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  • European Marine Science

  • Authors: Iona, A.; Theodorou, A.; Sofianos, S.; Watelet, Sylvain; +2 Authors

    We present a new product composed of a set of thermohaline climatic indices from 1950 to 2015 for the Mediterranean Sea such as decadal temperature and salinity anomalies, their mean values over selected depths, decadal ocean heat and salt content anomalies at selected depth layers as well as their long time series. It is produced from a new high-resolution climatology of temperature and salinity on a 1=8 regular grid based on historical high-quality in situ observations. Ocean heat and salt content differences between 1980-2015 and 1950-1979 are compared for evaluation of the climate shift in the Mediterranean Sea. The two successive periods are chosen according to the standard WMO climate normals. The spatial patterns of heat and salt content shifts demonstrate that the climate changes differently in the several regions of the basin. Long time series of heat and salt content for the period 1950 to 2015 are also provided which indicate that in the Mediterranean Sea there is a net mean volume warming and salinification since 1950 that has accelerated during the last two decades. The time series also show that the ocean heat content seems to fluctuate on a cycle of about 40 years and seems to follow the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation climate cycle, indicating that the natural large-scale atmospheric variability could be superimposed onto the warming trend. This product is an observation-based estimation of the Mediterranean climatic indices. It relies solely on spatially interpolated data produced from in situ observations averaged over decades in order to smooth the decadal variability and reveal the long-term trends. It can provide a valuable contribution to the modellers' community, next to the satellite-based products, and serve as a baseline for the evaluation of climate-change model simulations, thus contributing to a better understanding of the complex response of the Mediterranean Sea to the ongoing global climate change. The product is available in netCDF at the following sources: annual and seasonal T =S anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408832), annual and seasonal T =S vertical averaged anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408929), annual and seasonal areal density of OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408877), annual and seasonal linear trends of T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408917), annual and seasonal time series of T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1411398), and differences of two 30-year averages of annual and seasonal T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408903). © Author(s) 2018. 026212, FP6, Sixth Framework Programme; FP6/2002–2006, FP6, Sixth Framework Programme

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    Authors: Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.; Machguth, H.; +10 Authors

    We present 17 velocity records derived from in situ stand-alone single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers placed on eight marine-terminating ice sheet outlet glaciers in South, West and North Greenland, covering varying parts of the period summer 2009 to summer 2012. Common to all the observed glacier velocity records is a pronounced seasonal variation, with an early melt season maximum generally followed by a rapid mid-melt season deceleration. The GPS-derived velocities are compared to velocities derived from radar satellite imagery over six of the glaciers to illustrate the potential of the GPS data for validation purposes. Three different velocity map products are evaluated, based on ALOS/PALSAR data, TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data and an aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set. The velocity maps derived from TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data have a mean difference of 1.5% compared to the mean GPS velocity over the corresponding period, while velocity maps derived from ALOS/PALSAR data have a mean difference of 9.7%. The velocity maps derived from the aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set have a mean difference of 9.5% to the corresponding GPS velocities. The data are available from the GEUS repository at doi:10.5280/GEUS000001.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; +4 Authors

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

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    https://doi.org/10.25607/obp-8...
    Other ORP type . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      https://doi.org/10.25607/obp-8...
      Other ORP type . 2018
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Datacite
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    Authors: Østerhus, Svein; Woodgate, Rebecca; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Turrell, Bill; +13 Authors

