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  • 2023-2023
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  • Corvinus University of Budapest

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    Authors: Özoflu, Melek Aylin;

    This research investigates the manifestations of European identity construction by the political and media discourses within the depressing context of the Euro crisis and refugee crisis of the European Union (EU) in a case study country- Germany. It utilizes the main aspirations of the Social Identity Theory (SIT), which asserts that social, economic, and political processes are highly critical in forming an ‘ingroup’. In doing so, it provides a novel approach to the European studies on the nexus between the EU integration and its crises. Although the literature previously engaged in explaining the formation of European identity through the lenses of the SIT, the theoretical novel of this research comes from the fact that it will investigate the way European identity is constructed, instrumentalized, and manifested during the financial and refugee crisis, which is of critical importance for the enrichment of the discipline, since social identity is mediated by the involvement of different social comparative contexts and content. The empirical contribution of the current study accommodates the extension of the empirical body of knowledge in Germany, which has occupied a key, initial, and unique position during both crises in formulating these mechanisms to fight with the crises. This study argues that political and media discourses became a critical tool of disseminating the collective identity construction during the times of crises that posed rigid challenges to political, social, and economic processes of the EU. This is because the crises provided a viable ground for the articulations of the different manifestations of the European identity construction implying ‘what it means to be European’ due to the incremental salience of the European affairs within the public. While the crises have opened up leeway for the member states to become less Euro-centric because of the possible dramatic repercussions, identity construction, focusing on increasing the levels of commitment to ingroup for the sake of the common good of the community, may play an instrumental role in convincing European citizens to bear the dramatic consequences and costs of the crises. Therefore, an inquiry concentrating on answering how the European identity is manifested and instrumentalized in responding to and answering the crises is of critical importance. Based on such premise, this research conducts extensive qualitative frame analysis of political and media discourse at key moments of the crisis. The manifestations of the European identity construction are found to differ between two crises during the course of the analysis, which can be explained by the fact that the imperatives of the crises altered considerably. The detailed qualitative analysis of the media and political discourse covering the euro crisis found that European identity construction is manifested to be shaped in accordance with the needs of the different time frames of the crisis. Accordingly, at the political discourse level, the European identity is operationalized and instrumentalized in line with the political claims and interests of the political elites in the governance and in the opposition. The beginning of the crisis in Greece evoked little political interest and attraction in formulating immediate response since the country often was accused of being as ‘debt sinner’ ‘the guilty other of the European in-group’ and the crisis was externalized and portrayed as ‘home-made’. Yet the aggravation of the crisis necessitated to the formulation of a European-level solution that arose the concerns of political legitimization. At that point, European identity construction was vitally used as a discursive act of instrumentalization and operationalization through consolidating Germany’s commitment to the European community, which is regarded as its historical responsibility, vis a vis its historical otherness to Europe. During the refugee crisis, regardless of the political leaning and stance in respect to the crisis, the European identity construction is manifested as a tool of both internal and external othering to bolster both intra- and inter-group differentiation. It demonstrated that the pro-refugee stance adopted by the media discourses regardless of their political leanings exhibited often external othering vis a vis the in-group of the European community presented as a community of humanitarian responsibility. Therefore, they were highly converging with the pro-refugee mainstream political discourses. In this respect, the divergences between the political and media discourses manifesting the European identity construction in framing the crisis can be traced in accordance with their having whether pro-refugee or anti-refugee stances. As a sum of the findings of the analysis of both crises, the research revealed that different phases of the crises have involved different discursive practices of identity construction, thus, the first hypothesis, ‘change in the identity construction is correlated to be reflected by the social processes within the society’ is proven to be right. Although identity construction encompasses different angles as per each crisis, it has been mainly within the German understanding of the European identity. Therefore, the second hypothesis, ‘The manifestations of the European identity construction appeared differently in framing the different EU crises’ is proven to be wrong.

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    Authors: Virág, Ágnes;

    The expression of the Parliament is often associated with abstract concepts such as politics, democracy, or nationhood (Kapitány & Kapitány, 2002; Szabó & Oross, 2018) when instead of the literal meaning of the ‘building’, we refer to its figurative meanings. It has already been confirmed that political cartoons are rich in figurative devices (e.g., conceptual metaphor) (i.a. El Refaie, 2009) and they serve as a suitable corpus for the investigation of the figurative meaning of the Parliament. In the case of a conceptual metaphor, for instance, the Parliament (considered as a target domain) is understood via the source domain conceptually different from the target (e.g., COLOSSEUM). In that way, certain characteristic features of the source domain are mapped onto the target domain, and we are able to interpret politics, specifically the Parliament itself as the site of real, dangerous, life-or-death physical battles. All these figurative meanings can influence how we think about politics, its processes, and actors, how we argue in the case of a political problem and how we would try to solve it. The current research aims to examine how the Hungarian Parliament is visually represented in editorial cartoons and how these visual representations – through figurative conceptual devices such as conceptual metaphors and conceptual metonymies – construct the concept of the parliament. Furthermore, the thesis discusses how these cognitive devices cooperate with ironies and cultural references (such as idioms, allusions, and national symbols) which are determinant in evaluation procedures and the creation of emotional bonds between the viewer and the cartoon. In doing so, the dissertation studies the caricaturistic representations of the Parliament in three various periods (Körösényi, 2015); thus, the investigation is longitudinal (describing thirty years since 1989) and comparative. What are the novelties of the research? First, it examines Hungarian editorial cartoons in a cognitive linguistic framework, unlike this, so far Hungarian political cartoons have been discussed by historians (e.g., Tamás, 2014). Second, although the Parliament is an important concept (Kapitány & Kapitány, 2002), its figurative meaning has not been studied so widely yet. Third, it is a multimodal investigation of conceptual processes that fits into the trend of cognitive linguistic research that focuses on the cooperation of different processes. Fourth, this research examines a large data set in context where the contextual factors are limited to three types, namely idioms, allusions, and national symbols (context types are usually not defined in such concrete ways, e.g., Charteris-Black, 2011). Fifth, the dissertation applies Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory (ECMT) (Kövecses, 2020) in practice in a larger corpus. Sixth, it is a diachronic investigation which is rare in the field of cartoon research (e.g., Frantzich, 2013) also in cognitive research, especially in multimodal research. The main results show that 1) the representation of the Parliament is strongly linked to such conceptual procedures as conceptual metonymy and conceptual metaphor. These cognitive devices are likely to cooperate with ironies and cultural references. 2) a limited number of cognitive devices (e.g., the conceptual metonymy THE PARLIAMENT STANDS FOR THE GOVERNMENT, or the conceptual metaphor THE PARLIAMENT IS A PLACE FOR PHYSICAL CONFLICT) are recurring in the corpus during the period between 1989 and 2019. However, regarding the perspectivization, content and function of these cognitive devices, it is said that the compared periods of democracy (Körösényi, 2015) show significant differences based on the diverse preferences and distribution of the cognitive devices with specific cultural references in each era. 3) the increase of more aggressive scenes emerges from the metaphoric domain of PHYSICAL CONFLICT, which goes hand in hand with a change in the use of national symbols referring to the perceived extreme nationalist content, and political slogans which are dominated by the direct elements (literal citations, showing violence overtly). An unexpected result is the detection of a shift in communication acting in the opposite direction, according to which in linguistic changes indirect processes took place (e.g., increasing use of causal type ironies), in visual processes direct changes became predominant, so for instance, violence appeared literally. In sum, the Parliament seems a permanent phenomenon throughout the years, however, this research points to its different meanings and nuances of meaning variants. So even the stability of the meaning of such a strong national symbol can be questioned.

