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  • Papyrus : Dépôt institutionnel - Université de Montréal

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bérard-Chagnon, Julien;

    Mémoire numérisé par la Division de la gestion de documents et des archives de l'Université de Montréal.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: TRABELSI, Mohammed;

    handle: 1866/381

    Ce papier teste la relation entre l’intermédiation financière et la croissance économique à l’aide de régressions en coupe instantanée et de données en panel pour 69 pays en développement, durant la période 1960-1990. Les principaux résultats sont : (i) le développement financier est un déterminant significatif de la croissance économique, tel que montré par les régressions en coupe instantanée; (ii) les marchés financiers cessent d’exercer tout effet sur l’activité réelle quand la dimension temporelle est introduite dans les régressions. Ce paradoxe peut être expliqué, dans le cas des pays en développement, par le manque d’un secteur entrepreneurial privé capable de transformer les fonds disponibles en projets profitables; (iii) l’effet du développement financier sur la croissance économique est transmis principalement à travers une augmentation de la productivité des investissements. This paper examines the empirical relationship between financial intermediation and economic growth using cross-country and panel data regressions for 69 developing countries for the 1960-1990 period. The main results are : (i) financial development is a significant determinant of economic growth, as it has been shown in cross-sectional regressions; (ii) financial markets cease to exert any effect on real activity when the temporal dimension is introduced in the regressions. The paradox may be explained, in the case of developing countries, by the lack of an entrepreneurial private sector capable to transform the available funds into profitable projects; (iii) the effect of financial development on economic growth is channeled mainly through an increase in investment efficiency.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Authors: Andersen, Mads Bryde;
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Bohard, Isabelle;

    Ce mémoire s’intéresse au changement de la notion d’asile à travers l’incorporation du concept de genre et son impact sur les processus de demande d’asile et l’octroi du statut de réfugié pour les personnes victimes de violences liées au genre au Canada. À partir d’une perspective diachronique sur les transmutations de l’asile et des transformations sociales et culturelles de ce phénomène social, nous enregistrons des tensions et des contradictions qui émanent de son application et des discours qui lui sont reliés. L’observation des dynamiques contradictoires qui s’enchevêtrent dans ce champ indique une tension dialectique entre les droits humains et la citoyenneté, une symbiose dans le développement des droits de la femme et les lois sur les réfugiés et des contradictions comme celles entre le relativisme et l’essentialisme. L’examen du processus de demande d’asile pour les femmes en particulier victimes de violences liées au genre à travers l’analyse des transformations sociales et culturelles signale le caractère éminemment politique de ce phénomène qui situe l’asile au carrefour du procès d’émancipation du sujet politique. This thesis focuses on the change of the concept of asylum through the incorporation of the gender concept and its impact on the application process of asylum and the granting of status refugee for victims of gender violence in Canada. From a diachronic perspective on the transmutations of asylum and of social and cultural transformations of this social phenomenon, we record the tensions and contradictions be issued by its application and its related discourse. The observation that conflicting dynamics tied in this field displays a dialectical tension between human rights and citizenship, a symbiosis in the development of women’s rights and laws on refugees and contradictions as those between the relativism and essentialism. The review of asylum process especially for women in particular victims of gender violence through an analysis of social and cultural change signals the highly political nature of this phenomenon and lies asylum at the crossroads in the process of emancipation of the political subject.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Macana Goia, Jorge Andres;