    The Arctic Mediterranean (AM) is the collective name for the Arctic Ocean, the Nordic Seas, and their adjacent shelf seas. Water enters into this region through the Bering Strait (Pacific inflow) and through the passages across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge (Atlantic inflow) and is modified within the AM. The modified waters leave the AM in several flow branches which are grouped into two different categories: (1) overflow of dense water through the deep passages across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge, and (2) outflow of light water – here termed surface outflow – on both sides of Greenland. These exchanges transport heat and salt into and out of the AM and are important for conditions in the AM. They are also part of the global ocean circulation and climate system. Attempts to quantify the transports by various methods have been made for many years, but only recently the observational coverage has become sufficiently complete to allow an integrated assessment of the AM exchanges based solely on observations. In this study, we focus on the transport of water and have collected data on volume transport for as many AM-exchange branches as possible between 1993 and 2015. The total AM import (oceanic inflows plus freshwater) is found to be 9.1 Sv (sverdrup, 1 Sv =106 m3 s−1) with an estimated uncertainty of 0.7 Sv and has the amplitude of the seasonal variation close to 1 Sv and maximum import in October. Roughly one-third of the imported water leaves the AM as surface outflow with the remaining two-thirds leaving as overflow. The overflow water is mainly produced from modified Atlantic inflow and around 70 % of the total Atlantic inflow is converted into overflow, indicating a strong coupling between these two exchanges. The surface outflow is fed from the Pacific inflow and freshwater (runoff and precipitation), but is still approximately two-thirds of modified Atlantic water. For the inflow branches and the two main overflow branches (Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel), systematic monitoring of volume transport has been established since the mid-1990s, and this enables us to estimate trends for the AM exchanges as a whole. At the 95 % confidence level, only the inflow of Pacific water through the Bering Strait showed a statistically significant trend, which was positive. Both the total AM inflow and the combined transport of the two main overflow branches also showed trends consistent with strengthening, but they were not statistically significant. They do suggest, however, that any significant weakening of these flows during the last two decades is unlikely and the overall message is that the AM exchanges remained remarkably stable in the period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2010s. The overflows are the densest source water for the deep limb of the North Atlantic part of the meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), and this conclusion argues that the reported weakening of the AMOC was not due to overflow weakening or reduced overturning in the AM. Although the combined data set has made it possible to establish a consistent budget for the AM exchanges, the observational coverage for some of the branches is limited, which introduces considerable uncertainty. This lack of coverage is especially extreme for the surface outflow through the Denmark Strait, the overflow across the Iceland–Faroe Ridge, and the inflow over the Scottish shelf. We recommend that more effort is put into observing these flows as well as maintaining the monitoring systems established for the other exchange branches.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Wang, Bangbing; Sun, Bo; Martin, Carlos; Ferraccioli, Fausto; +3 Authors

    Ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland reveal ice-crystal fabrics that can be softer under simple shear compared with isotropic ice. Owing to the sparseness of ice cores in regions away from the ice divide, we currently lack information about the spatial distribution of ice fabrics and its association with ice flow. Radio-wave reflections are influenced by ice-crystal alignments, allowing them to be tracked provided reflections are recorded simultaneously in orthogonal orientations (polarimetric measurements). Here, we image spatial variations in the thickness and extent of ice fabric across Dome A in East Antarctica, by interpreting polarimetric radar data. We identify four prominent fabric units, each several hundred metres thick, extending over hundreds of square kilometres. By tracing internal ice-sheet layering to the Vostok ice core, we are able to determine the approximate depth–age profile at Dome A. The fabric units correlate with glacial–interglacial cycles, most noticeably revealing crystal alignment contrasts between the Eemian and the glacial episodes before and after. The anisotropy within these fabric layers has a spatial pattern determined by ice flow over subglacial topography.

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    Authors: Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul; Kjær, Helle A.; Fudge, Tyler J.; +23 Authors

    We present a 2700-year annually resolved chronology and snow accumulation history for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core, Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica. The core adds information on past accumulation changes in an otherwise poorly constrained sector of Antarctica. The timescale was constructed by identifying annual cycles in high-resolution impurity records, and it constitutes the top part of the Roosevelt Island Ice Core Chronology 2017 (RICE17). Validation by volcanic and methane matching to the WD2014 chronology from the WAIS Divide ice core shows that the two timescales are in excellent agreement. In a companion paper, gas matching to WAIS Divide is used to extend the timescale for the deeper part of the core in which annual layers cannot be identified. Based on the annually resolved timescale, we produced a record of past snow accumulation at Roosevelt Island. The accumulation history shows that Roosevelt Island experienced slightly increasing accumulation rates between 700 BCE and 1300 CE, with an average accumulation of 0.25±0.02 m water equivalent (w.e.) per year. Since 1300 CE, trends in the accumulation rate have been consistently negative, with an acceleration in the rate of decline after the mid-17th century. The current accumulation rate at Roosevelt Island is 0.210±0.002 m w.e. yr−1 (average since 1965 CE, ±2σ), and it is rapidly declining with a trend corresponding to 0.8 mm yr−2. The decline observed since the mid-1960s is 8 times faster than the long-term decreasing trend taking place over the previous centuries, with decadal mean accumulation rates consistently being below average. Previous research has shown a strong link between Roosevelt Island accumulation rates and the location and intensity of the Amundsen Sea Low, which has a significant impact on regional sea-ice extent. The decrease in accumulation rates at Roosevelt Island may therefore be explained in terms of a recent strengthening of the ASL and the expansion of sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea. The start of the rapid decrease in RICE accumulation rates observed in 1965 CE may thus mark the onset of significant increases in regional sea-ice extent.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2019
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    Authors: Gasparin, Florent; Guinehut, Stephanie; Mao, Chongyuan; Mirouze, Isabelle; +8 Authors