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    Authors: Morris, David;

    1. There are fields in which complex interdependence will likely continue, while there are also fields in which a highly normative, geopolitical contest is underway that potentially undermines interdependence. 2. In international finance, a shared risk approach was demonstrated by the emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. In this case, China has contributed a new institution, challenging US leadership of global finance yet seeking reform rather than revolution to address the needs of the developing world. More transparency about bilateral Chinese lending would help reassure concerns about debt sustainability. The growth of green finance may in time provide an opportunity for greater accountabilities in resource planning, transparency of lending and tracking of project deliverables. 3. In communications technology, a shared, multi-stakeholder risk approach was demonstrated to be the optimal risk reduction approach, in the face of very real and multiple-sourced cyber-risks. Yet geopolitical contest and spiralling distrust (for example, the case of Huawei) is undermining international cooperation in constructing new institutions, norms and rules to protect the integrity of systems that are expected to transform economies, societies and assist the shift to sustainability. There may yet be some room for compromise in particular if brokered by the EU. 4. In infrastructure connectivity, China’s different risk approach was demonstrated, underlining a confidence in the Asian development model, although this approach has generated claims of debt risks, opaque decision making, corruption and other problems, often at the country or project level in high-risk operating environments. The risks in the Kyaukphyu, Myanmar, case are high and diverse. This points to the need for China to pay closer attention to local and regional sustainable development outcomes. 5. A new theoretical framework for sustainable internationalism is needed to understand the new, emerging conditions in a multipolar world order, to construct a new global sense of purpose to address shared challenges in a shared risks/mutual interests-based international system. 6. A new concept of geopolitical risk is needed to more proportionately assess interdependence risks and opportunities for actors than the traditional, normative, zero-sum concept.

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    Authors: Csóka, Imola;

    Most of the education systems in developed countries start streaming their students to different educational pathways (tracks) at the secondary school level, which usually takes place after grade 8 when students are 14-16 years old. However, a special type of track also exists which aims to educate the best and brightest in the cohort: elite schools have competitive learning environments and highly selective admissions such as grammar schools in the UK and exam schools in the USA. Elite schools are of great interest to educational researchers and policymakers, although the results in the international literature are mixed due to methodological issues and differences in education systems that result in context dependency. Hungary has a unique type of elite track, where selection happens in grade 4 or 6, much earlier than in most of the comparable elite programs, so this institution relates to the field of early tracking in education, such as elite schools' literature. The primary issue for students and parents is whether applying to elite programs is worthwhile and what kind of gains (if any) can be made if admitted. For policy makers on the other hand, not only elite program's effectiveness can be interesting, but its possible impact on inequality as well. My research focuses on identifying the effects of elite programs. I compare students who entered the elite program in Grade 5 or 7 (treated group) to students who entered the general program in Grade 9 (control group) in the same academic high schools. I address the following questions: 1. What is the role of test scores and family background in admission to elite programs? Which is the stronger factor? How does it relate to inequality? 2. Do elite programs help increase students' test scores more than the alternative track (general programs)? Is this impact (if any) substantial or negligible? 3. To what extent do elite programs impact post-secondary education outcomes, such as enrollment to BA and MA level, obtaining a degree, type of major, and quality of university? Where is the greatest impact? 4. What are the most important channels of the mechanism? Is it through improved test scores, grade point average (GPA), aspiration, or something else? 5. Are the effects heterogeneous? Do students of different test scores or backgrounds experience different effects? This study exploits rich administrative individual panel data in Hungary to study how enrollment in an elite secondary school program affects students’ university outcomes. First, I analyze the sorting mechanism, then measure the effect of elite programs on test scores and post-secondary education. OLS and propensity score matching estimates show significant 3-4 percentage points effects of elite secondary school programs on university enrollment and completion rates. These differences are much lower than raw differences but are non-negligible, and the relative impact of elite secondary school programs on tertiary completion and MA enrolment is much greater in magnitude compared to that on BA enrollment. Suggestive evidence shows that a substantial part of the enrolment effect can be attributed to improvement in school performance – test scores and GPA, and I also offer further suggestive evidence on the potential mechanism through teacher/school quality. Heterogeneity in the independent variable (university enrollment) is also considered by distinguishing majors (STEM, arts, medical, law and governance), internationally recognized universities and publication performance of universities (university quality), and MA enrollment. Findings are inconclusive about STEM track choice, but I find significant and non-negligible positive effects on the quality of the university where students enroll and, on the probability, of whether students continue MA-level education as well. A detailed heterogeneity analysis is conducted on groups based on explanatory variables (e.g. gender, SES, test scores, primary school quality) shows that students of more disadvantaged groups benefit more from elite programs, although the effects on more advantaged students are also mostly significantly positive, but smaller in magnitude. I apply IV estimation to test for omitted variable bias in the current estimates, and the results do not indicate the presence of severe bias. Moreover, I conducted several robustness tests to support the findings, and the main coefficients remain stable throughout different specifications. The study aims to extend the knowledge relating to the effects of elite secondary school programs in international and Hungarian literature as well. The contribution of this research is threefold. First, this study examines and compares short-run (test scores) and long-run post secondary outcomes together in a similar setting. Second, to the best of my knowledge, this research is the first to look at university outcomes in the context of elite programs in Hungary. Third, considering university quality as an outcome in the international literature regarding the effect of elite schools is rare, and the application of international rankings as a quality measure is unique.

