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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    A series of experiments in stationary and moving passenger railcars was conducted to measure the removal rates of particles in the size ranges of SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols, and the air changes per hour provided by the existing and modified air handling systems. The effect of ventilation and air filtration systems on removal rates and their effects on estimated probability (i.e., risk) of infection was evaluated in a range of representative conditions: (1) for two different ratios of recirculated air (RA) to outdoor air (OA) (90:10 RA:OA and 67:33 RA:OA); (2) using minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filters with standard (MERV-8) and increased (MERV-13) filtration ratings; and (3) in the presence and absence of a portable high-efficiency particulate-air (HEPA) room air purifier system operated at clean air delivery rate (CADR) of 150 and 550 cfm. The higher-efficiency MERV-13 filters significantly increased particle removal rates on average by 3.8 to 8.4 hr−1 across particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 10 µm (p < 0.01) compared to MERV-8 filters. The different RA:OA ratios and the use of a portable HEPA air purifier system had little effect on particle removal rates. MERV-13 filters reduced the estimated probability of infection by 42% compared to the MERV-8 filter. The use of a HEPA-air purifier with a MERV-13 filter causes a 50% reduction in the estimated probability of infection. Upgrading the efficiency of HVAC filters from MERV-8 to MERV-13 in public transit vehicles is the most effective exposure control method resulting in a clear reduction in the removal rates of aerosol particles and the estimated probability of infection.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2022
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2023
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2022
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Fan, Yingying; Lv, Jinchi; Sharifvaghefi, Mahrad; Uematsu, Yoshimasa;

    Interpretability and stability are two important features that are desired in many contemporary big data applications arising in statistics, economics, and finance. While the former is enjoyed to some extent by many existing forecasting approaches, the latter in the sense of controlling the fraction of wrongly discovered features which can enhance greatly the interpretability is still largely underdeveloped. To this end, in this paper we exploit the general framework of model-X knockoffs introduced recently in Candès, Fan, Janson and Lv (2018), which is nonconventional for reproducible large-scale inference in that the framework is completely free of the use of p-values for significance testing, and suggest a new method of intertwined probabilistic factors decoupling (IPAD) for stable interpretable forecasting with knockoffs inference in high-dimensional models. The recipe of the method is constructing the knockoff variables by assuming a latent factor model that is exploited widely in economics and finance for the association structure of covariates. Our method and work are distinct from the existing literature in that we estimate the covariate distribution from data instead of assuming that it is known when constructing the knockoff variables, our procedure does not require any sample splitting, we provide theoretical justifications on the asymptotic false discovery rate control, and the theory for the power analysis is also established. Several simulation examples and the real data analysis further demonstrate that the newly suggested method has appealing finite-sample performance with desired interpretability and stability compared to some popularly used forecasting methods.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2019
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Holstege, Henne; Grozeva, Detelina; Sims, Rebecca; Luckcuck, Lauren; +85 Authors

    The genetic component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been mainly assessed using Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which do not capture the risk contributed by rare variants. Here, we compared the gene-based burden of rare damaging variants in exome sequencing data from 32,558 individuals —16,036 AD cases and 16,522 controls— in a two-stage analysis. Next to known genes TREM2, SORL1 and ABCA7, we observed a significant association of rare, predicted damaging variants in ATP8B4 and ABCA1 with AD risk, and a suggestive signal in ADAM10. Next to these genes, the rare variant burden in RIN3, CLU, ZCWPW1 and ACE highlighted these genes as potential driver genes in AD-GWAS loci. Rare damaging variants in these genes, and in particular loss-of-function variants, have a large effect on AD-risk, and they are enriched in early onset AD cases. The newly identified AD-associated genes provide additional evidence for a major role for APP-processing, Aβ-aggregation, lipid metabolism and microglial function in AD.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Park, Seyoung; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Hongyu;

    Advances in high-throughput genomic technologies coupled with large-scale studies including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have generated rich resources of diverse types of omics data to better understand cancer etiology and treatment responses. Clustering patients into subtypes with similar disease etiologies and/or treatment responses using multiple omics data types has the potential to improve the precision of clustering than using a single data type. However, in practice, patient clustering is still mostly based on a single type of omics data or ad hoc integration of clustering results from individual data types, leading to potential loss of information. By treating each omics data type as a different informative representation from patients, we propose a novel multi-view spectral clustering framework to integrate different omics data types measured from the same subject. We learn the weight of each data type as well as a similarity measure between patients via a non-convex optimization framework. We solve the proposed non-convex problem iteratively using the ADMM algorithm and show the convergence of the algorithm. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed clustering method is studied both in theory and through various synthetic data. When our method is applied to the TCGA data, the patient clusters inferred by our method show more significant differences in survival times between clusters than those inferred from existing clustering methods.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Other ORP type . 2020
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      Other ORP type . 2020
      License: CC BY
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Tekes, C; Xu, T; Carpenter, TM; Bette, S; +6 Authors