    Un réseau de seize détecteurs ATLAS-MPX a été mis en opération dans le détecteur ATLAS au LHC du CERN. Les détecteurs ATLAS-MPX sont sensibles au champ mixte de radiation de photons et d’électrons dans la caverne d’ATLAS et sont recouverts de convertisseurs de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène pour augmenter l’efficacité de détection des neutrons thermiques et des neutrons rapides respectivement. Les collisions à haute énergie sont dominées par des interactions partoniques avec petit moment transverse pT , associés à des événements de “minimum bias”. Dans notre cas la collision proton-proton se produit avec une énergie de 7 TeV dans le centre de masse avec une luminosité de 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ telle que fixée dans les simulations. On utilise la simulation des événements de "minimum bias" générés par PYTHIA en utilisant le cadre Athena qui fait une simulation GEANT4 complète du détecteur ATLAS pour mesurer le nombre de photons, d’électrons, des muons qui peuvent atteindre les détecteurs ATLASMPX dont les positions de chaque détecteur sont incluses dans les algorithmes d’Athena. Nous mesurons les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides, générés par GCALOR, dans les régions de fluorure de lithium et de polyéthylène respectivement. Les résultats des événements de “minimum bias” et les flux de neutrons thermiques et rapides obtenus des simulations sont comparés aux mesures réelles des détecteurs ATLAS-MPX. A network of sixteen ATLAS-MPX detectors has been put in operation in the ATLAS detector at CERN-LHC. ATLAS-MPX detectors are sensitive to a mixed radiation field of photons and electrons in the ATLAS cavern and are covered with lithium fluoride and polyethylene converters in order to increase the detection sensitivity of thermal neutrons and fast neutrons respectively. High energy collisions are dominated by partonic interactions with small transverse moment pT , associated with "minimum bias" events. In our case, the proton-proton collision occurs with an center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV with a fixed luminosity of 10³⁴cm⁻²s⁻¹ in the simulations. We use "minimum bias" events simulation generated by PYTHIA using the framework Athena. Athena’s framework makes a full GEANT4 simulation of the ATLAS detector. We include the positions of each detector in the Athena algorithms for measuring the number of photons, electrons and muons that can reach the detectors ATLAS-MPX. We measure the fluxes of thermal and fast neutrons generated by GCALOR in lithium fluoride and polyethylene regions respectively. The "minimum bias" events results and the flow of thermal and fast neutrons obtained by simulations are compared with real measurements of the ATLAS-MPX detectors.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Papyrus : Dépôt inst...arrow_drop_down
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    Pour toute demande de reproduction de contenu se trouvant dans cette publication, communiquer avec l’Association des diplômés de l’UdeM.

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    Authors: Cordero Guzmán, Gustavo Segundo;

    Les membres de la famille de protéines de maintenance structurelle des chromosomes (SMC) sont des régulateurs essentiels de la stabilité génomique. Le complexe Smc5-6 est indispensable pour la réparation de l'ADN, la maintenance des télomères et le redémarrage des fourches de réplication bloquées. La façon dont le complexe Smc5-6 remplit ses fonctions pour favoriser la stabilité du génome est encore incertaine. Ici, nous avons développé une nouvelle stratégie de purification pour isoler un complexe réassemblé fonctionnel. Cette approche nous a permis d'effectuer d'importantes analyses biochimiques et structurelles du complexe humain Smc5-6. Nous montrons que le complexe humain se lie avec une affinité plus faible aux substrats ADNdb par rapport à ADNsb. Ce complexe a également été caractérisé par une séparation zonale en gradient continu pour déterminer la masse moléculaire du complexe heteropentamerique après filtration sur gel. Nous avons utilisé la méthode "Gradient Fixation" (GraFix) pour stabiliser le complexe Smc5/6 afin de visualiser celui-ci par microscopie électronique (EM). En conclusion, nous avons identifié avec succès les conditions natives pour la purification d'un complexe Smc5-6 humain entièrement assemblé et fonctionnel. En outre, nous avons montré que ce complexe est biochimiquement actif et lie le ADNsb et le ADNdb avec différentes affinités. L'achèvement de notre analyse structurale éclairera le mécanisme d'action du complexe Smc5-6 lors de la réparation de l'ADN. Members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family of proteins are essential regulators of genomic stability. The Smc5-6 complex is indispensable for DNA repair, telomere maintenance and restart of stalled replication forks. How the Smc5-6 complex performs its functions to promote genome stability is still unclear. Here, we developed a novel purification strategy to isolate a reassembled complex. This approach allowed us to perform extensive biochemical and structural analyses of the human Smc5-6 complex. We show that the human complex binds with lower affinity to dsDNA substrates relative to ssDNA. This complex was also characterized by rate-zonal centrifugation to determine the molecular mass of the heteropentameric complex after gel filtration. We took advantage of the “Gradient Fixation” (GraFix) method to stabilize macromolecular complexes for single particle electron microscopy (EM). In conclusion, we have successfully identified native conditions for the purification of a fully assembled and functional human Smc5-6 complex. In addition, we showed that this complex is biochemically active and binds ssDNA and dsDNA with different affinities. Completion of our structural analysis will shed light on the mechanism of action of the Smc5-6 complex during DNA repair.