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    Authors: Mentes, Mert;

    In the 1990s, Amazon, Alibaba and eBay, pioneers in digital retailing, integrated technological innovations into their online shopping applications, to increase customers’ satisfaction. These companies have paved the way for the sector's development. Today, online shopping is more user-friendly than ever before. Innovations in electronic commerce -easy navigation, fast webpage loading times, quick product searches, accurate product recommendations, detailed information on product features, accurate visual design and shop atmosphere, and an easy checkout process- are site-specific developments that prioritize a pleasant shopping experience and create competitive advantage to businesses. Digitalization and e-commerce trends have brought significant changes to the retail industry both in developed and developing countries. As consumers increasingly turn to online platforms for their shopping needs, it is crucial for e-commerce businesses to adapt and provide an exceptional online shopping experience. This is particularly true for online book retailers, which cater to book enthusiasts seeking convenience and a wide selection of titles. The empirical research is set in Turkey because it has a significant market for e-commerce (Akar, 2021; Kaya et al. 2019). This dissertation investigates the relationship between trust, satisfaction, and intention to repurchase in the digital retail sector, specifically in book shopping. This is done by conducting a survey with customers who made book purchases from the online store www.idefix.com, one of the largest e-commerce websites in Turkey. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was administered to 649 active users of www.idefix.com. The flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) was applied to identify the drivers of online shopping satisfaction and repurchase intention. The data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results indicate that the affective and cognitive experiential state have a direct positive effect on online shopping satisfaction and repurchase intention. Findings contribute to the ongoing discussion about consumers' experiences in e-commerce and their impact on the retail sector. The results of the study can provide website managers with a tool to evaluate customers' shopping experiences more accurately on the site and contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between the dimensions of website performance mentioned in the literature. The study also explores theoretical implications.

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    Authors: Megyeri, Gábor;

    The Digital Pasts Analog Futures PhD thesis focuses on the future, exploring whether analogue values will continue to be needed in human existence, communication, learning and development in the age of digitization and beyond. The subject of the research is handwriting, a human activity that is not only a simple recording of information, but also a multifaceted process of coordination that enables the acquisition and maintenance of additional skills. The main research question of the dissertation is how humanity today relates to digital and analogue solutions, how the inevitability of analogue solutions can be identified in our everyday thinking and actions. The research can be divided into four main phases. (1) The first phase was a literature analysis and systematic literature review, which examined the past and present of handwriting across disciplines. The primary aim was to explore the status of handwriting as an analogue value and human activity. (2) In the second exploratory phase, we examined essays written by young adults (also CUB students) (typed and handwritten) detailing their analogue and digital experiences. This aims to explore and validate the problem and the issues raised in detail. (3) The third phase is a design interaction in the form of a collaborative netnographic analysis. (4) The fourth phase was a design action, which resulted in a crowd funding project around a real product (a writing instrument) created in the framework of the research. The research is based on a combination of different paradigms. The interplay of the above phases has contributed greatly to the results of the research. The first and second research phases have shown that analogue values such as handwriting have a place, relevance and future in the digital world. The third, netnographic analysis phase led to a real-world connection, whereby the resulting data was coded and the results interpreted to formulate all the characteristics of the product created during the design action, and contributed to the marketing, economic, scheduling, production and management plans for the crowd funding project. The success of the design and sales phase of the design action not only financed it economically, but also validated all the phases and results of the research

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    Authors: Omarli, Sevinj;

    This research examines the relationship between dynamic pricing, fair pricing perception, and willingness to buy. The theoretical contribution of this research is to provide a conceptual framework and empirical evidence for understanding the complex relationships between constructs. The study also examines the moderating effect of price position, internal reference price, price sensitivity, industrial norm, brand image on the relationship between dynamic pricing and fair pricing perception. In frame of the research, 387 undergraduate students have been surveyed about their airline ticket buying behaviour. Dynamic pricing strategies and price positions were applied as stimuli in a quasi-experimental setting. Results show that the effect of dynamic pricing strategies has a significant effect on perceived fair pricing and, through this, on the willingness to buy. It was investigated that price position moderates the association between dynamic pricing strategy with decreasing trend and fair pricing perception. In the case of a relative higher market price, this effect is stronger. The brand image is also a key concept in marketing. It has an influence on consumers attitude towards the brand and therefore effects the information the consumers select and let it or, on the other hand, filter out during the process of perception. The current study supported that the negative effects of dynamic pricing are weaker when the brand image is positive in the mind of consumers. Norms could heavily effect consumer behavior and its influence has been revealed in several studies. However, studies investigating the moderation role of industry norm in dynamic pricing context are rare. As this moderation effect was examined between the subdimensions of dynamic pricing and fair pricing perception, the outcome of the research is also novel to the literature. Limited research has been conducted on consumer perceptions of price fairness in the context of dynamic pricing. Examining the relationship between perceived price fairness and consumer purchasing propensity in the context of dynamic pricing is the purpose of the present study. The results of the study build upon prior research while also presenting contradictory findings. The findings cast light on the formation of price fairness perceptions in dynamic pricing and the influence of these perceptions on consumer purchase intent. This study contributes in two ways to the literature on price fairness. First, it combines two significant antecedents - price volatility and price change trends - with an outcome dimension, namely purchasing propensity, into a single conceptual model. Second, the research identifies potential moderator variables, including price position, consumer price sensitivity, industry norm, and brand image.