    A coordinated effort, based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), has been carried out by four European ocean forecasting centers for the first time, in order to provide insights on the present and future design of the in situ Atlantic Ocean observing system from a monitoring and forecasting perspective. This multi-system approach is based on assimilating synthetic data sets, obtained by sub-sampling in space and time using an eddy-resolving unconstrained simulation, named the Nature Run. To assess the ability of a given Atlantic Ocean observing system to constrain the ocean model state, a set of assimilating experiments were performed using four global eddy-permitting systems. For each set of experiments, different designs of the in situ observing system were assimilated, such as implementing a global drifter array equipped with a thermistor chain down to 150 m depth or extending a part of the global Argo array in the deep ocean. While results from the four systems show similarities and differences, the comparison of the experiments with the Nature Run, generally demonstrates a positive impact of the different extra observation networks on the temperature and salinity fields. The spread of the multi-system simulations, combined with the sensitivity of each system to the evaluated observing networks, allowed us to discuss the robustness of the results and their dependence on the specific analysis system. By helping define and test future observing systems from an integrated observing system view, the present work is an initial step toward better-coordinated initiatives supporting the evolution of the ocean observing system and its integration within ocean monitoring and forecasting systems. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2019-03-14

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    Authors: Chi Fru, Ernest; Kilias, Stephanos; Ivarsson, Magnus; Rattray, Jayne E.; +4 Authors

    An early Quaternary shallow submarine hydrothermal iron formation (IF) in the Cape Vani sedimentary basin (CVSB) on Milos Island, Greece, displays banded rhythmicity similar to Precambrian banded iron formation (BIF). Field-wide stratigraphic and biogeochemical reconstructions show two temporal and spatially isolated iron deposits in the CVSB with distinct sedimentological character. Petrographic screening suggests the presence of a photoferrotrophic-like microfossil-rich IF (MFIF), accumulated on a basement consisting of andesites in a ∼ 150 m wide basin in the SW margin of the basin. A banded nonfossiliferous IF (NFIF) sits on top of the Mn-rich sandstones at the transition to the renowned Mn-rich formation, capping the NFIF unit. Geochemical data relate the origin of the NFIF to periodic submarine volcanism and water column oxidation of released Fe(II) in conditions predominated by anoxia, similar to the MFIF. Raman spectroscopy pairs hematite-rich grains in the NFIF with relics of a carbonaceous material carrying an average δ13Corg signature of ∼ −25‰. A similar δ13Corg signature in the MFIF could not be directly coupled to hematite by mineralogy. The NFIF, which postdates large-scale Mn deposition in the CVSB, is composed primarily of amorphous Si (opal-SiO2 ⋅ nH2O) while crystalline quartz (SiO2) predominates the MFIF. An intricate interaction between tectonic processes, changing redox, biological activity, and abiotic Si precipitation are proposed to have collectively formed the unmetamorphosed BIF-type deposits in a shallow submarine volcanic center. Despite the differences in Precambrian ocean–atmosphere chemistry and the present geologic time, these formation mechanisms coincide with those believed to have formed Algoma-type BIFs proximal to active seafloor volcanic centers.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Davies-Barnard, Taraka; Ridgwell, Andy; Singarayer, Joy; Valdes, Paul;

    The terrestrial biosphere is thought to be a key component in the climatic variability seen in the palaeo-record. It has a direct impact on surface temperature through changes in surface albedo and evapotranspiration (so-called biogeophysical effects) and, in addition, has an important indirect effect through changes in vegetation and soil carbon storage (biogeochemical effects) and hence modulates the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects generally have opposite signs, meaning that the terrestrial biosphere could potentially have played only a very minor role in the dynamics of the glacial–interglacial cycles of the late Quaternary. Here we use a fully coupled dynamic atmosphere–ocean–vegetation general circulation model (GCM) to generate a set of 62 equilibrium simulations spanning the last 120 kyr. The analysis of these simulations elucidates the relative importance of the biogeophysical versus biogeochemical terrestrial biosphere interactions with climate. We find that the biogeophysical effects of vegetation account for up to an additional −0.91 °C global mean cooling, with regional cooling as large as −5 °C, but with considerable variability across the glacial–interglacial cycle. By comparison, while opposite in sign, our model estimates of the biogeochemical impacts are substantially smaller in magnitude. Offline simulations show a maximum of +0.33 °C warming due to an increase of 25 ppm above our (pre-industrial) baseline atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio. In contrast to shorter (century) timescale projections of future terrestrial biosphere response where direct and indirect responses may at times cancel out, we find that the biogeophysical effects consistently and strongly dominate the biogeochemical effect over the inter-glacial cycle. On average across the period, the terrestrial biosphere has a −0.26 °C effect on temperature, with −0.58 °C at the Last Glacial Maximum. Depending on assumptions made about the destination of terrestrial carbon under ice sheets and where sea level has changed, the average terrestrial biosphere contribution over the last 120 kyr could be as much as −50 °C and −0.83 °C at the Last Glacial Maximum.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2018
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      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Laura E. Richardson;