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    Authors: Gebhard, Catherine S.;

    Introduction: Le récent échec des molécules destinées à faire augmenter les taux de lipoprotéines de haute densité (HDL) a mené à la conclusion que la fonctionnalité des HDL, plutôt que leur quantité, jouerait un rôle majeur dans les pathologies cardiovasculaires. L’augmentation de HDL fonctionnelles via l’administration de HDL reconstituées (rHDL) ou d’apolipoprotéine A-I (apoA-I) semble être une approche prometteuse dans les maladies coronariennes et la sténose de la valve aortique (SVA). Cependant, les biomarqueurs reflétant la fonctionnalité des HDL utilisables en clinique sont inexistants. De plus, peu d’information existe sur les mécanismes par lesquels les thérapies basées sur les HDL pourraient diminuer le risque cardiovasculaire, ainsi que sur la conversion possible de rHDL et de l’apoA-I en molécules dysfonctionnelles. Finalement, les données relatives aux effets secondaires possibles de telles thérapies sont rares. Ainsi, la présente étude a évalué l’utilité de l’estérification du cholestérol comme biomarqueur des effets cardioprotecteurs des HDL ; les effets bénéfiques des rHDL sur la réparation endothéliale ; les effets secondaires potentiels des thérapies basées sur les HDL ; et les stratégies visant la protection des HDL dans la SVA. Méthodes et résultats: L’utilité de l’estérification du cholestérol lors de la maturation des particules de HDL, en tant que biomarqueur des effets cardioprotecteurs des HDL, a été analysée chez 267 patients atteints d’une maladie coronarienne stable. De plus, les effets des rHDL sur le mécanisme de réparation vasculaire ont été évalués chez 33 patients ayant récemment souffert d’un syndrome coronarien aigu (SCA), et la contribution de différentes protéases plasmatiques à la dégradation de l’apoA-I a été comparée chez des patients atteints d’une SVA, ainsi que dans un modèle de SVA chez le lapin. L’impact potentiel de l’administration d’un peptide mimétique de l’apoA-I sur les anomalies hémorragiques a également été évalué dans la même population de patients et le même modèle expérimental. L’estérification du cholestérol s’est révélée être un prédicteur puissant et indépendant de la charge athéroscléreuse chez les patients souffrant d’une maladie coronarienne. L’administration de rHDL a prévenu la réduction des cellules endothéliales progénitrices (EPC) chez les patients ayant récemment souffert d’un SCA. Bien que l’administration d’apoA-I n’ait pas eu d’incidence négative sur les anomalies hémorragiques dans le cas de SVA, il a été trouvé que la protéase à cystéine cathepsine S est la protéase clé responsable de 70% de la dégradation de l’apoA-I chez les humains. Conclusion : Les présentes données indiquent que l’estérification du cholestérol est un bon marqueur de la sévérité de l’artériosclérose. Ainsi, cibler l’estérification du cholestérol pourrait s’avérer une approche prometteuse pour réduire le risque cardiovasculaire. De plus, nos résultats montrent qu’une amélioration des mécanismes de réparation cardiovasculaire, suite à une lésion myocardique, pourrait faire partie des mécanismes par lesquels des HDL exogènes exercent leurs effets cardioprotecteurs. Cette dernière constitue également une stratégie particulièrement prometteuse pour le traitement de la SVA, et son efficacité pourrait être encore améliorée par l’inhibition de la protéase à cystéine cathepsine S. Background: The recent failure of drugs targeted to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels has led to the conclusion that HDL function rather than HDL quantity is the key player in cardiovascular pathologies. The augmentation of functional HDL through administration of reconstituted HDL (rHDL) or apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) seems a promising strategy to in coronary artery disease (CAD) and aortic valve stenosis (AVS). However, clinically applicable biomarkers reflecting functionality of HDL are lacking. In addition, little is known on the mechanisms governing the cardioprotective effects of HDL-based approaches as well as rHDL and apoA-I possible conversion into dysfunctional molecules. Finally, data regarding potential secondary effects of such therapy are sparse. Thus, the present project explored the value of cholesterol esterification as biomarker for cardioprotective HDL effects, assessed whether rHDL exerts beneficial effects in endothelial repair, and investigated potential side-effects of HDL-based therapies as well as HDL-preserving strategies in AVS. Method and results: We explored the value of cholesterol esterification during maturation of HDL particles, as a biomarker for cardioprotective HDL effects in 267 patients with stable CAD. In addition, the effect of rHDL on vascular repair mechanism was assessed in 33 patients with a recent acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and the contribution of different plasma proteases to apoA-I degradation was compared in patients with AVS as well as in a rabbit model of AVS. Using the same population and experimental model, we also assessed possible impact of apoA-I administration on haemorrhagic disorders in patients with AVS. Cholesterol esterification was found to be a strong and independent predictor of atherosclerotic burden in patients with CAD. Administration of rHDL prevented endothelial progenitor cells decline in patients with a recent ACS. While apoA-I administration did not negatively affect haemorrhagic disorders in AVS, it was found that the cysteine protease cathepsin S is the key protease responsible for 70% of apoA-I degradation in humans. Conclusion: The present data indicate that cholesterol esterification is a useful biomarker mirroring severity of atherosclerotic disease. Thus, targeting cholesterol esterification might be a promising therapeutic strategy to reduce cardiovascular risk. Our data further indicate that an improvement of cardiovascular repair mechanisms following myocardial injury might be amongst the mechanisms by which exogenous HDL exerts its cardioprotective actions. The latter is also a particularly promising strategy in the treatment of AVS and its efficacy could be further enhanced by inhibition of the cysteine protease cathepsin S.