    Forward looking (FL) imaging catheters would be an important tool for several intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) applications. Single chip capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays fabricated on front-end CMOS electronics with simplified electrical interconnect have been previously developed for highly flexible and compact catheters. In this study, we present a custom built real time imaging system utilizing catheters with single chip CMUT-on-CMOS arrays and show initial imaging results. The fabricated array has a dual-ring structure with 64 transmit (Tx) and 56 receive (Rx) elements. The CMUT arrays fit on a 2.1 mm diameter circular region with all the required front-end electronics. The device operates at 12 MHz center frequency and has around 20 V collapse voltage. The single-chip system requires 13 external connections including 4 Rx channels and power lines. The electrical connections to micro cables in the catheter are made from the top side of the chip using polyimide flex tapes. The device is placed on a 6-Fr catheter shaft and secured with a medical grade silicon rubber. For real time data acquisition, we developed a custom design FPGA based imaging platform to generate digital control sequences for the chip and collect RF data from Rx outputs. We performed imaging experiments using wire phantoms immersed in water to test the real time imaging system. The system has the potential to generate images at 32 fps rate with the particular catheter. The overall system is fully functional and shows promising image performance.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ CORE (RIOXX-UK Aggre...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Adhikari, Samrachana; Rose, Sherri; Normand, Sharon-Lise;

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are nonsurgical procedures to open blocked blood vessels to the heart, frequently using a catheter to place a stent. The catheter can be inserted into the blood vessels using an artery in the groin or an artery in the wrist. Because clinical trials have indicated that access via the wrist may result in fewer post procedure complications, shortening the length of stay, and ultimately cost less than groin access, adoption of access via the wrist has been encouraged. However, patients treated in usual care are likely to differ from those participating in clinical trials, and there is reason to believe that the effectiveness of wrist access may differ between males and females. Moreover, the choice of artery access strategy is likely to be influenced by patient or physician unmeasured factors. To study the effectiveness of the two artery access site strategies on hospitalization charges, we use data from a state-mandated clinical registry including 7,963 patients undergoing PCI. A hierarchical Bayesian likelihood-based instrumental variable analysis under a latent index modeling framework is introduced to jointly model outcomes and treatment status. Our approach accounts for unobserved heterogeneity via a latent factor structure, and permits nonparametric error distributions with Dirichlet process mixture models. Our results demonstrate that artery access in the wrist reduces hospitalization charges compared to access in the groin, with a higher mean reduction for male patients.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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    Other ORP type . 2019
    License: CC BY
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ figsharearrow_drop_down
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      Other ORP type . 2019
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Reijnhoudt, L.; Costas, R.; Noyons, E.; Börner, K.; +1 Authors
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Allegaert, Karel; Smits, Anne; van den Anker, Johannes N.;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Hindawi Publishing C...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Seo, Jungmok; Shin, Jung Youn; Leijten, Jeroen; Jeon, Oju; +6 Authors

    The rapid development of new biomaterials and techniques to modify them challenge our capability to characterize them using conventional methods. In response, numerous high-throughput (HT) strategies are being developed to analyze biomaterials and their interactions with cells using combinatorial approaches. Moreover, these systematic analyses have the power to uncover effects of delivered soluble bioactive molecules on cell responses. In this review, we describe the recent developments in HT approaches that help identify cellular microenvironments affecting cell behaviors and highlight HT screening of biochemical libraries for gene delivery, drug discovery, and toxicological studies. We also discuss HT techniques for the analyses of cell secreted biomolecules and provide perspectives on the future utility of HT approaches in biomedical engineering.

