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  • PAHO COVID19

  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Rationale: The COVID‐19 pandemic affects diverse groups of women and men differently. The risks and consequences are disproportionately felt by certain groups, especially those living in situations of vulnerability and those who experience discrimination. It is vital that country responses to COVID-19 consider equity, gender, ethnicity, and human rights perspectives to: • prevent the expansion of inequalities; • account for the everyday lived realities of different groups that may affect the success of measures. Objectives: • To function as a “first port of call” for national health policy makers to support their efforts to integrate and enhance equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights considerations and approaches into measures responding to COVID-19; • To provide links to sources of related information and guidelines, where available.

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    Authors: Huang, Yongshent et al.;

    oronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public emergency and a worldwide pandemic. The clinical symptoms of severe and non-severe patients vary, and the case-fatality rate (CFR) in severe COVID-19 patients is very high. However, the information on the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 and of their prognostic potential is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome data were collected and analyzed from 223 COVID-19 patients stratified into 125 non-severe patients and 98 severe patients. In addition, a pooled large-scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases was performed. RESULTS: We found that the age, gender and comorbidities are the common risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. For the diagnosis markers, we found that the levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly higher in severe group compared with the non-severe group on admission (D-Dimer: 87.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001; CRP, 65.1% vs. 13.5%, P<0.001; LDH: 83.9% vs. 22.2%, P<0.001; PCT: 35.1% vs. 2.2%, P<0.001), while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASP) and creatinine kinase (CK) were only mildly increased. We also made a large scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases combined with 4 related literatures, and further confirmed the relationship between the COVID-19 severity and these risk factors. Moreover, we tracked dynamic changes during the process of COVID-19, and found CRP, D-dimer, LDH, PCT kept in high levels in severe patient. Among all these markers, D-dimer increased remarkably in severe patients and mostly related with the case-fatality rate (CFR). We found adjuvant antithrombotic treatment in some severe patients achieved good therapeutic effect in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis markers CRP, D-dimer, LDH and PCT are associated with severity of COVID-19. Among these markers, D-dimer is sensitive for both severity and CFR of COVID-19. Treatment with heparin or other anticoagulants may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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    Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva, y de manera particular, la atención durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio y de la persona recién nacida, se clasifican como servicios esenciales que deben mantenerse en apego a las medidas de prevención y mitigación de la transmisión de COVID-19. Dadas las características de la población, el comportamiento epidemiológico y las persistentes brechas de desigualdad en salud de la población mexicana, éstas se traducen en riesgos diferenciales para las mujeres en edad fértil y durante el proceso reproductivo, por lo que es necesario intensificar esfuerzos para garantizar su continuidad y calidad.

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    Authors: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde;

    [Introdução]: Este documento reúne orientações técnicas para agências governamentais, trabalhadores da saúde e outros públicos envolvidos, sobre como responder à disseminação comunitária. Este documento será atualizado à medida que novas informações forem disponibilizadas. Para os países em que essa resposta já esteja em preparação ou em andamento, este documento serve também como checklist para identificação de quaisquer pendências existentes.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Antecedentes El 30 de enero de 2020, la OMS declaró que el brote de COVID-19 constituía una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional. Inicialmente, la mayoría de los casos se notificaron en China y en personas que habían viajado a China. La situación más reciente puede consultarse en los informes de situación sobre la COVID-19 (en inglés). La COVID-19 es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda causada por un nuevo coronavirus humano (SARS-CoV-2, también conocido como virus COVID-19), que provoca una mayor mortalidad en mayores de 60 años y en personas con afecciones previas como enfermedades cardiovasculares, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas, diabetes o cáncer. Los centros de atención de larga estancia, tales como residencias geriátricas y centros de rehabilitación, son establecimientos que prestan cuidados a personas — en algunos casos de edad avanzada— con discapacidades físicas o mentales. Los residentes en centros de atención de larga estancia constituyen un grupo de población vulnerable que presentan un mayor riesgo de desenlaces adversos e infecciones al convivir en estrecha proximidad con otras personas. Por consiguiente, los centros de larga estancia han de adoptar precauciones especiales para proteger a sus residentes, empleados y visitantes. Debe tenerse en cuenta que las actividades de prevención y control de infecciones (PCI), en particular el uso de equipos de protección personal (EPP) y las restricciones de las visitas y actividades de grupo, pueden afectar a la salud y el bienestar mentales de los residentes y el personal. Para más información sobre la resiliencia durante el brote de COVID-19, véanse las consideraciones sobre la salud mental y la atención psicosocial durante el brote de COVID-19 (en inglés)...