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    Authors: Boulanger, Paul;

    La dépendance en température des spectres optiques des semi-conducteurs est discutée en fonction de la variation des énergies propres électroniques induite par l’interaction électron-phonon. Une démonstration formelle de la théorie de Allen-Heine-Cardona (AHC), la plus populaire dans le domaine, est présentée. Cette théorie est basée sur la théorie des perturbations et les approximations adiabatique, harmonique et des ions rigides. Une revue complète des applications semi-empiriques de cette théorie est aussi incluse dans ce document. Un nouveau formalisme ab initio basé sur la théorie des perturbations de la fonctionnelle de la densité (DFPT) est développé dans cette thèse. Ce formalisme est implémenté dans la distribution ABINIT. Dans cette nouvelle formulation, les fonctions d’onde de premier ordre sont déterminées grâce au principe variationnel et ne sont donc pas construites à partir des fonctions d’onde non perturbées, comme c’est le cas pour la théorie AHC. La théorie AHC présente une convergence lente sur le nombre d’états intermédiaires inclus dans la simulation : il faut inclure 2000 états pour un traitement adéquat de la molécule de H2 et 400 états pour le silicium. Le formalisme DFPT, quant à lui, ne nécessite que l’inclusion des états étudiés, ce qui mène à une diminution du temps de calcul par un facteur 20. Pour les molécules diatomiques,les résultats obtenus reproduisent ceux provenant de la méthode des différences finies. Pour le silicium, les résultats des études semi-empiriques antérieures sont retrouvés. Par contre, dans le cas du diamant, les résultats sont grandement sous-estimés. Ceci semble provenir de l’utilisation de la LDA. La méthode des différences finies utilisée dans le cas des molécules diatomiques a permis l’évaluation directe de la validité de l’approximation des ions rigides en évaluant le terme de Debye-Waller non diagonal (NDDW). Le terme NDDWcontribue entre 11 % pour la molécule de CO et 60 % pour la molécule de LiF ce qui signifie que l’approximation des ions rigide n’est pas valide. Cette approximation est donc perçue comme étant la cause du mauvais accord entre les observations expérimentales et les simulations théoriques pour les semi-conducteurs cristallins. The thermal corrections to the optical spectra of semiconductors are discussed interms of the variation of the single electron eigenenergies and the electron-phonon coupling. A formal derivation of the leading Allen-Heine-Cardona theory is presented. This theory is based on standard perturbation theory within the adiabatic, the harmonic and rigid-ion approximations. A full review of the successful application of this theory in the semi-empirical literature is also included. A new ab initio formalism based on DFPT is developed and implemented in the ABINIT package. In this new formulation of the theory of the electron-phonon coupling, the first-order wave functions are determined by a variational principle and are thus not constructed using the unperturbed wave functions. This is in contrast to the Allen- Heine-Cardona theory in which a slow convergence on the number of included states his observed : one must include 2000 states for the correct treatment of H2 and 400 states for silicon. Using the DFPT formalism with only 10 bands yields a decrease in calculation times by a factor of 20. This new implementation of the DFPT formalism was tested using the cases studies of diatomic molecules, silicon and diamond. The results obtained for the diatomic molecules reproduce finite difference calculations up to the numerical error present in the finite difference approach. The procedure reproduces the result of previous semi-empirical studies for silicon but underestimates drastically the electron-phonon coupling in diamond. This is shown to originate from the LDA. Finally, the finite difference method used in the diatomic molecules permitted the direct evaluation of the validity of the rigid-ion approximation by evaluating the non-site-diagonal Debye-Waller term. It was found that this term partially cancels the sum of the site-diagonal Debye-Waller and Fan term. It contributes from 11 % of this sum for CO to 60 % for LiF and is by no means negligible in any system considered. The mismatch between experimental observations and theoretical simulations in crystalline semiconductors is thus believed to originate from this approximation. Thèse réalisée en cotutelle avec l'Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgique)

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    Authors: Bérard-Chagnon, Julien;

    Mémoire numérisé par la Division de la gestion de documents et des archives de l'Université de Montréal.