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  • Authors: Stabile, Mackenzie; Eigsti, Inge-Marie;

    Purpose: Typical speakers tend to adopt words used by their conversational partners. This “lexical alignment” enhances communication by reducing ambiguity and promoting a shared understanding of the topic under discussion. Lexical alignment has been little studied to date in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); furthermore, it has been studied primarily via structured laboratory tasks that may overestimate performance. This study examined lexical alignment in ASD during discourse and explored associations with communicative success and executive function. Method: Thirty-one autistic and nonautistic adolescents were paired with a study-naïve research assistant (RA) to complete a social communication task that involved taking turns verbally instructing (guiding) the partner to navigate on a map. Lexical alignment was operationalized as the proportion of shared vocabulary produced by guides on successive maps. Task accuracy was operationalized as the pixels contained within the intended and drawn routes. Results: Results indicated that autistic adolescents had greater difficulty describing navigational routes to RAs, yielding paths that were less accurate. Alignment was reduced in autistic participants, and it was associated with path accuracy for nonautistic, but not autistic, adolescents. The association between lexical alignment and executive function missed significance (p = .05); if significant, the association would indicate that greater executive function difficulty was associated with reduced lexical alignment. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence of reduced lexical alignment in ASD in an unstructured discourse context. Moreover, positive associations between lexical alignment and task performance in the neurotypical group raise the possibility that interventions to promote the use of shared vocabulary might support better communication. Supplemental Material S1. Results with verbal IQ as a covariate. Stabile, M., & Eigsti, I.-M. (2022). Lexical alignment and communicative success in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1044/2022_JSLHR-22-00314

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    A series of experiments in stationary and moving passenger railcars was conducted to measure the removal rates of particles in the size ranges of SARS-CoV-2 viral aerosols, and the air changes per hour provided by the existing and modified air handling systems. The effect of ventilation and air filtration systems on removal rates and their effects on estimated probability (i.e., risk) of infection was evaluated in a range of representative conditions: (1) for two different ratios of recirculated air (RA) to outdoor air (OA) (90:10 RA:OA and 67:33 RA:OA); (2) using minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) filters with standard (MERV-8) and increased (MERV-13) filtration ratings; and (3) in the presence and absence of a portable high-efficiency particulate-air (HEPA) room air purifier system operated at clean air delivery rate (CADR) of 150 and 550 cfm. The higher-efficiency MERV-13 filters significantly increased particle removal rates on average by 3.8 to 8.4 hr−1 across particle sizes ranging from 0.3 to 10 µm (p < 0.01) compared to MERV-8 filters. The different RA:OA ratios and the use of a portable HEPA air purifier system had little effect on particle removal rates. MERV-13 filters reduced the estimated probability of infection by 42% compared to the MERV-8 filter. The use of a HEPA-air purifier with a MERV-13 filter causes a 50% reduction in the estimated probability of infection. Upgrading the efficiency of HVAC filters from MERV-8 to MERV-13 in public transit vehicles is the most effective exposure control method resulting in a clear reduction in the removal rates of aerosol particles and the estimated probability of infection.

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    Authors: Fan, Yingying; Lv, Jinchi; Sharifvaghefi, Mahrad; Uematsu, Yoshimasa;

    Interpretability and stability are two important features that are desired in many contemporary big data applications arising in statistics, economics, and finance. While the former is enjoyed to some extent by many existing forecasting approaches, the latter in the sense of controlling the fraction of wrongly discovered features which can enhance greatly the interpretability is still largely underdeveloped. To this end, in this paper we exploit the general framework of model-X knockoffs introduced recently in Candès, Fan, Janson and Lv (2018), which is nonconventional for reproducible large-scale inference in that the framework is completely free of the use of p-values for significance testing, and suggest a new method of intertwined probabilistic factors decoupling (IPAD) for stable interpretable forecasting with knockoffs inference in high-dimensional models. The recipe of the method is constructing the knockoff variables by assuming a latent factor model that is exploited widely in economics and finance for the association structure of covariates. Our method and work are distinct from the existing literature in that we estimate the covariate distribution from data instead of assuming that it is known when constructing the knockoff variables, our procedure does not require any sample splitting, we provide theoretical justifications on the asymptotic false discovery rate control, and the theory for the power analysis is also established. Several simulation examples and the real data analysis further demonstrate that the newly suggested method has appealing finite-sample performance with desired interpretability and stability compared to some popularly used forecasting methods.

