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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schooler, Eve M.;

    No abstract available.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Caltech Authorsarrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: World Bank;

    This report presents an in-depth evaluation of the budgetary planning process in Albania and the institutional arrangements required for better management of public expenditures. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of expenditures or an assessment of investment projects and their outcomes in each sector. Such a shift in emphasis is appropriate given the currently weak institutional capacities in Albania and the need to enforce accountability in the public sector.The report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 deals with the macroeconomic frmaework and policies needed to maintain fiscal sustainability and improve fiscal discipline. Chapter 2 discusses revenue and expenditure patterns, presents measures that would enhance revenue performance and analyzes the allocation of expenditures. This chapter is designed to highlight the key expenditure priorities that should be more fully addressed as Albania moves forward with the medium-term expenditure framework process (MTEF). The bulk of the report--Chapters 3, 4, and 5--addresses key challenges facing Albania to improve its institutional environment and its capacities. Chapter 3 assesses the public expenditure management process and its weaknesses and how this process should be reformed. Chapter 4 explains how establishing the MTEF mechanism could provide a better linkage between policy planning and the allocation of resources. Chapter 5 discusses meeting institutional capacity requirements.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Chater, John Matthew;

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient deciduous fruit tree crop in the family Lythraceae. Pomegranate juice is a highly valued beverage, long believed by many of the world’s cultures to possess medicinal properties. Recently the juice has been demonstrated to contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds with powerful antioxidant properties. Commercial pomegranate planting area has increased substantially in the western hemisphere due to increased consumer interest. Low nursery inventory has caused many farmers to propagate their own trees and limited availability of only a few cultivars is believed to have contributed to the lack of diversity in the market. ‘Wonderful,’ the industry standard, has been propagated in the U.S. for decades and dominates the market, leading to the present-day monoculture. The USDA-ARS pomegranate germplasm collection conserves approximately 280 cultivars, many of which have not been evaluated for commercial production. In this dissertation, 14 preselected pomegranate cultivars from the USDA collection were evaluated: 1) to develop protocols that optimize propagation of pomegranate for nurseries and growers; 2) in new field trials planted specifically to determine establishment rates, productivity and eco-physiological performance of different cultivars in inland versus coastal environments; and 3) to establish dates of fruit maturity, identify unique cultivars with consumer-friendly traits, and to select candidates that meet or exceed juice quality parameters of Wonderful. The overall goal of this research was to identify promising pomegranate cultivars with the potential to be developed for commercial production in coastal and inland areas of southern and central California. Propagation experiments determined that some pomegranate cultivars were difficult to root. Establishment rates and precocity were significantly different among cultivars and between sites, with the inland planting producing more fruit than the coastal site. Juice quality for 14 cultivars was chemically analyzed with spectrophotometry, refractometry, titration, nuclear magnetic resonance, ion and liquid chromatography to identify candidate cultivars meeting or exceeding Wonderful juice quality specifications. This research was the first of its kind to establish experimental field trials of pomegranate germplasm in California to quantify and provide phenotypic, eco-physiological and horticultural data for growers, breeders, and the food and beverage industries.

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    Authors: Tcacenco, Andrei;

    My research looks at Soviet republics outside the Russian Federation such as the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs, and takes a more localized approach to understanding the state’s campaigns to produce a moral Soviet citizen during the Late Socialist period of Soviet history. I look at how interactions between Soviet citizens in the periphery and Central Party organs resulted in a dynamic, negotiated understanding of socialist morality and concepts of the New Socialist Person in new discursive spaces of home entertainment, especially television and radio. Soviet citizens utilized mass media to spark debates about the meaning of Soviet identity, nationalism and morality, and sometimes to express outright hostility toward the Soviet state. The appropriation of official Soviet language in the periphery led to the creation of new, unpredictable meanings in Soviet discourse. I show that some former Soviet citizens often viewed their national identity as a form of resistance to the Soviet state, while others saw little contradiction between their national and Soviet identities. This paradox is central to my project, as I aim to explore the fluidity, ambiguity, and variation of national and Soviet identity. Ultimately, I argue that the conversations and arguments surrounding morality led to the collapse of the Soviet Union by December 1991.