    Jarvis Island Reef Fish FD data (H2020 MSCA IF-EF project FISHSCALE)

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    https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
    Other ORP type . 2024
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      https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo...
      Other ORP type . 2024
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  • Authors: Iona, A.; Theodorou, A.; Sofianos, S.; Watelet, Sylvain; +2 Authors

    We present a new product composed of a set of thermohaline climatic indices from 1950 to 2015 for the Mediterranean Sea such as decadal temperature and salinity anomalies, their mean values over selected depths, decadal ocean heat and salt content anomalies at selected depth layers as well as their long time series. It is produced from a new high-resolution climatology of temperature and salinity on a 1=8 regular grid based on historical high-quality in situ observations. Ocean heat and salt content differences between 1980-2015 and 1950-1979 are compared for evaluation of the climate shift in the Mediterranean Sea. The two successive periods are chosen according to the standard WMO climate normals. The spatial patterns of heat and salt content shifts demonstrate that the climate changes differently in the several regions of the basin. Long time series of heat and salt content for the period 1950 to 2015 are also provided which indicate that in the Mediterranean Sea there is a net mean volume warming and salinification since 1950 that has accelerated during the last two decades. The time series also show that the ocean heat content seems to fluctuate on a cycle of about 40 years and seems to follow the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation climate cycle, indicating that the natural large-scale atmospheric variability could be superimposed onto the warming trend. This product is an observation-based estimation of the Mediterranean climatic indices. It relies solely on spatially interpolated data produced from in situ observations averaged over decades in order to smooth the decadal variability and reveal the long-term trends. It can provide a valuable contribution to the modellers' community, next to the satellite-based products, and serve as a baseline for the evaluation of climate-change model simulations, thus contributing to a better understanding of the complex response of the Mediterranean Sea to the ongoing global climate change. The product is available in netCDF at the following sources: annual and seasonal T =S anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408832), annual and seasonal T =S vertical averaged anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408929), annual and seasonal areal density of OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408877), annual and seasonal linear trends of T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408917), annual and seasonal time series of T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1411398), and differences of two 30-year averages of annual and seasonal T =S, OHC/OSC anomalies (https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1408903). © Author(s) 2018. 026212, FP6, Sixth Framework Programme; FP6/2002–2006, FP6, Sixth Framework Programme

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    Authors: Ahlstrøm, A. P.; Andersen, S. B.; Andersen, M. L.; Machguth, H.; +10 Authors

    We present 17 velocity records derived from in situ stand-alone single-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers placed on eight marine-terminating ice sheet outlet glaciers in South, West and North Greenland, covering varying parts of the period summer 2009 to summer 2012. Common to all the observed glacier velocity records is a pronounced seasonal variation, with an early melt season maximum generally followed by a rapid mid-melt season deceleration. The GPS-derived velocities are compared to velocities derived from radar satellite imagery over six of the glaciers to illustrate the potential of the GPS data for validation purposes. Three different velocity map products are evaluated, based on ALOS/PALSAR data, TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data and an aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set. The velocity maps derived from TerraSAR-X/Tandem-X data have a mean difference of 1.5% compared to the mean GPS velocity over the corresponding period, while velocity maps derived from ALOS/PALSAR data have a mean difference of 9.7%. The velocity maps derived from the aggregate winter TerraSAR-X data set have a mean difference of 9.5% to the corresponding GPS velocities. The data are available from the GEUS repository at doi:10.5280/GEUS000001.

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      Copernicus Publications
      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Crise, Alessandro; Ribera d’Alcalà, Maurizio; Mariani, Patrizio; Petihakis, George; +4 Authors

    In the field of ocean observing, the term of “observatory” is often used without a unique meaning. A clear and unified definition of observatory is needed in order to facilitate the communication in a multidisciplinary community, to capitalize on future technological innovations and to support the observatory design based on societal needs. In this paper, we present a general framework to define the next generation Marine OBservatory (MOB), its capabilities and functionalities in an operational context. The MOB consists of four interconnected components or “gears” (observation infrastructure, cyberinfrastructure, support capacity, and knowledge generation engine) that are constantly and adaptively interacting with each other. Therefore, a MOB is a complex infrastructure focused on a specific geographic area with the primary scope to generate knowledge via data synthesis and thereby addressing scientific, societal, or economic challenges. Long-term sustainability is a key MOB feature that should be guaranteed through an appropriate governance. MOBs should be open to innovations and good practices to reduce operational costs and to allow their development in quality and quantity. A deeper biological understanding of the marine ecosystem should be reached with the proliferation of MOBs, thus contributing to effective conservation of ecosystems and management of human activities in the oceans. We provide an actionable model for the upgrade and development of sustained marine observatories producing knowledge to support science-based economic and societal decisions. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2018-09-07

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    https://doi.org/10.25607/obp-8...
    Other ORP type . 2018
    License: CC BY
    Data sources: Datacite
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      Other ORP type . 2018
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    Authors: Østerhus, Svein; Woodgate, Rebecca; Valdimarsson, Héðinn; Turrell, Bill; +13 Authors

    The Arctic Mediterranean (AM) is the collective name for the Arctic Ocean, the Nordic Seas, and their adjacent shelf seas. Water enters into this region through the Bering Strait (Pacific inflow) and through the passages across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge (Atlantic inflow) and is modified within the AM. The modified waters leave the AM in several flow branches which are grouped into two different categories: (1) overflow of dense water through the deep passages across the Greenland–Scotland Ridge, and (2) outflow of light water – here termed surface outflow – on both sides of Greenland. These exchanges transport heat and salt into and out of the AM and are important for conditions in the AM. They are also part of the global ocean circulation and climate system. Attempts to quantify the transports by various methods have been made for many years, but only recently the observational coverage has become sufficiently complete to allow an integrated assessment of the AM exchanges based solely on observations. In this study, we focus on the transport of water and have collected data on volume transport for as many AM-exchange branches as possible between 1993 and 2015. The total AM import (oceanic inflows plus freshwater) is found to be 9.1 Sv (sverdrup, 1 Sv =106 m3 s−1) with an estimated uncertainty of 0.7 Sv and has the amplitude of the seasonal variation close to 1 Sv and maximum import in October. Roughly one-third of the imported water leaves the AM as surface outflow with the remaining two-thirds leaving as overflow. The overflow water is mainly produced from modified Atlantic inflow and around 70 % of the total Atlantic inflow is converted into overflow, indicating a strong coupling between these two exchanges. The surface outflow is fed from the Pacific inflow and freshwater (runoff and precipitation), but is still approximately two-thirds of modified Atlantic water. For the inflow branches and the two main overflow branches (Denmark Strait and Faroe Bank Channel), systematic monitoring of volume transport has been established since the mid-1990s, and this enables us to estimate trends for the AM exchanges as a whole. At the 95 % confidence level, only the inflow of Pacific water through the Bering Strait showed a statistically significant trend, which was positive. Both the total AM inflow and the combined transport of the two main overflow branches also showed trends consistent with strengthening, but they were not statistically significant. They do suggest, however, that any significant weakening of these flows during the last two decades is unlikely and the overall message is that the AM exchanges remained remarkably stable in the period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2010s. The overflows are the densest source water for the deep limb of the North Atlantic part of the meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), and this conclusion argues that the reported weakening of the AMOC was not due to overflow weakening or reduced overturning in the AM. Although the combined data set has made it possible to establish a consistent budget for the AM exchanges, the observational coverage for some of the branches is limited, which introduces considerable uncertainty. This lack of coverage is especially extreme for the surface outflow through the Denmark Strait, the overflow across the Iceland–Faroe Ridge, and the inflow over the Scottish shelf. We recommend that more effort is put into observing these flows as well as maintaining the monitoring systems established for the other exchange branches.