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Carotti, Marina et al.;

    COVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monitoring the clinical course and in evaluating the disease severity. This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern, “reversed halo” sign and vascular enlargement. The CT findings of COVID-19 overlap with the CT findings of other diseases, in particular the viral pneumonia including influenza viruses, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, etc. There are differences as well as similarities in the CT features of COVID-19 compared with those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The aim of this article is to review the typical and atypical CT findings in COVID-19 patients in order to help radiologists and clinicians to become more familiar with the disease.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ PAHO COVID19arrow_drop_down
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    13th March, 2020 - ST. JOHN’S, Antigua and Barbuda – 13th March, 2020Prime Minister the Hon. Gaston Browne today announced that the country has recorded its first confirmation of someone who has contracted the coronavirus (COVID-19). “I want to emphasize that there is no need for fear or panic, arising from this case. The person concerned is in self isolation at home, and a regime has been put in place today, not only to continue such isolation, but also to treat the condition,” noted the Prime Minister. He called on the nation to be more sensible in their behaviour and be their brother’s keeper. “Let us conjoin our efforts to prevent the spread of Covid 19 within the domestic population,” he said. “Considering the challenges of Covid 19, to include the economic impact and potential threat to our food security, we have to work diligently and collectively as a nation, of one people, with a common destiny to confront these challenges,” PM Browne concluded.

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    Authors: Colombia. Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social;
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    Authors: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde;

    [Introdução]: A OMS desenvolveu esta nota de aconselhamento rápido para atender à necessidade de recomendações sobre atendimento domiciliar seguro para pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo novo coronavírus (2019-nCoV), apresentando sintomas leves e medidas de saúde pública relacionadas ao manejo de contatos assintomáticos. O documento é adaptado das orientações provisórias relativas ao MERS-CoV, publicado em junho de 20181, e está constituído pelas diretrizes com base em evidência publicadas pela OMS, incluindo Prevenção e controle de infecções de doenças respiratórias agudas propensas a epidemias e pandemias nos cuidados de saúde e com base nas informações atuais disponíveis sobre a infecção pelo 2019-nCoV. Esta orientação rápida destina-se a profissionais de saúde pública e de prevenção e controle de infecção (PCI), gestores e profissionais de saúde, ao abordar questões relacionadas ao atendimento domiciliar de pacientes com suspeita de infecção pelo nCoV que apresentem sintomas leves e o tratamento de contatos assintomáticos.

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    El presente lineamiento tiene como objetivo establecer los puntos de partida para abordaje preventivo y de atención de la salud mental y apoyo psicosocial mediante una serie de pautas dirigidas a la población en general, familias, instancias de respuesta y prestadoras de servicios, en particular, con el fin de responder a la situación epidemiológica dinámica existente de la COVID-19 y el virus SARS-CoV-2.

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/

    Rationale: The COVID‐19 pandemic affects diverse groups of women and men differently. The risks and consequences are disproportionately felt by certain groups, especially those living in situations of vulnerability and those who experience discrimination. It is vital that country responses to COVID-19 consider equity, gender, ethnicity, and human rights perspectives to: • prevent the expansion of inequalities; • account for the everyday lived realities of different groups that may affect the success of measures. Objectives: • To function as a “first port of call” for national health policy makers to support their efforts to integrate and enhance equity, gender, ethnicity and human rights considerations and approaches into measures responding to COVID-19; • To provide links to sources of related information and guidelines, where available.

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    Authors: Huang, Yongshent et al.;

    oronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently become a public emergency and a worldwide pandemic. The clinical symptoms of severe and non-severe patients vary, and the case-fatality rate (CFR) in severe COVID-19 patients is very high. However, the information on the risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19 and of their prognostic potential is limited. METHODS: In this retrospective study, the clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, treatment and outcome data were collected and analyzed from 223 COVID-19 patients stratified into 125 non-severe patients and 98 severe patients. In addition, a pooled large-scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases was performed. RESULTS: We found that the age, gender and comorbidities are the common risk factors associated with the severity of COVID-19. For the diagnosis markers, we found that the levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), procalcitonin (PCT) were significantly higher in severe group compared with the non-severe group on admission (D-Dimer: 87.3% vs. 35.3%, P<0.001; CRP, 65.1% vs. 13.5%, P<0.001; LDH: 83.9% vs. 22.2%, P<0.001; PCT: 35.1% vs. 2.2%, P<0.001), while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (ASP) and creatinine kinase (CK) were only mildly increased. We also made a large scale meta-analysis of 1646 cases combined with 4 related literatures, and further confirmed the relationship between the COVID-19 severity and these risk factors. Moreover, we tracked dynamic changes during the process of COVID-19, and found CRP, D-dimer, LDH, PCT kept in high levels in severe patient. Among all these markers, D-dimer increased remarkably in severe patients and mostly related with the case-fatality rate (CFR). We found adjuvant antithrombotic treatment in some severe patients achieved good therapeutic effect in the cohort. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis markers CRP, D-dimer, LDH and PCT are associated with severity of COVID-19. Among these markers, D-dimer is sensitive for both severity and CFR of COVID-19. Treatment with heparin or other anticoagulants may be beneficial for COVID-19 patients.