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    Authors: Li, Hongjia;

    Facing inexorable growth of global population and energy consumption, lignocellulosic biomass has taken a more central role in global energy strategy by providing sustainable sources for both liquid fuels and chemicals without competing with food and feed supplies. To establish a large scale, reliable, and economic lignocellulosic industry, biomass recalcitrance must be well understood and overcome. Currently cutting edge biological conversion research focuses mainly on three aspects: genetic modification of plant cell wall structure to reduce biomass recalcitrance, pretreatment of biomass as a critical prerequisite to achieve high sugar yields, and consolidated processing of enzymes and microorganisms to lower deconstruction costs. More importantly, however, synergistic concert of these three approaches is critical to develop practical solutions for this challenge. Thus, interactions and impacts among cell wall structural characteristics, pretreatment, and biological deconstruction are vital to understand.In light of this, six technical studies towards three main objectives were pursued in this thesis. First, an integrated chromatographic method for xylooligosaccharides determination and a high throughput system using dilute alkali conditions were developed as characterization tools to facilitate understanding how pretreatment affects cell wall polysaccharide deconstruction. Next, two fundamental studies on lignin deposition during pretreatment and reduced methylation of xylan side-chains, respectively, were employed to identify important recalcitrant aspects of lignin and hemicellulose on biomass digestion. Finally, systematic research was undertaken to develop Agave as a low recalcitrant, drought resistant biofuels feedstock for semi-arid lands. The findings of this thesis provide fundamental insights towards understanding interactions of lignin and hemicellulose, the two primary barriers to biological conversion, for more effective biomass deconstruction and better energy crops design.

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    Authors: Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Smith, Richard;

    Health ministries around the world face a new challenge: to assess the risks and respond to the opportunities of the increasing openness in health services under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This publication addresses this challenge head-on by providing analytical tools to policymakers in health and trade ministries alike who are involved in the liberalization agenda and, specifically, in the GATS negotiations. This book informs and assists policymakers in formulating trade policy and negotiating internationally. There is ongoing and animated international debate about the impact of GATS on public services in general and health in particular. In response, the book offers different perspectives from more than 15 leading experts. Some of the authors stress opportunities linked to trade in health services, others focus more on the risks. The book offers: Detailed legal analysis of the impact of the agreement on health policy; an overview of trade commitments in health-related services; new empirical evidence from nine country studies; and a simple 10-step explanation on how to deal with GATS negotiations.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    In accordance with the Bank s OP/BP 9.0 an Integrated Fiduciary Systems Assessment (IFSA) was carried out to determine whether the fiduciary systems pertaining to the Program provide reasonable assurances that the Program funds will be used for their intended purpose. The IFSA comprised an assessment of the fiduciary risks relating to: (a) procurement; (b) financial management; and (c) governance (including fraud and corruption risks) of the implementing agency (the VAT Wing of NBR) which accounts for 95 percent of the Bank-supported Program financing over the next five years. An additional 5 percent of funds will be spent through the ERD as the coordinating agency and the agency responsible for hiring the third party entity for independent verification and reporting to the World Bank. For disbursement purposes, the Bank retains the right to make the final decision whether DLIs have been achieved or not. The conclusion of the IFSA is that the overall fiduciary framework is high risk, but with risk mitigating measures, it is adequate to support Program implementation and to achieve the desired results.

