment of another strong privacy technology, end-to-end encrypted messaging applications, as well as on existing examples from anonymity networks, to formulate a set of design methods which anonymity networks can use to discourage harmful use. We find better solutions exist when networks are specialized to particular application domains since such networks are then able to provide a better trade-off between benefits and harms. One drawback of such specialization is that it may lead to smaller numbers of users and therefore an increased risk of insufficient anonymity.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Andrej Dvornik; Catherine Heymans; Marika Asgari; Constance Mahony; +13 Authors

    We present constraints on the flat $\Lambda$CDM cosmological model through a joint analysis of galaxy abundance, galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing observables with the Kilo-Degree Survey. Our theoretical model combines a flexible conditional stellar mass function, to describe the galaxy-halo connection, with a cosmological N-body simulation-calibrated halo model to describe the non-linear matter field. Our magnitude-limited bright galaxy sample combines 9-band optical-to-near-infrared photometry with an extensive and complete spectroscopic training sample to provide accurate redshift and stellar mass estimates. Our faint galaxy sample provides a background of accurately calibrated lensing measurements. We constrain the structure growth parameter $S_8=\sigma_8\sqrt{\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}/0.3}=0.773^{+0.028}_{-0.030}$, and the matter density parameter $\Omega_{\mathrm{m}}=0.290^{+0.021}_{-0.017}$. The galaxy-halo connection model adopted in the work is shown to be in agreement with previous studies. Our constraints on cosmological parameters are comparable to, and consistent with, joint $3\times2{\mathrm{pt}}$ clustering-lensing analyses that additionally include a cosmic shear observable. This analysis therefore brings attention to the significant constraining power in the often-excluded non-linear scales for galaxy clustering and galaxy-galaxy lensing observables. By adopting a theoretical model that accounts for non-linear halo bias, halo exclusion, scale-dependent galaxy bias and the impact of baryon feedback, this work demonstrates the potential and a way forward to include non-linear scales in cosmological analyses. Varying the width of the satellite galaxy distribution with an additional parameter yields a strong preference for sub-Poissonian variance, improving the goodness of fit by 0.18 in reduced $\chi^{2}$ value compared to a fixed Poisson distribution. Comment: 25 pages, 16 figures, accepted for publication in A&A

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    Utrecht University Repository
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    UCL Discovery
    Article . 2023
    Data sources: UCL Discovery
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    NARCIS
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    arXiv.org e-Print Archive
    Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
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    Astronomy and Astrophysics
    Article . 2023 . Peer-reviewed
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Crossref
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      Utrecht University Repository
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      UCL Discovery
      Article . 2023
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      Astronomy and Astrophysics
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    Authors: Anna-Selma van der Kaaden; Dick van Oevelen; Christian Mohn; Karline Soetaert; +3 Authors

    Abstract. Internal tides are known to be an important source of mixing in the oceans, especially in the bottom boundary layer. The depth of internal-tide generation therefore seems important for benthic life and the formation of cold-water coral mounds, but internal-tidal conversion is generally investigated in a depth-integrated sense. Using both idealized and realistic simulations on continental slopes, we found that the depth of internal-tide generation increases with increasing slope steepness and decreases with intensified shallow stratification. The depth of internal-tide generation also shows a typical latitudinal dependency. Using a global database of cold-water corals, we found that the depth-pattern of internal-tide generation is remarkably similar to the depth-pattern of cold-water corals globally: shallowest near the poles and deepest around the equator with a shoaling around 25 degrees South and North and shallower north of the equator than south of the equator. We further found that cold-water corals are, more than what would be expected by chance, associated to the (super)critical reflection of internal tides (i.e., situated on topography that is steeper than the internal tidal beam) and to trapped internal tides (i.e., above the critical latitude of 70 degrees for semidiurnal tides and 30 degrees for diurnal tides). The (super)critical reflection of internal tides and trapped internal tides therefore provide an interesting new angle of food supply mechanisms that has not yet been considered in cold-water coral studies. With climate change, stratification is expected to increase. Based on our results, this would cause a shoaling of internal-tide generation, possibly creating new shallower suitable habitat for cold-water corals on continental slopes.

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    Preprint . Other ORP type . 2023
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other literature type . 2023
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      Utrecht University Repository
      Preprint . Other ORP type . 2023
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    Authors: Vater, Kerstin; Stender, Merten; Hoffmann, Norbert;

    Friction contacts can be found in almost all mechanical systems and are often of great technical importance. However, they are usually difficult to describe, and their behavior and influence on the whole system are hard to predict accurately. Modern product design and system operation strongly benefit from numerical simulation approaches today, but reliable friction models still represent a major challenge in this context. To tackle this problem, we employ neural network regression to capture the characteristics of frictional contacts and make them accessible for numerical methods in a minimal intrusive fashion. In particular, we test our approach using a Finite Element model of a 2D cantilever beam subject to stick-slip vibrations induced by a moving conveyor belt at its free end. As a reference solution, we perform a transient analysis based on a simple analytical friction model, where the kinetic friction force only depends on the normal load and the relative sliding velocity. We take the same friction model, add some artificial noise to mimic uncertainties coming with experimental measurements, and pick a limited set of data points to train a regression neural network. The machine learning friction model is then deployed in the Finite Element code to predict the kinetic friction force acting on the beam tip during the slip phases. The deflection curves obtained by the transient numerical analysis using the new neural network friction model agree well with the reference solution based on the underlying analytical model. The results indicate that data-driven approaches may also be capable of capturing more complex frictional contacts, including effects of temperature, humidity, and load history. The trained neural network friction models can then be employed in numerical simulations in a minimally intrusive manner. This approach opens up new possibilities to predict individual mechanical system behavior as accurately as possible.

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    TUHH Open Research (TORE)
    Other ORP type . Conference object . 2023
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    TUHH Open Research
    Contribution for newspaper or weekly magazine . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      TUHH Open Research (TORE)
      Other ORP type . Conference object . 2023
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      TUHH Open Research
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    Authors: Ozlem Ozmen Garibay; Brent Winslow; Salvatore Andolina; Margherita Antona; +22 Authors

    Widespread adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) technologies is substantially affecting the human condition in ways that are not yet well understood. Negative unintended consequences abound including the perpetuation and exacerbation of societal inequalities and divisions via algorithmic decision making. We present six grand challenges for the scientific community to create AI technologies that are human-centered, that is, ethical, fair, and enhance the human condition. These grand challenges are the result of an international collaboration across academia, industry and government and represent the consensus views of a group of 26 experts in the field of human-centered artificial intelligence (HCAI). In essence, these challenges advocate for a human-centered approach to AI that (1) is centered in human well-being, (2) is designed responsibly, (3) respects privacy, (4) follows human-centered design principles, (5) is subject to appropriate governance and oversight, and (6) interacts with individuals while respecting human’s cognitive capacities. We hope that these challenges and their associated research directions serve as a call for action to conduct research and development in AI that serves as a force multiplier towards more fair, equitable and sustainable societies.

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    Authors: Hasan, Saadia; Fernandopulle, Michael S.; Humble, Stewart W.; Frankenfield, Ashley M.; +7 Authors
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