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    Copernicus Publications
    Other ORP type . 2019
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      Copernicus Publications
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    Authors: Wang, Bangbing; Sun, Bo; Martin, Carlos; Ferraccioli, Fausto; +3 Authors

    Ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland reveal ice-crystal fabrics that can be softer under simple shear compared with isotropic ice. Owing to the sparseness of ice cores in regions away from the ice divide, we currently lack information about the spatial distribution of ice fabrics and its association with ice flow. Radio-wave reflections are influenced by ice-crystal alignments, allowing them to be tracked provided reflections are recorded simultaneously in orthogonal orientations (polarimetric measurements). Here, we image spatial variations in the thickness and extent of ice fabric across Dome A in East Antarctica, by interpreting polarimetric radar data. We identify four prominent fabric units, each several hundred metres thick, extending over hundreds of square kilometres. By tracing internal ice-sheet layering to the Vostok ice core, we are able to determine the approximate depth–age profile at Dome A. The fabric units correlate with glacial–interglacial cycles, most noticeably revealing crystal alignment contrasts between the Eemian and the glacial episodes before and after. The anisotropy within these fabric layers has a spatial pattern determined by ice flow over subglacial topography.

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    Authors: Winstrup, Mai; Vallelonga, Paul; Kjær, Helle A.; Fudge, Tyler J.; +23 Authors

    We present a 2700-year annually resolved chronology and snow accumulation history for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) ice core, Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica. The core adds information on past accumulation changes in an otherwise poorly constrained sector of Antarctica. The timescale was constructed by identifying annual cycles in high-resolution impurity records, and it constitutes the top part of the Roosevelt Island Ice Core Chronology 2017 (RICE17). Validation by volcanic and methane matching to the WD2014 chronology from the WAIS Divide ice core shows that the two timescales are in excellent agreement. In a companion paper, gas matching to WAIS Divide is used to extend the timescale for the deeper part of the core in which annual layers cannot be identified. Based on the annually resolved timescale, we produced a record of past snow accumulation at Roosevelt Island. The accumulation history shows that Roosevelt Island experienced slightly increasing accumulation rates between 700 BCE and 1300 CE, with an average accumulation of 0.25±0.02 m water equivalent (w.e.) per year. Since 1300 CE, trends in the accumulation rate have been consistently negative, with an acceleration in the rate of decline after the mid-17th century. The current accumulation rate at Roosevelt Island is 0.210±0.002 m w.e. yr−1 (average since 1965 CE, ±2σ), and it is rapidly declining with a trend corresponding to 0.8 mm yr−2. The decline observed since the mid-1960s is 8 times faster than the long-term decreasing trend taking place over the previous centuries, with decadal mean accumulation rates consistently being below average. Previous research has shown a strong link between Roosevelt Island accumulation rates and the location and intensity of the Amundsen Sea Low, which has a significant impact on regional sea-ice extent. The decrease in accumulation rates at Roosevelt Island may therefore be explained in terms of a recent strengthening of the ASL and the expansion of sea ice in the eastern Ross Sea. The start of the rapid decrease in RICE accumulation rates observed in 1965 CE may thus mark the onset of significant increases in regional sea-ice extent.

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    Authors: Gasparin, Florent; Guinehut, Stephanie; Mao, Chongyuan; Mirouze, Isabelle; +8 Authors

    A coordinated effort, based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs), has been carried out by four European ocean forecasting centers for the first time, in order to provide insights on the present and future design of the in situ Atlantic Ocean observing system from a monitoring and forecasting perspective. This multi-system approach is based on assimilating synthetic data sets, obtained by sub-sampling in space and time using an eddy-resolving unconstrained simulation, named the Nature Run. To assess the ability of a given Atlantic Ocean observing system to constrain the ocean model state, a set of assimilating experiments were performed using four global eddy-permitting systems. For each set of experiments, different designs of the in situ observing system were assimilated, such as implementing a global drifter array equipped with a thermistor chain down to 150 m depth or extending a part of the global Argo array in the deep ocean. While results from the four systems show similarities and differences, the comparison of the experiments with the Nature Run, generally demonstrates a positive impact of the different extra observation networks on the temperature and salinity fields. The spread of the multi-system simulations, combined with the sensitivity of each system to the evaluated observing networks, allowed us to discuss the robustness of the results and their dependence on the specific analysis system. By helping define and test future observing systems from an integrated observing system view, the present work is an initial step toward better-coordinated initiatives supporting the evolution of the ocean observing system and its integration within ocean monitoring and forecasting systems. Refereed 14.A Manual (incl. handbook, guide, cookbook etc) 2019-03-14

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