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    Authors: World Bank;
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    Authors: Li, Sihuan;

    Extremely large scale scientific simulation applications have been very important in many scientific domains including cosmology, climate, fluid dynamics, chemistry and so on. It has been shown that running the simulations at a larger scale can bring more discoveries. On one hand, with the increasing scale of those applications, the saturated I/O bandwidth can slow down the execution of the simulation significantly because of the huge amount of data needed to be dumped to the storage system. On the other hand, soft errors striking the simulations are not negligible considering the great number of components in the supercomputer and a single scientific execution spending days to finish. Therefore, it is meaningful to reduce the I/O time and harden the resilience of those large scale simulations. Though hardware solutions like designing new storage systems or error resilient computing devices have great generality, it usually takes longer development time and much more effort than software solutions. This thesis seeks software solutions by designing efficient and resilient lossy compressors for large scale scientific simulations.To improve the overall simulation performance, we propose a better lossy compressor which has a much higher compression ratio to reduce the I/O time significantly. More specifically, we focus on particle based scientific simulations. As we know, greater compression ratios imply less data to be written to the storage system which in turn, reduces I/O time. The state-of-art lossy compressor takes the advantage of spatial smoothness to achieve high compression ratios. However, particle based simulations have very limited smoothness in space which leads to inadequate compression ratios. In contrast, we propose to exploit smoothness in time for lossy compression and design an optimized compression model based on the existing lossy compressor. Results show our optimized compression model achieves much better compression ratios and significantly reduces I/O time at large scale.To improve the resilience of the simulation applications equipped with lossy compression, we design soft error resilient schemes for lossy compressors. First, we provide an algorithm-scope protection for one widely used lossy compressor named SZ. Then, we provide an application-scope protection that can be applied to all error-bounded lossy compressors. The algorithm-scope protection can only cover soft errors happening during the execution of the lossy compression itself while the application-scope protection can cover soft errors during simulation, lossy compression and even data writing. Both the algorithm- scope and the application-scope protections can provide significantly better resilience but keep the performance overhead low.

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    Authors: Mackie, Peter; Nellthorp, John; Laird, James;

    The Economic Evaluation Notes are arranged in three groups. The first group (TRN-6 to TRN-10) provides criteria for selection a particular evaluation technique or approach; the second (TRN-11 to TRN-17) addresses the selection of values of various inputs to the evaluation, and the third (TRN-18 to TRN-26) deals with specific problematic issues in economic evaluation. The Notes are preceded by a Framework (TRN-5), that provides the context within which we use economic evaluation in the transport sector. Transport projects have an impact not only on citizens and businesses, but on governments - central, regional and local. Financing and managing the project will place demands on the government's capital and current accounts. Whether these demands are greater or smaller, and how they are phased over time, will depend on the financing mechanisms used and the extent to which the public sector is involved. Alternative approaches for private finance and management are described in the World Bank's 'Public-Private Options' toolkit. In this note, we consider how the appraisal should take the financial effects into account, and how they fit within the appraisal results, as described in the Framework.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Schooler, Eve M.;

    No abstract available.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    This report presents an in-depth evaluation of the budgetary planning process in Albania and the institutional arrangements required for better management of public expenditures. The report does not provide a detailed analysis of expenditures or an assessment of investment projects and their outcomes in each sector. Such a shift in emphasis is appropriate given the currently weak institutional capacities in Albania and the need to enforce accountability in the public sector.The report is arranged as follows: Chapter 1 deals with the macroeconomic frmaework and policies needed to maintain fiscal sustainability and improve fiscal discipline. Chapter 2 discusses revenue and expenditure patterns, presents measures that would enhance revenue performance and analyzes the allocation of expenditures. This chapter is designed to highlight the key expenditure priorities that should be more fully addressed as Albania moves forward with the medium-term expenditure framework process (MTEF). The bulk of the report--Chapters 3, 4, and 5--addresses key challenges facing Albania to improve its institutional environment and its capacities. Chapter 3 assesses the public expenditure management process and its weaknesses and how this process should be reformed. Chapter 4 explains how establishing the MTEF mechanism could provide a better linkage between policy planning and the allocation of resources. Chapter 5 discusses meeting institutional capacity requirements.

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    Authors: Chater, John Matthew;

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is an ancient deciduous fruit tree crop in the family Lythraceae. Pomegranate juice is a highly valued beverage, long believed by many of the world’s cultures to possess medicinal properties. Recently the juice has been demonstrated to contain large quantities of polyphenolic compounds with powerful antioxidant properties. Commercial pomegranate planting area has increased substantially in the western hemisphere due to increased consumer interest. Low nursery inventory has caused many farmers to propagate their own trees and limited availability of only a few cultivars is believed to have contributed to the lack of diversity in the market. ‘Wonderful,’ the industry standard, has been propagated in the U.S. for decades and dominates the market, leading to the present-day monoculture. The USDA-ARS pomegranate germplasm collection conserves approximately 280 cultivars, many of which have not been evaluated for commercial production. In this dissertation, 14 preselected pomegranate cultivars from the USDA collection were evaluated: 1) to develop protocols that optimize propagation of pomegranate for nurseries and growers; 2) in new field trials planted specifically to determine establishment rates, productivity and eco-physiological performance of different cultivars in inland versus coastal environments; and 3) to establish dates of fruit maturity, identify unique cultivars with consumer-friendly traits, and to select candidates that meet or exceed juice quality parameters of Wonderful. The overall goal of this research was to identify promising pomegranate cultivars with the potential to be developed for commercial production in coastal and inland areas of southern and central California. Propagation experiments determined that some pomegranate cultivars were difficult to root. Establishment rates and precocity were significantly different among cultivars and between sites, with the inland planting producing more fruit than the coastal site. Juice quality for 14 cultivars was chemically analyzed with spectrophotometry, refractometry, titration, nuclear magnetic resonance, ion and liquid chromatography to identify candidate cultivars meeting or exceeding Wonderful juice quality specifications. This research was the first of its kind to establish experimental field trials of pomegranate germplasm in California to quantify and provide phenotypic, eco-physiological and horticultural data for growers, breeders, and the food and beverage industries.

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    Authors: Tcacenco, Andrei;

    My research looks at Soviet republics outside the Russian Federation such as the Ukrainian and Moldavian SSRs, and takes a more localized approach to understanding the state’s campaigns to produce a moral Soviet citizen during the Late Socialist period of Soviet history. I look at how interactions between Soviet citizens in the periphery and Central Party organs resulted in a dynamic, negotiated understanding of socialist morality and concepts of the New Socialist Person in new discursive spaces of home entertainment, especially television and radio. Soviet citizens utilized mass media to spark debates about the meaning of Soviet identity, nationalism and morality, and sometimes to express outright hostility toward the Soviet state. The appropriation of official Soviet language in the periphery led to the creation of new, unpredictable meanings in Soviet discourse. I show that some former Soviet citizens often viewed their national identity as a form of resistance to the Soviet state, while others saw little contradiction between their national and Soviet identities. This paradox is central to my project, as I aim to explore the fluidity, ambiguity, and variation of national and Soviet identity. Ultimately, I argue that the conversations and arguments surrounding morality led to the collapse of the Soviet Union by December 1991.

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    Authors: Li, Hongjia;

    Facing inexorable growth of global population and energy consumption, lignocellulosic biomass has taken a more central role in global energy strategy by providing sustainable sources for both liquid fuels and chemicals without competing with food and feed supplies. To establish a large scale, reliable, and economic lignocellulosic industry, biomass recalcitrance must be well understood and overcome. Currently cutting edge biological conversion research focuses mainly on three aspects: genetic modification of plant cell wall structure to reduce biomass recalcitrance, pretreatment of biomass as a critical prerequisite to achieve high sugar yields, and consolidated processing of enzymes and microorganisms to lower deconstruction costs. More importantly, however, synergistic concert of these three approaches is critical to develop practical solutions for this challenge. Thus, interactions and impacts among cell wall structural characteristics, pretreatment, and biological deconstruction are vital to understand.In light of this, six technical studies towards three main objectives were pursued in this thesis. First, an integrated chromatographic method for xylooligosaccharides determination and a high throughput system using dilute alkali conditions were developed as characterization tools to facilitate understanding how pretreatment affects cell wall polysaccharide deconstruction. Next, two fundamental studies on lignin deposition during pretreatment and reduced methylation of xylan side-chains, respectively, were employed to identify important recalcitrant aspects of lignin and hemicellulose on biomass digestion. Finally, systematic research was undertaken to develop Agave as a low recalcitrant, drought resistant biofuels feedstock for semi-arid lands. The findings of this thesis provide fundamental insights towards understanding interactions of lignin and hemicellulose, the two primary barriers to biological conversion, for more effective biomass deconstruction and better energy crops design.