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    Authors: Asemi, Asefeh;

    Investment recommendation systems (IRSs) are critical tools used by potential investors to make informed decisions about investment options. However, existing systems have limitations in terms of accuracy and efficiency, leading to a need for more effective and efficient recommendation systems. This dissertation proposes the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to develop a combined IRS that can provide accurate and efficient investment recommendations for potential investors. The main research question for this study is "How can an ANFIS be utilized to propose an effective and efficient investment recommendation system?" The specific sub-goals of the study are: 1) to categorize and cluster potential investors based on available data to make accurate investment recommendations, 2) to offer customized investment-type services using adaptive neural-fuzzy inference solutions for different categories of potential investors, and 3) to propose a combined recommender system to provide appropriate investment type recommendations for all categorized and clustered potential investors. The dissertation is structured into five chapters. Chapter I provides an overview of the research question and objectives, and Chapter II presents a theoretical framework and literature review, covering existing research on ANFIS in investment recommendation systems. Chapter III explains the methodology used to develop the combined IRS using ANFIS, including data collection, categorization and clustering of potential investors, development of the combined ANFIS model, and evaluation of the proposed system. Chapter IV presents the experimental results and analysis, highlighting the effectiveness of the model in providing appropriate investment-type recommendations for categorized and clustered potential investors. This chapter describes seven experiments that focused on investment recommender systems. Each experiment proposed a unique system that utilized various features of potential investors and their investment type experiences, in addition to employing fuzzy neural inference and the K-Means technique to generate personalized investment recommendations. The first experiment proposed a demographic ANFIS that utilized customer feedback and fuzzy neural inference to generate personalized investment recommendations. The second experiment proposed an automatic recommender system that worked with four key decision factors (KDFs) of potential investors: system value, environmental awareness, high return expectation, and low return expectation. The third experiment used potential investors' financial management traits and investment type for the recommendation. The model was based on an ANFIS, and feedback from knowledge experts and investors was used to improve the system. The fourth experiment used potential investors' experiences data to predict investment outcomes, and the system's performance was evaluated by comparing its recommendations with actual investment outcomes. The fifth experiment proposed an ANFIS-based investment recommendation system based on customers' financial situations, risk tolerance, and investment goals. The sixth experiment investigated the impact of personal characteristics such as age, income, and education level, as well as managerial issues, on investment decisions. The seventh experiment combined and clustered data from the six previous ANFIS systems to provide accurate investment recommendations. The system utilized clustering techniques to group customers with similar financial situations and investment goals, thereby enhancing the personalization of the recommendations. Overall, these experiments propose a novel approach to developing an effective and efficient investment recommendation system using ANFIS. The proposed system has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy and efficiency of investment recommendations, thereby enhancing the decision-making process for potential investors. A comparison of the results with other existing methods and a discussion of the limitations and challenges faced during the development of the system are also included in this chapter. Finally, Chapter V provides a comprehensive discussion of the research findings and their implications, including suggestions for future research. Overall, this dissertation proposes a novel approach to developing an effective and efficient investment recommendation system using ANFIS. The proposed system has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy and efficiency of investment recommendations, thereby enhancing the decision-making process for potential investors.

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    Authors: Sztanó, Gábor;

    The thesis delves into the impact of advanced central banks' monetary policies on emerging government bond markets, the so-called 'monetary policy spillovers.' Over the past decade, there has been a reported correlation between interest rates on advanced and emerging financial markets. Following the Global Financial Crisis, substantial international capital flows occurred, particularly to government bond markets of emerging countries, influenced by the aggressive monetary easing of the major central banks. The research aims to address the puzzling question of the extent to which large central banks impact emerging financial markets. It outlines a research agenda to examine the size of monetary policy spillovers in the case of the Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, and the Bank of Japan. Beyond the magnitude of the spillover effect, regional differences and factors influencing recipient countries' sensitivity to international shocks are also examined. In summary, the thesis contributes to the international finance literature by shedding light on the relationship between advanced central banks’ monetary policy decisions and the dynamics of emerging government bond markets.

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    Authors: Fekete, Krisztina Anna;

    While the Earth’s resources and capability are at its limits, while large part of the society is suffering from hardship, the other part is responsible for overconsumption, enormous waste generation. Pollution combined with self-centred human attitude led to the most crucial situation in our century of crises, Climate Change. It is currently one of the most urgent global problems, which are interconnected, complex and it has environmental, economic, social, and technological perspectives. While cities represent most of the population, the biggest greenhouse gas (GHGs) emitter, they use arable land for urban purposes, and they are the centre of services and production. Accordingly, cities were seen as excellent testing-grounds to put smart solutions in a new prospective and examine whether they could be or has been adapted into sustainable climate change combat by increasing the efficiency of mitigation and adaptation processes. For that reason, it will be investigated whether the focus of smart (city) solutions is either primarily environmental (smart-sustainable), or the focus is economic efficiency, but its use is more complex, which enhance sustainability. Based on this aim, the dissertation uses inductive approach, which is applied by using qualitative, explorative methodology such as semi-structured interviews (N=17) with content analysis to define the city level efficiency of the solutions, the driven factors within the decisions, and non-probability sampling methods during the questionary (N=550) to specify smart ability to increase climate awareness at the level of individuals. The research findings confirmed that, however the economic efficiency still dominate the development decisions, the environmental aspect is increasingly important mostly in the fields of mobility, energy usage and heating through the more complex, sustainable, resilient applied approaches in the implementation processes. In addition, there is a shrinking knowledge gap between the ‘investors’ (final users) and the providers of smart solutions, and the relevance of the sensitization and education of the population has become more important. Finally, through the survey, interviews and research, existing smart solutions have been collected within the six sectors of smart city to contribute to the educational purposes.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Özoflu, Melek Aylin;