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    Authors: Holstege, Henne; Grozeva, Detelina; Sims, Rebecca; Luckcuck, Lauren; +85 Authors

    The genetic component of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been mainly assessed using Genome Wide Association Studies (GWAS), which do not capture the risk contributed by rare variants. Here, we compared the gene-based burden of rare damaging variants in exome sequencing data from 32,558 individuals —16,036 AD cases and 16,522 controls— in a two-stage analysis. Next to known genes TREM2, SORL1 and ABCA7, we observed a significant association of rare, predicted damaging variants in ATP8B4 and ABCA1 with AD risk, and a suggestive signal in ADAM10. Next to these genes, the rare variant burden in RIN3, CLU, ZCWPW1 and ACE highlighted these genes as potential driver genes in AD-GWAS loci. Rare damaging variants in these genes, and in particular loss-of-function variants, have a large effect on AD-risk, and they are enriched in early onset AD cases. The newly identified AD-associated genes provide additional evidence for a major role for APP-processing, Aβ-aggregation, lipid metabolism and microglial function in AD.

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    Authors: Park, Seyoung; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Hongyu;

    Advances in high-throughput genomic technologies coupled with large-scale studies including The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project have generated rich resources of diverse types of omics data to better understand cancer etiology and treatment responses. Clustering patients into subtypes with similar disease etiologies and/or treatment responses using multiple omics data types has the potential to improve the precision of clustering than using a single data type. However, in practice, patient clustering is still mostly based on a single type of omics data or ad hoc integration of clustering results from individual data types, leading to potential loss of information. By treating each omics data type as a different informative representation from patients, we propose a novel multi-view spectral clustering framework to integrate different omics data types measured from the same subject. We learn the weight of each data type as well as a similarity measure between patients via a non-convex optimization framework. We solve the proposed non-convex problem iteratively using the ADMM algorithm and show the convergence of the algorithm. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed clustering method is studied both in theory and through various synthetic data. When our method is applied to the TCGA data, the patient clusters inferred by our method show more significant differences in survival times between clusters than those inferred from existing clustering methods.

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    Authors: Tekes, C; Xu, T; Carpenter, TM; Bette, S; +6 Authors

    Forward looking (FL) imaging catheters would be an important tool for several intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) and intracardiac echocardiography (ICE) applications. Single chip capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT) arrays fabricated on front-end CMOS electronics with simplified electrical interconnect have been previously developed for highly flexible and compact catheters. In this study, we present a custom built real time imaging system utilizing catheters with single chip CMUT-on-CMOS arrays and show initial imaging results. The fabricated array has a dual-ring structure with 64 transmit (Tx) and 56 receive (Rx) elements. The CMUT arrays fit on a 2.1 mm diameter circular region with all the required front-end electronics. The device operates at 12 MHz center frequency and has around 20 V collapse voltage. The single-chip system requires 13 external connections including 4 Rx channels and power lines. The electrical connections to micro cables in the catheter are made from the top side of the chip using polyimide flex tapes. The device is placed on a 6-Fr catheter shaft and secured with a medical grade silicon rubber. For real time data acquisition, we developed a custom design FPGA based imaging platform to generate digital control sequences for the chip and collect RF data from Rx outputs. We performed imaging experiments using wire phantoms immersed in water to test the real time imaging system. The system has the potential to generate images at 32 fps rate with the particular catheter. The overall system is fully functional and shows promising image performance.

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    Authors: Adhikari, Samrachana; Rose, Sherri; Normand, Sharon-Lise;

    Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) are nonsurgical procedures to open blocked blood vessels to the heart, frequently using a catheter to place a stent. The catheter can be inserted into the blood vessels using an artery in the groin or an artery in the wrist. Because clinical trials have indicated that access via the wrist may result in fewer post procedure complications, shortening the length of stay, and ultimately cost less than groin access, adoption of access via the wrist has been encouraged. However, patients treated in usual care are likely to differ from those participating in clinical trials, and there is reason to believe that the effectiveness of wrist access may differ between males and females. Moreover, the choice of artery access strategy is likely to be influenced by patient or physician unmeasured factors. To study the effectiveness of the two artery access site strategies on hospitalization charges, we use data from a state-mandated clinical registry including 7,963 patients undergoing PCI. A hierarchical Bayesian likelihood-based instrumental variable analysis under a latent index modeling framework is introduced to jointly model outcomes and treatment status. Our approach accounts for unobserved heterogeneity via a latent factor structure, and permits nonparametric error distributions with Dirichlet process mixture models. Our results demonstrate that artery access in the wrist reduces hospitalization charges compared to access in the groin, with a higher mean reduction for male patients.

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    Other ORP type . 2019
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite