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  • Authors: Nishimura, Yoshinori; Oikawa, Masato; Motegi, Hiroyuki;

    This study analyzes the effect of retirement on cognitive function. According to the human capital theory, we can hypothesize that workers invest in their cognitive ability more than retirees because cognitive investment increases a worker’s wage. As a result, it is possible that the cognitive ability decreases after retirement, a hypothesis analyzed in this study. In health economics, this hypothesis has been examined especially after 2000. First, we show that an analysis method used in some related studies is not valid for estimating this effect. Furthermore, we analyze this effect by using our method. Our estimates indicate that the workers’ mathematical scores decrease after retirement in a wide range of analyzed countries and heterogeneous groups. However, retirement has a weak effect on cognitive ability. Additionally, we investigate the heterogeneity of this effect. For example, we find that the elderly with higher body mass indexs and fat intake experience a negative effect of retirement on cognitive function.

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    Authors: Holstege, Henne; Grozeva, Detelina; Sims, Rebecca; Luckcuck, Lauren; +85 Authors

    The genetic component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been mainly assessed using Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which do not capture the risk contributed by rare variants. Here, we compared the gene-based burden of rare damaging variants in exome sequencing data from 32,558 individuals —16,036 AD cases and 16,522 controls— in a two-stage analysis. Next to known genes TREM2, SORL1 and ABCA7, we observed a significant association of rare, predicted damaging variants in ATP8B4 and ABCA1 with AD risk, and a suggestive signal in ADAM10. Next to these genes, the rare variant burden in RIN3, CLU, ZCWPW1 and ACE highlighted these genes as potential driver genes in AD-GWAS loci. Rare damaging variants in these genes, and in particular loss-of-function variants, have a large effect on AD-risk, and they are enriched in early onset AD cases. The newly identified AD-associated genes provide additional evidence for a major role for APP-processing, Aβ-aggregation, lipid metabolism and microglial function in AD.

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    Authors: Tekes, C; Xu, T; Carpenter, TM; Bette, S; +6 Authors

    Forward looking (FL) imaging catheters would be an important tool for several intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) applications. Single chip capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays fabricated on front-end CMOS electronics with simplified electrical interconnect have been previously developed for highly flexible and compact catheters. In this study, we present a custom built real time imaging system utilizing catheters with single chip CMUT-on-CMOS arrays and show initial imaging results. The fabricated array has a dual-ring structure with 64 transmit (Tx) and 56 receive (Rx) elements. The CMUT arrays fit on a 2.1 mm diameter circular region with all the required front-end electronics. The device operates at 12 MHz center frequency and has around 20 V collapse voltage. The single-chip system requires 13 external connections including 4 Rx channels and power lines. The electrical connections to micro cables in the catheter are made from the top side of the chip using polyimide flex tapes. The device is placed on a 6-Fr catheter shaft and secured with a medical grade silicon rubber. For real time data acquisition, we developed a custom design FPGA based imaging platform to generate digital control sequences for the chip and collect RF data from Rx outputs. We performed imaging experiments using wire phantoms immersed in water to test the real time imaging system. The system has the potential to generate images at 32 fps rate with the particular catheter. The overall system is fully functional and shows promising image performance.

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    Authors: Reijnhoudt, L.; Costas, R.; Noyons, E.; Börner, K.; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Allegaert, Karel; Smits, Anne; van den Anker, Johannes N.;
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    Authors: Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Jung Youn; Leijten, Jeroen; Jeon, Oju; +6 Authors

    The rapid development of new biomaterials and techniques to modify them challenge our capability to characterize them using conventional methods. In response, numerous high-throughput (HT) strategies are being developed to analyze biomaterials and their interactions with cells using combinatorial approaches. Moreover, these systematic analyses have the power to uncover effects of delivered soluble bioactive molecules on cell responses. In this review, we describe the recent developments in HT approaches that help identify cellular microenvironments affecting cell behaviors and highlight HT screening of biochemical libraries for gene delivery, drug discovery, and toxicological studies. We also discuss HT techniques for the analyses of cell secreted biomolecules and provide perspectives on the future utility of HT approaches in biomedical engineering.

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  • Authors: Dubief, Yves; Samanta, Devranjan; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; +5 Authors

    The elasticity of polymer solutions is found to generate a new state of turbulence, elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT), characterized by an interplay between elastic and flow instabilities. Experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) in pipe and channel flows demonstrate the emergence of EIT at Reynolds numbers much lower than the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence in Newtonian flows. EIT causes the friction factor to deviate from the laminar solution and subsequently transition to the maximum drag reduction asymptote around Re=1800. EIT is a self-sustained mechanism that arises from the interactions between fluctuations of extensional viscosity, velocity and pressure. The polymer solution elasticity controls the growth of flow instability, resulting in transitional-like flows at high Reynolds numbers. The existence of EIT is not limited to pipe, channel or boundary layer flows, and evidence of EIT will be discussed in other flows, including natural convection using DNS.

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    Authors: Gaudet, Pascale; Škunca, Nives; Hu, James C.; Dessimoz, Christophe;
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  • Authors: Dubief, Yves; Terrapon, Vincent; Soria, Julio;

    The dynamics of turbulence generated and controlled by polymer additives is investigated from the perspective of the coupling between polymer dynamics and flow structures. Direct numerical simulations of channel flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 1,000 to 10,000 (based on the bulk and the channel height) are used to study the formation and dynamics of elastic instabilities and their effects on the flow. The resulting mechanism of interactions between polymer dynamics and the flow helps resolve a long-standing controversy in the understanding of polymer drag reduction and explains the phenomenon of early turbulence, or onset of turbulence at lower Reynolds numbers than for Newtonian flows, previously observed in polymeric flows.

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    Authors: Xue, Jia; Chambers, Benjamin S.; Hensley, Scott E.; López, Carolina B.;

    Influenza virus infections are responsible for more than 250,000 deaths annually. Influenza virus isolation, propagation, and characterization protocols are critical for completing reproducible basic research studies and for generating vaccine seed stocks. Detailed protocols for the isolation and identification of influenza virus have been recently reported (Eisfeld et al., 2014). However, there are few standardized protocols focused on the propagation and characterization of viral isolates, and as a result, viruses propagated in different conditions in different laboratories often have distinct in vitro and in vivo characteristics. Here, we focus on influenza A virus propagation and characterization in the laboratory taking into consideration the overall quality and composition of the virus stock to achieve consistency in virus yield, virulence, and immunostimulatory activity.

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    Frontiers in Microbiology
    Other ORP type . 2016 . Peer-reviewed
    Data sources: Frontiers
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      Frontiers in Microbiology
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  • Authors: Nishimura, Yoshinori; Oikawa, Masato; Motegi, Hiroyuki;

    This study analyzes the effect of retirement on cognitive function. According to the human capital theory, we can hypothesize that workers invest in their cognitive ability more than retirees because cognitive investment increases a worker’s wage. As a result, it is possible that the cognitive ability decreases after retirement, a hypothesis analyzed in this study. In health economics, this hypothesis has been examined especially after 2000. First, we show that an analysis method used in some related studies is not valid for estimating this effect. Furthermore, we analyze this effect by using our method. Our estimates indicate that the workers’ mathematical scores decrease after retirement in a wide range of analyzed countries and heterogeneous groups. However, retirement has a weak effect on cognitive ability. Additionally, we investigate the heterogeneity of this effect. For example, we find that the elderly with higher body mass indexs and fat intake experience a negative effect of retirement on cognitive function.

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    Authors: Holstege, Henne; Grozeva, Detelina; Sims, Rebecca; Luckcuck, Lauren; +85 Authors

    The genetic component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been mainly assessed using Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which do not capture the risk contributed by rare variants. Here, we compared the gene-based burden of rare damaging variants in exome sequencing data from 32,558 individuals —16,036 AD cases and 16,522 controls— in a two-stage analysis. Next to known genes TREM2, SORL1 and ABCA7, we observed a significant association of rare, predicted damaging variants in ATP8B4 and ABCA1 with AD risk, and a suggestive signal in ADAM10. Next to these genes, the rare variant burden in RIN3, CLU, ZCWPW1 and ACE highlighted these genes as potential driver genes in AD-GWAS loci. Rare damaging variants in these genes, and in particular loss-of-function variants, have a large effect on AD-risk, and they are enriched in early onset AD cases. The newly identified AD-associated genes provide additional evidence for a major role for APP-processing, Aβ-aggregation, lipid metabolism and microglial function in AD.

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    Authors: Tekes, C; Xu, T; Carpenter, TM; Bette, S; +6 Authors

    Forward looking (FL) imaging catheters would be an important tool for several intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) applications. Single chip capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays fabricated on front-end CMOS electronics with simplified electrical interconnect have been previously developed for highly flexible and compact catheters. In this study, we present a custom built real time imaging system utilizing catheters with single chip CMUT-on-CMOS arrays and show initial imaging results. The fabricated array has a dual-ring structure with 64 transmit (Tx) and 56 receive (Rx) elements. The CMUT arrays fit on a 2.1 mm diameter circular region with all the required front-end electronics. The device operates at 12 MHz center frequency and has around 20 V collapse voltage. The single-chip system requires 13 external connections including 4 Rx channels and power lines. The electrical connections to micro cables in the catheter are made from the top side of the chip using polyimide flex tapes. The device is placed on a 6-Fr catheter shaft and secured with a medical grade silicon rubber. For real time data acquisition, we developed a custom design FPGA based imaging platform to generate digital control sequences for the chip and collect RF data from Rx outputs. We performed imaging experiments using wire phantoms immersed in water to test the real time imaging system. The system has the potential to generate images at 32 fps rate with the particular catheter. The overall system is fully functional and shows promising image performance.

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    Authors: Reijnhoudt, L.; Costas, R.; Noyons, E.; Börner, K.; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Allegaert, Karel; Smits, Anne; van den Anker, Johannes N.;
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    Authors: Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Jung Youn; Leijten, Jeroen; Jeon, Oju; +6 Authors

    The rapid development of new biomaterials and techniques to modify them challenge our capability to characterize them using conventional methods. In response, numerous high-throughput (HT) strategies are being developed to analyze biomaterials and their interactions with cells using combinatorial approaches. Moreover, these systematic analyses have the power to uncover effects of delivered soluble bioactive molecules on cell responses. In this review, we describe the recent developments in HT approaches that help identify cellular microenvironments affecting cell behaviors and highlight HT screening of biochemical libraries for gene delivery, drug discovery, and toxicological studies. We also discuss HT techniques for the analyses of cell secreted biomolecules and provide perspectives on the future utility of HT approaches in biomedical engineering.

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  • Authors: Dubief, Yves; Samanta, Devranjan; Holzner, Markus; Schäfer, Christof; +5 Authors

    The elasticity of polymer solutions is found to generate a new state of turbulence, elasto-inertial turbulence (EIT), characterized by an interplay between elastic and flow instabilities. Experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) in pipe and channel flows demonstrate the emergence of EIT at Reynolds numbers much lower than the critical Reynolds number for transition to turbulence in Newtonian flows. EIT causes the friction factor to deviate from the laminar solution and subsequently transition to the maximum drag reduction asymptote around Re=1800. EIT is a self-sustained mechanism that arises from the interactions between fluctuations of extensional viscosity, velocity and pressure. The polymer solution elasticity controls the growth of flow instability, resulting in transitional-like flows at high Reynolds numbers. The existence of EIT is not limited to pipe, channel or boundary layer flows, and evidence of EIT will be discussed in other flows, including natural convection using DNS.

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    Authors: Gaudet, Pascale; Škunca, Nives; Hu, James C.; Dessimoz, Christophe;
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