    This research investigates the manifestations of European identity construction by the political and media discourses within the depressing context of the Euro crisis and refugee crisis of the European Union (EU) in a case study country- Germany. It utilizes the main aspirations of the Social Identity Theory (SIT), which asserts that social, economic, and political processes are highly critical in forming an ‘ingroup’. In doing so, it provides a novel approach to the European studies on the nexus between the EU integration and its crises. Although the literature previously engaged in explaining the formation of European identity through the lenses of the SIT, the theoretical novel of this research comes from the fact that it will investigate the way European identity is constructed, instrumentalized, and manifested during the financial and refugee crisis, which is of critical importance for the enrichment of the discipline, since social identity is mediated by the involvement of different social comparative contexts and content. The empirical contribution of the current study accommodates the extension of the empirical body of knowledge in Germany, which has occupied a key, initial, and unique position during both crises in formulating these mechanisms to fight with the crises. This study argues that political and media discourses became a critical tool of disseminating the collective identity construction during the times of crises that posed rigid challenges to political, social, and economic processes of the EU. This is because the crises provided a viable ground for the articulations of the different manifestations of the European identity construction implying ‘what it means to be European’ due to the incremental salience of the European affairs within the public. While the crises have opened up leeway for the member states to become less Euro-centric because of the possible dramatic repercussions, identity construction, focusing on increasing the levels of commitment to ingroup for the sake of the common good of the community, may play an instrumental role in convincing European citizens to bear the dramatic consequences and costs of the crises. Therefore, an inquiry concentrating on answering how the European identity is manifested and instrumentalized in responding to and answering the crises is of critical importance. Based on such premise, this research conducts extensive qualitative frame analysis of political and media discourse at key moments of the crisis. The manifestations of the European identity construction are found to differ between two crises during the course of the analysis, which can be explained by the fact that the imperatives of the crises altered considerably. The detailed qualitative analysis of the media and political discourse covering the euro crisis found that European identity construction is manifested to be shaped in accordance with the needs of the different time frames of the crisis. Accordingly, at the political discourse level, the European identity is operationalized and instrumentalized in line with the political claims and interests of the political elites in the governance and in the opposition. The beginning of the crisis in Greece evoked little political interest and attraction in formulating immediate response since the country often was accused of being as ‘debt sinner’ ‘the guilty other of the European in-group’ and the crisis was externalized and portrayed as ‘home-made’. Yet the aggravation of the crisis necessitated to the formulation of a European-level solution that arose the concerns of political legitimization. At that point, European identity construction was vitally used as a discursive act of instrumentalization and operationalization through consolidating Germany’s commitment to the European community, which is regarded as its historical responsibility, vis a vis its historical otherness to Europe. During the refugee crisis, regardless of the political leaning and stance in respect to the crisis, the European identity construction is manifested as a tool of both internal and external othering to bolster both intra- and inter-group differentiation. It demonstrated that the pro-refugee stance adopted by the media discourses regardless of their political leanings exhibited often external othering vis a vis the in-group of the European community presented as a community of humanitarian responsibility. Therefore, they were highly converging with the pro-refugee mainstream political discourses. In this respect, the divergences between the political and media discourses manifesting the European identity construction in framing the crisis can be traced in accordance with their having whether pro-refugee or anti-refugee stances. As a sum of the findings of the analysis of both crises, the research revealed that different phases of the crises have involved different discursive practices of identity construction, thus, the first hypothesis, ‘change in the identity construction is correlated to be reflected by the social processes within the society’ is proven to be right. Although identity construction encompasses different angles as per each crisis, it has been mainly within the German understanding of the European identity. Therefore, the second hypothesis, ‘The manifestations of the European identity construction appeared differently in framing the different EU crises’ is proven to be wrong.

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    Authors: Virág, Ágnes;

    The expression of the Parliament is often associated with abstract concepts such as politics, democracy, or nationhood (Kapitány & Kapitány, 2002; Szabó & Oross, 2018) when instead of the literal meaning of the ‘building’, we refer to its figurative meanings. It has already been confirmed that political cartoons are rich in figurative devices (e.g., conceptual metaphor) (i.a. El Refaie, 2009) and they serve as a suitable corpus for the investigation of the figurative meaning of the Parliament. In the case of a conceptual metaphor, for instance, the Parliament (considered as a target domain) is understood via the source domain conceptually different from the target (e.g., COLOSSEUM). In that way, certain characteristic features of the source domain are mapped onto the target domain, and we are able to interpret politics, specifically the Parliament itself as the site of real, dangerous, life-or-death physical battles. All these figurative meanings can influence how we think about politics, its processes, and actors, how we argue in the case of a political problem and how we would try to solve it. The current research aims to examine how the Hungarian Parliament is visually represented in editorial cartoons and how these visual representations – through figurative conceptual devices such as conceptual metaphors and conceptual metonymies – construct the concept of the parliament. Furthermore, the thesis discusses how these cognitive devices cooperate with ironies and cultural references (such as idioms, allusions, and national symbols) which are determinant in evaluation procedures and the creation of emotional bonds between the viewer and the cartoon. In doing so, the dissertation studies the caricaturistic representations of the Parliament in three various periods (Körösényi, 2015); thus, the investigation is longitudinal (describing thirty years since 1989) and comparative. What are the novelties of the research? First, it examines Hungarian editorial cartoons in a cognitive linguistic framework, unlike this, so far Hungarian political cartoons have been discussed by historians (e.g., Tamás, 2014). Second, although the Parliament is an important concept (Kapitány & Kapitány, 2002), its figurative meaning has not been studied so widely yet. Third, it is a multimodal investigation of conceptual processes that fits into the trend of cognitive linguistic research that focuses on the cooperation of different processes. Fourth, this research examines a large data set in context where the contextual factors are limited to three types, namely idioms, allusions, and national symbols (context types are usually not defined in such concrete ways, e.g., Charteris-Black, 2011). Fifth, the dissertation applies Extended Conceptual Metaphor Theory (ECMT) (Kövecses, 2020) in practice in a larger corpus. Sixth, it is a diachronic investigation which is rare in the field of cartoon research (e.g., Frantzich, 2013) also in cognitive research, especially in multimodal research. The main results show that 1) the representation of the Parliament is strongly linked to such conceptual procedures as conceptual metonymy and conceptual metaphor. These cognitive devices are likely to cooperate with ironies and cultural references. 2) a limited number of cognitive devices (e.g., the conceptual metonymy THE PARLIAMENT STANDS FOR THE GOVERNMENT, or the conceptual metaphor THE PARLIAMENT IS A PLACE FOR PHYSICAL CONFLICT) are recurring in the corpus during the period between 1989 and 2019. However, regarding the perspectivization, content and function of these cognitive devices, it is said that the compared periods of democracy (Körösényi, 2015) show significant differences based on the diverse preferences and distribution of the cognitive devices with specific cultural references in each era. 3) the increase of more aggressive scenes emerges from the metaphoric domain of PHYSICAL CONFLICT, which goes hand in hand with a change in the use of national symbols referring to the perceived extreme nationalist content, and political slogans which are dominated by the direct elements (literal citations, showing violence overtly). An unexpected result is the detection of a shift in communication acting in the opposite direction, according to which in linguistic changes indirect processes took place (e.g., increasing use of causal type ironies), in visual processes direct changes became predominant, so for instance, violence appeared literally. In sum, the Parliament seems a permanent phenomenon throughout the years, however, this research points to its different meanings and nuances of meaning variants. So even the stability of the meaning of such a strong national symbol can be questioned.