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    Authors: Vincent Mousseau; Simon Baechler; Frank Crispino;

    What do policing leaders think and know of forensic science? Beyond crime scene investigators or detectives, how do police senior managers perceive the role, utility and limitations of forensic science? Very few empirical studies have addressed the issue. Forensic scientsts should be concerned about the perception that law enforcement senior managers have of their discipline for two reasons. First, strategic and financial decision-makers are obviously key players in the overall administration and provision of forensic science, either as a supervisor, money provider or as a customer. Second, literature has highlighted that other actors involved in forensic science underestimate the scope and possibilities offered by forensic science, hence limiting its exploitation and potential. Following interviews with 18 police senior managers from Quebec (Canada), this study shows that they generally restrict forensic science to a reactive discipline whose role and utility is to identify offenders and support the Court. This understanding of forensic science, like that of many others including a significant share of forensic scientists, differs from the perception of other police activities in modern law enforcement agencies where proactive action is sought. Considering these findings and the growing body of literature which calls for forensic science to connect more tightly with policing and security, we advocate a more extensive education of police leaders regarding the scope of forensic science.

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    Authors: TRABELSI, Mohammed;

    handle: 1866/381

    Ce papier teste la relation entre l’intermédiation financière et la croissance économique à l’aide de régressions en coupe instantanée et de données en panel pour 69 pays en développement, durant la période 1960-1990. Les principaux résultats sont : (i) le développement financier est un déterminant significatif de la croissance économique, tel que montré par les régressions en coupe instantanée; (ii) les marchés financiers cessent d’exercer tout effet sur l’activité réelle quand la dimension temporelle est introduite dans les régressions. Ce paradoxe peut être expliqué, dans le cas des pays en développement, par le manque d’un secteur entrepreneurial privé capable de transformer les fonds disponibles en projets profitables; (iii) l’effet du développement financier sur la croissance économique est transmis principalement à travers une augmentation de la productivité des investissements. This paper examines the empirical relationship between financial intermediation and economic growth using cross-country and panel data regressions for 69 developing countries for the 1960-1990 period. The main results are : (i) financial development is a significant determinant of economic growth, as it has been shown in cross-sectional regressions; (ii) financial markets cease to exert any effect on real activity when the temporal dimension is introduced in the regressions. The paradox may be explained, in the case of developing countries, by the lack of an entrepreneurial private sector capable to transform the available funds into profitable projects; (iii) the effect of financial development on economic growth is channeled mainly through an increase in investment efficiency.

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    Authors: Andersen, Mads Bryde;
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    Authors: Bohard, Isabelle;

    Ce mémoire s’intéresse au changement de la notion d’asile à travers l’incorporation du concept de genre et son impact sur les processus de demande d’asile et l’octroi du statut de réfugié pour les personnes victimes de violences liées au genre au Canada. À partir d’une perspective diachronique sur les transmutations de l’asile et des transformations sociales et culturelles de ce phénomène social, nous enregistrons des tensions et des contradictions qui émanent de son application et des discours qui lui sont reliés. L’observation des dynamiques contradictoires qui s’enchevêtrent dans ce champ indique une tension dialectique entre les droits humains et la citoyenneté, une symbiose dans le développement des droits de la femme et les lois sur les réfugiés et des contradictions comme celles entre le relativisme et l’essentialisme. L’examen du processus de demande d’asile pour les femmes en particulier victimes de violences liées au genre à travers l’analyse des transformations sociales et culturelles signale le caractère éminemment politique de ce phénomène qui situe l’asile au carrefour du procès d’émancipation du sujet politique. This thesis focuses on the change of the concept of asylum through the incorporation of the gender concept and its impact on the application process of asylum and the granting of status refugee for victims of gender violence in Canada. From a diachronic perspective on the transmutations of asylum and of social and cultural transformations of this social phenomenon, we record the tensions and contradictions be issued by its application and its related discourse. The observation that conflicting dynamics tied in this field displays a dialectical tension between human rights and citizenship, a symbiosis in the development of women’s rights and laws on refugees and contradictions as those between the relativism and essentialism. The review of asylum process especially for women in particular victims of gender violence through an analysis of social and cultural change signals the highly political nature of this phenomenon and lies asylum at the crossroads in the process of emancipation of the political subject.

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