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    Durante la pandemia de COVID-19, los servicios de salud sexual y reproductiva, y de manera particular, la atención durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio y de la persona recién nacida, se clasifican como servicios esenciales que deben mantenerse en apego a las medidas de prevención y mitigación de la transmisión de COVID-19. Dadas las características de la población, el comportamiento epidemiológico y las persistentes brechas de desigualdad en salud de la población mexicana, éstas se traducen en riesgos diferenciales para las mujeres en edad fértil y durante el proceso reproductivo, por lo que es necesario intensificar esfuerzos para garantizar su continuidad y calidad.

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    Authors: Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde;

    [Introdução]: Este documento reúne orientações técnicas para agências governamentais, trabalhadores da saúde e outros públicos envolvidos, sobre como responder à disseminação comunitária. Este documento será atualizado à medida que novas informações forem disponibilizadas. Para os países em que essa resposta já esteja em preparação ou em andamento, este documento serve também como checklist para identificação de quaisquer pendências existentes.

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    Antecedentes El 30 de enero de 2020, la OMS declaró que el brote de COVID-19 constituía una emergencia de salud pública de importancia internacional. Inicialmente, la mayoría de los casos se notificaron en China y en personas que habían viajado a China. La situación más reciente puede consultarse en los informes de situación sobre la COVID-19 (en inglés). La COVID-19 es una enfermedad respiratoria aguda causada por un nuevo coronavirus humano (SARS-CoV-2, también conocido como virus COVID-19), que provoca una mayor mortalidad en mayores de 60 años y en personas con afecciones previas como enfermedades cardiovasculares, enfermedades respiratorias crónicas, diabetes o cáncer. Los centros de atención de larga estancia, tales como residencias geriátricas y centros de rehabilitación, son establecimientos que prestan cuidados a personas — en algunos casos de edad avanzada— con discapacidades físicas o mentales. Los residentes en centros de atención de larga estancia constituyen un grupo de población vulnerable que presentan un mayor riesgo de desenlaces adversos e infecciones al convivir en estrecha proximidad con otras personas. Por consiguiente, los centros de larga estancia han de adoptar precauciones especiales para proteger a sus residentes, empleados y visitantes. Debe tenerse en cuenta que las actividades de prevención y control de infecciones (PCI), en particular el uso de equipos de protección personal (EPP) y las restricciones de las visitas y actividades de grupo, pueden afectar a la salud y el bienestar mentales de los residentes y el personal. Para más información sobre la resiliencia durante el brote de COVID-19, véanse las consideraciones sobre la salud mental y la atención psicosocial durante el brote de COVID-19 (en inglés)...

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    Authors: Carotti, Marina et al.;

    COVID-19 is an emerging infection caused by a novel coronavirus that is moving so rapidly that on 30 January 2020 the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern and on 11 March 2020 as a pandemic. An early diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for disease treatment and control of the disease spread. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated a low sensibility; therefore chest computed tomography (CT) plays a pivotal role not only in the early detection and diagnosis, especially for false negative RT-PCR tests, but also in monitoring the clinical course and in evaluating the disease severity. This paper reports the CT findings with some hints on the temporal changes over the course of the disease: the CT hallmarks of COVID-19 are bilateral distribution of ground glass opacities with or without consolidation in the posterior and peripheral lung, but the predominant findings in later phases include consolidations, linear opacities, “crazy-paving” pattern, “reversed halo” sign and vascular enlargement. The CT findings of COVID-19 overlap with the CT findings of other diseases, in particular the viral pneumonia including influenza viruses, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, human metapneumovirus, etc. There are differences as well as similarities in the CT features of COVID-19 compared with those of the severe acute respiratory syndrome. The aim of this article is to review the typical and atypical CT findings in COVID-19 patients in order to help radiologists and clinicians to become more familiar with the disease.

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