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    Authors: Morris, David;

    1. There are fields in which complex interdependence will likely continue, while there are also fields in which a highly normative, geopolitical contest is underway that potentially undermines interdependence. 2. In international finance, a shared risk approach was demonstrated by the emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank. In this case, China has contributed a new institution, challenging US leadership of global finance yet seeking reform rather than revolution to address the needs of the developing world. More transparency about bilateral Chinese lending would help reassure concerns about debt sustainability. The growth of green finance may in time provide an opportunity for greater accountabilities in resource planning, transparency of lending and tracking of project deliverables. 3. In communications technology, a shared, multi-stakeholder risk approach was demonstrated to be the optimal risk reduction approach, in the face of very real and multiple-sourced cyber-risks. Yet geopolitical contest and spiralling distrust (for example, the case of Huawei) is undermining international cooperation in constructing new institutions, norms and rules to protect the integrity of systems that are expected to transform economies, societies and assist the shift to sustainability. There may yet be some room for compromise in particular if brokered by the EU. 4. In infrastructure connectivity, China’s different risk approach was demonstrated, underlining a confidence in the Asian development model, although this approach has generated claims of debt risks, opaque decision making, corruption and other problems, often at the country or project level in high-risk operating environments. The risks in the Kyaukphyu, Myanmar, case are high and diverse. This points to the need for China to pay closer attention to local and regional sustainable development outcomes. 5. A new theoretical framework for sustainable internationalism is needed to understand the new, emerging conditions in a multipolar world order, to construct a new global sense of purpose to address shared challenges in a shared risks/mutual interests-based international system. 6. A new concept of geopolitical risk is needed to more proportionately assess interdependence risks and opportunities for actors than the traditional, normative, zero-sum concept.

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    Authors: Csóka, Imola;

    Most of the education systems in developed countries start streaming their students to different educational pathways (tracks) at the secondary school level, which usually takes place after grade 8 when students are 14-16 years old. However, a special type of track also exists which aims to educate the best and brightest in the cohort: elite schools have competitive learning environments and highly selective admissions such as grammar schools in the UK and exam schools in the USA. Elite schools are of great interest to educational researchers and policymakers, although the results in the international literature are mixed due to methodological issues and differences in education systems that result in context dependency. Hungary has a unique type of elite track, where selection happens in grade 4 or 6, much earlier than in most of the comparable elite programs, so this institution relates to the field of early tracking in education, such as elite schools' literature. The primary issue for students and parents is whether applying to elite programs is worthwhile and what kind of gains (if any) can be made if admitted. For policy makers on the other hand, not only elite program's effectiveness can be interesting, but its possible impact on inequality as well. My research focuses on identifying the effects of elite programs. I compare students who entered the elite program in Grade 5 or 7 (treated group) to students who entered the general program in Grade 9 (control group) in the same academic high schools. I address the following questions: 1. What is the role of test scores and family background in admission to elite programs? Which is the stronger factor? How does it relate to inequality? 2. Do elite programs help increase students' test scores more than the alternative track (general programs)? Is this impact (if any) substantial or negligible? 3. To what extent do elite programs impact post-secondary education outcomes, such as enrollment to BA and MA level, obtaining a degree, type of major, and quality of university? Where is the greatest impact? 4. What are the most important channels of the mechanism? Is it through improved test scores, grade point average (GPA), aspiration, or something else? 5. Are the effects heterogeneous? Do students of different test scores or backgrounds experience different effects? This study exploits rich administrative individual panel data in Hungary to study how enrollment in an elite secondary school program affects students’ university outcomes. First, I analyze the sorting mechanism, then measure the effect of elite programs on test scores and post-secondary education. OLS and propensity score matching estimates show significant 3-4 percentage points effects of elite secondary school programs on university enrollment and completion rates. These differences are much lower than raw differences but are non-negligible, and the relative impact of elite secondary school programs on tertiary completion and MA enrolment is much greater in magnitude compared to that on BA enrollment. Suggestive evidence shows that a substantial part of the enrolment effect can be attributed to improvement in school performance – test scores and GPA, and I also offer further suggestive evidence on the potential mechanism through teacher/school quality. Heterogeneity in the independent variable (university enrollment) is also considered by distinguishing majors (STEM, arts, medical, law and governance), internationally recognized universities and publication performance of universities (university quality), and MA enrollment. Findings are inconclusive about STEM track choice, but I find significant and non-negligible positive effects on the quality of the university where students enroll and, on the probability, of whether students continue MA-level education as well. A detailed heterogeneity analysis is conducted on groups based on explanatory variables (e.g. gender, SES, test scores, primary school quality) shows that students of more disadvantaged groups benefit more from elite programs, although the effects on more advantaged students are also mostly significantly positive, but smaller in magnitude. I apply IV estimation to test for omitted variable bias in the current estimates, and the results do not indicate the presence of severe bias. Moreover, I conducted several robustness tests to support the findings, and the main coefficients remain stable throughout different specifications. The study aims to extend the knowledge relating to the effects of elite secondary school programs in international and Hungarian literature as well. The contribution of this research is threefold. First, this study examines and compares short-run (test scores) and long-run post secondary outcomes together in a similar setting. Second, to the best of my knowledge, this research is the first to look at university outcomes in the context of elite programs in Hungary. Third, considering university quality as an outcome in the international literature regarding the effect of elite schools is rare, and the application of international rankings as a quality measure is unique.

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    Authors: Mentes, Mert;

    In the 1990s, Amazon, Alibaba and eBay, pioneers in digital retailing, integrated technological innovations into their online shopping applications, to increase customers’ satisfaction. These companies have paved the way for the sector's development. Today, online shopping is more user-friendly than ever before. Innovations in electronic commerce -easy navigation, fast webpage loading times, quick product searches, accurate product recommendations, detailed information on product features, accurate visual design and shop atmosphere, and an easy checkout process- are site-specific developments that prioritize a pleasant shopping experience and create competitive advantage to businesses. Digitalization and e-commerce trends have brought significant changes to the retail industry both in developed and developing countries. As consumers increasingly turn to online platforms for their shopping needs, it is crucial for e-commerce businesses to adapt and provide an exceptional online shopping experience. This is particularly true for online book retailers, which cater to book enthusiasts seeking convenience and a wide selection of titles. The empirical research is set in Turkey because it has a significant market for e-commerce (Akar, 2021; Kaya et al. 2019). This dissertation investigates the relationship between trust, satisfaction, and intention to repurchase in the digital retail sector, specifically in book shopping. This is done by conducting a survey with customers who made book purchases from the online store www.idefix.com, one of the largest e-commerce websites in Turkey. For this purpose, a questionnaire survey was administered to 649 active users of www.idefix.com. The flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1990) was applied to identify the drivers of online shopping satisfaction and repurchase intention. The data was analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM), and the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) was utilized for statistical analysis. Results indicate that the affective and cognitive experiential state have a direct positive effect on online shopping satisfaction and repurchase intention. Findings contribute to the ongoing discussion about consumers' experiences in e-commerce and their impact on the retail sector. The results of the study can provide website managers with a tool to evaluate customers' shopping experiences more accurately on the site and contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between the dimensions of website performance mentioned in the literature. The study also explores theoretical implications.

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    Authors: Megyeri, Gábor;

    The Digital Pasts Analog Futures PhD thesis focuses on the future, exploring whether analogue values will continue to be needed in human existence, communication, learning and development in the age of digitization and beyond. The subject of the research is handwriting, a human activity that is not only a simple recording of information, but also a multifaceted process of coordination that enables the acquisition and maintenance of additional skills. The main research question of the dissertation is how humanity today relates to digital and analogue solutions, how the inevitability of analogue solutions can be identified in our everyday thinking and actions. The research can be divided into four main phases. (1) The first phase was a literature analysis and systematic literature review, which examined the past and present of handwriting across disciplines. The primary aim was to explore the status of handwriting as an analogue value and human activity. (2) In the second exploratory phase, we examined essays written by young adults (also CUB students) (typed and handwritten) detailing their analogue and digital experiences. This aims to explore and validate the problem and the issues raised in detail. (3) The third phase is a design interaction in the form of a collaborative netnographic analysis. (4) The fourth phase was a design action, which resulted in a crowd funding project around a real product (a writing instrument) created in the framework of the research. The research is based on a combination of different paradigms. The interplay of the above phases has contributed greatly to the results of the research. The first and second research phases have shown that analogue values such as handwriting have a place, relevance and future in the digital world. The third, netnographic analysis phase led to a real-world connection, whereby the resulting data was coded and the results interpreted to formulate all the characteristics of the product created during the design action, and contributed to the marketing, economic, scheduling, production and management plans for the crowd funding project. The success of the design and sales phase of the design action not only financed it economically, but also validated all the phases and results of the research

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    Authors: Omarli, Sevinj;

    This research examines the relationship between dynamic pricing, fair pricing perception, and willingness to buy. The theoretical contribution of this research is to provide a conceptual framework and empirical evidence for understanding the complex relationships between constructs. The study also examines the moderating effect of price position, internal reference price, price sensitivity, industrial norm, brand image on the relationship between dynamic pricing and fair pricing perception. In frame of the research, 387 undergraduate students have been surveyed about their airline ticket buying behaviour. Dynamic pricing strategies and price positions were applied as stimuli in a quasi-experimental setting. Results show that the effect of dynamic pricing strategies has a significant effect on perceived fair pricing and, through this, on the willingness to buy. It was investigated that price position moderates the association between dynamic pricing strategy with decreasing trend and fair pricing perception. In the case of a relative higher market price, this effect is stronger. The brand image is also a key concept in marketing. It has an influence on consumers attitude towards the brand and therefore effects the information the consumers select and let it or, on the other hand, filter out during the process of perception. The current study supported that the negative effects of dynamic pricing are weaker when the brand image is positive in the mind of consumers. Norms could heavily effect consumer behavior and its influence has been revealed in several studies. However, studies investigating the moderation role of industry norm in dynamic pricing context are rare. As this moderation effect was examined between the subdimensions of dynamic pricing and fair pricing perception, the outcome of the research is also novel to the literature. Limited research has been conducted on consumer perceptions of price fairness in the context of dynamic pricing. Examining the relationship between perceived price fairness and consumer purchasing propensity in the context of dynamic pricing is the purpose of the present study. The results of the study build upon prior research while also presenting contradictory findings. The findings cast light on the formation of price fairness perceptions in dynamic pricing and the influence of these perceptions on consumer purchase intent. This study contributes in two ways to the literature on price fairness. First, it combines two significant antecedents - price volatility and price change trends - with an outcome dimension, namely purchasing propensity, into a single conceptual model. Second, the research identifies potential moderator variables, including price position, consumer price sensitivity, industry norm, and brand image.

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    Authors: Asemi, Asefeh;

    Investment recommendation systems (IRSs) are critical tools used by potential investors to make informed decisions about investment options. However, existing systems have limitations in terms of accuracy and efficiency, leading to a need for more effective and efficient recommendation systems. This dissertation proposes the use of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to develop a combined IRS that can provide accurate and efficient investment recommendations for potential investors. The main research question for this study is "How can an ANFIS be utilized to propose an effective and efficient investment recommendation system?" The specific sub-goals of the study are: 1) to categorize and cluster potential investors based on available data to make accurate investment recommendations, 2) to offer customized investment-type services using adaptive neural-fuzzy inference solutions for different categories of potential investors, and 3) to propose a combined recommender system to provide appropriate investment type recommendations for all categorized and clustered potential investors. The dissertation is structured into five chapters. Chapter I provides an overview of the research question and objectives, and Chapter II presents a theoretical framework and literature review, covering existing research on ANFIS in investment recommendation systems. Chapter III explains the methodology used to develop the combined IRS using ANFIS, including data collection, categorization and clustering of potential investors, development of the combined ANFIS model, and evaluation of the proposed system. Chapter IV presents the experimental results and analysis, highlighting the effectiveness of the model in providing appropriate investment-type recommendations for categorized and clustered potential investors. This chapter describes seven experiments that focused on investment recommender systems. Each experiment proposed a unique system that utilized various features of potential investors and their investment type experiences, in addition to employing fuzzy neural inference and the K-Means technique to generate personalized investment recommendations. The first experiment proposed a demographic ANFIS that utilized customer feedback and fuzzy neural inference to generate personalized investment recommendations. The second experiment proposed an automatic recommender system that worked with four key decision factors (KDFs) of potential investors: system value, environmental awareness, high return expectation, and low return expectation. The third experiment used potential investors' financial management traits and investment type for the recommendation. The model was based on an ANFIS, and feedback from knowledge experts and investors was used to improve the system. The fourth experiment used potential investors' experiences data to predict investment outcomes, and the system's performance was evaluated by comparing its recommendations with actual investment outcomes. The fifth experiment proposed an ANFIS-based investment recommendation system based on customers' financial situations, risk tolerance, and investment goals. The sixth experiment investigated the impact of personal characteristics such as age, income, and education level, as well as managerial issues, on investment decisions. The seventh experiment combined and clustered data from the six previous ANFIS systems to provide accurate investment recommendations. The system utilized clustering techniques to group customers with similar financial situations and investment goals, thereby enhancing the personalization of the recommendations. Overall, these experiments propose a novel approach to developing an effective and efficient investment recommendation system using ANFIS. The proposed system has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy and efficiency of investment recommendations, thereby enhancing the decision-making process for potential investors. A comparison of the results with other existing methods and a discussion of the limitations and challenges faced during the development of the system are also included in this chapter. Finally, Chapter V provides a comprehensive discussion of the research findings and their implications, including suggestions for future research. Overall, this dissertation proposes a novel approach to developing an effective and efficient investment recommendation system using ANFIS. The proposed system has the potential to significantly improve the accuracy and efficiency of investment recommendations, thereby enhancing the decision-making process for potential investors.

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    Authors: Sztanó, Gábor;

    The thesis delves into the impact of advanced central banks' monetary policies on emerging government bond markets, the so-called 'monetary policy spillovers.' Over the past decade, there has been a reported correlation between interest rates on advanced and emerging financial markets. Following the Global Financial Crisis, substantial international capital flows occurred, particularly to government bond markets of emerging countries, influenced by the aggressive monetary easing of the major central banks. The research aims to address the puzzling question of the extent to which large central banks impact emerging financial markets. It outlines a research agenda to examine the size of monetary policy spillovers in the case of the Federal Reserve, the European Central Bank, and the Bank of Japan. Beyond the magnitude of the spillover effect, regional differences and factors influencing recipient countries' sensitivity to international shocks are also examined. In summary, the thesis contributes to the international finance literature by shedding light on the relationship between advanced central banks’ monetary policy decisions and the dynamics of emerging government bond markets.

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    Authors: Fekete, Krisztina Anna;

    While the Earth’s resources and capability are at its limits, while large part of the society is suffering from hardship, the other part is responsible for overconsumption, enormous waste generation. Pollution combined with self-centred human attitude led to the most crucial situation in our century of crises, Climate Change. It is currently one of the most urgent global problems, which are interconnected, complex and it has environmental, economic, social, and technological perspectives. While cities represent most of the population, the biggest greenhouse gas (GHGs) emitter, they use arable land for urban purposes, and they are the centre of services and production. Accordingly, cities were seen as excellent testing-grounds to put smart solutions in a new prospective and examine whether they could be or has been adapted into sustainable climate change combat by increasing the efficiency of mitigation and adaptation processes. For that reason, it will be investigated whether the focus of smart (city) solutions is either primarily environmental (smart-sustainable), or the focus is economic efficiency, but its use is more complex, which enhance sustainability. Based on this aim, the dissertation uses inductive approach, which is applied by using qualitative, explorative methodology such as semi-structured interviews (N=17) with content analysis to define the city level efficiency of the solutions, the driven factors within the decisions, and non-probability sampling methods during the questionary (N=550) to specify smart ability to increase climate awareness at the level of individuals. The research findings confirmed that, however the economic efficiency still dominate the development decisions, the environmental aspect is increasingly important mostly in the fields of mobility, energy usage and heating through the more complex, sustainable, resilient applied approaches in the implementation processes. In addition, there is a shrinking knowledge gap between the ‘investors’ (final users) and the providers of smart solutions, and the relevance of the sensitization and education of the population has become more important. Finally, through the survey, interviews and research, existing smart solutions have been collected within the six sectors of smart city to contribute to the educational purposes.

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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Corvinus University ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/