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    Authors: Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Smith, Richard;

    Health ministries around the world face a new challenge: to assess the risks and respond to the opportunities of the increasing openness in health services under the World Trade Organization's (WTO) General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). This publication addresses this challenge head-on by providing analytical tools to policymakers in health and trade ministries alike who are involved in the liberalization agenda and, specifically, in the GATS negotiations. This book informs and assists policymakers in formulating trade policy and negotiating internationally. There is ongoing and animated international debate about the impact of GATS on public services in general and health in particular. In response, the book offers different perspectives from more than 15 leading experts. Some of the authors stress opportunities linked to trade in health services, others focus more on the risks. The book offers: Detailed legal analysis of the impact of the agreement on health policy; an overview of trade commitments in health-related services; new empirical evidence from nine country studies; and a simple 10-step explanation on how to deal with GATS negotiations.

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    Authors: World Bank;

    In accordance with the Bank s OP/BP 9.0 an Integrated Fiduciary Systems Assessment (IFSA) was carried out to determine whether the fiduciary systems pertaining to the Program provide reasonable assurances that the Program funds will be used for their intended purpose. The IFSA comprised an assessment of the fiduciary risks relating to: (a) procurement; (b) financial management; and (c) governance (including fraud and corruption risks) of the implementing agency (the VAT Wing of NBR) which accounts for 95 percent of the Bank-supported Program financing over the next five years. An additional 5 percent of funds will be spent through the ERD as the coordinating agency and the agency responsible for hiring the third party entity for independent verification and reporting to the World Bank. For disbursement purposes, the Bank retains the right to make the final decision whether DLIs have been achieved or not. The conclusion of the IFSA is that the overall fiduciary framework is high risk, but with risk mitigating measures, it is adequate to support Program implementation and to achieve the desired results.

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    Authors: World Bank;
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    Authors: Li, Sihuan;

    Extremely large scale scientific simulation applications have been very important in many scientific domains including cosmology, climate, fluid dynamics, chemistry and so on. It has been shown that running the simulations at a larger scale can bring more discoveries. On one hand, with the increasing scale of those applications, the saturated I/O bandwidth can slow down the execution of the simulation significantly because of the huge amount of data needed to be dumped to the storage system. On the other hand, soft errors striking the simulations are not negligible considering the great number of components in the supercomputer and a single scientific execution spending days to finish. Therefore, it is meaningful to reduce the I/O time and harden the resilience of those large scale simulations. Though hardware solutions like designing new storage systems or error resilient computing devices have great generality, it usually takes longer development time and much more effort than software solutions. This thesis seeks software solutions by designing efficient and resilient lossy compressors for large scale scientific simulations.To improve the overall simulation performance, we propose a better lossy compressor which has a much higher compression ratio to reduce the I/O time significantly. More specifically, we focus on particle based scientific simulations. As we know, greater compression ratios imply less data to be written to the storage system which in turn, reduces I/O time. The state-of-art lossy compressor takes the advantage of spatial smoothness to achieve high compression ratios. However, particle based simulations have very limited smoothness in space which leads to inadequate compression ratios. In contrast, we propose to exploit smoothness in time for lossy compression and design an optimized compression model based on the existing lossy compressor. Results show our optimized compression model achieves much better compression ratios and significantly reduces I/O time at large scale.To improve the resilience of the simulation applications equipped with lossy compression, we design soft error resilient schemes for lossy compressors. First, we provide an algorithm-scope protection for one widely used lossy compressor named SZ. Then, we provide an application-scope protection that can be applied to all error-bounded lossy compressors. The algorithm-scope protection can only cover soft errors happening during the execution of the lossy compression itself while the application-scope protection can cover soft errors during simulation, lossy compression and even data writing. Both the algorithm- scope and the application-scope protections can provide significantly better resilience but keep the performance overhead low.

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