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16 Research products

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  • 2018-2022
  • NIH|NATIONAL_CENTER_FOR_ADVANCING_TRANSLATIONAL_SCIENCES
  • NIH|NATIONAL_INSTITUTE_OF_ALLERGY_AND_INFECTIOUS_DISEASES
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  • COVID-19

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Wang, Hanyin; Hutch, Meghan R.; Li, Yikuan; Kline, Adrienne S.; +5 Authors

    Over 12 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered at the time of writing. However, public perceptions of vaccines have been complex. We analyzed COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets to understand the evolving perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines. We finetuned a deep learning classifier using a state-of-the-art model, XLNet, to detect each tweet's sentiment automatically. We employed validated methods to extract the users' race or ethnicity, gender, age, and geographical locations from user profiles. Incorporating multiple data sources, we assessed the sentiment patterns among subpopulations and juxtaposed them against vaccine uptake data to unravel their interactive patterns. 11,211,672 COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets corresponding to 2,203,681 users over two years were analyzed. The finetuned model for sentiment classification yielded an accuracy of 0.92 on testing set. Users from various demographic groups demonstrated distinct patterns in sentiments towards COVID-19 vaccines. User sentiments became more positive over time, upon which we observed subsequent upswing in the population-level vaccine uptake. Surrounding dates where positive sentiments crest, we detected encouraging news or events regarding vaccine development and distribution. Positive sentiments in pregnancy-related tweets demonstrated a delayed pattern compared with trends in general population, with postponed vaccine uptake trends. Distinctive patterns across subpopulations suggest the need of tailored strategies. Global news and events profoundly involved in shaping users' thoughts on social media. Populations with additional concerns, such as pregnancy, demonstrated more substantial hesitancy since lack of timely recommendations. Feature analysis revealed hesitancies of various subpopulations stemmed from clinical trial logics, risks and complications, and urgency of scientific evidence.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ arXiv.org e-Print Ar...arrow_drop_down
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Manry, Jérémy; Bastard, Paul; Gervais, Adrian; Le Voyer, Tom; +196 Authors

    The Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases is supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; The Rockefeller University; the St. Giles Foundation; the NIH (Grants R01AI088364 and R01AI163029); the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards program (Grant UL1 TR001866); a Fast Grant from Emergent Ventures; Mercatus Center at George Mason University; the Yale Center for Mendelian Genomics and the Genome Sequencing Program Coordinating Center funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (Grants UM1HG006504 and U24HG008956); the Yale High Performance Computing Center (Grant S10OD018521); the Fisher Center for Alzheimer’s Research Foundation; the Meyer Foundation; the JPB Foundation; the French National Research Agency (ANR) under the “Investments for the Future” program (Grant ANR-10-IAHU-01); the Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory of Excellence (Grant ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID); the French Foundation for Medical Research (FRM) (Grant EQU201903007798); the French Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral hepatitis (ANRS) Nord-Sud (Grant ANRS-COV05); the ANR GENVIR (Grant ANR-20-CE93-003), AABIFNCOV (Grant ANR-20-CO11-0001), CNSVIRGEN (Grant ANR-19-CE15-0009-01), and GenMIS-C (Grant ANR-21-COVR-0039) projects; the Square Foundation; Grandir–Fonds de solidarité pour l’Enfance; the Fondation du Souffle; the SCOR Corporate Foundation for Science; The French Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation (Grant MESRI-COVID-19); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), REACTing-INSERM; and the University Paris Cité. P. Bastard was supported by the FRM (Award EA20170638020). P. Bastard., J.R., and T.L.V. were supported by the MD-PhD program of the Imagine Institute (with the support of Fondation Bettencourt Schueller). Work at the Neurometabolic Disease lab received funding from Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER) (Grant ACCI20-767) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement 824110 (EASI Genomics). Work in the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease was supported by the NIH (Grants P01AI138398-S1, 2U19AI111825, and R01AI091707-10S1), a George Mason University Fast Grant, and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation. The Infanta Leonor University Hospital supported the research of the Department of Internal Medicine and Allergology. The French COVID Cohort study group was sponsored by INSERM and supported by the REACTing consortium and by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (Grant PHRC 20-0424). The Cov-Contact Cohort was supported by the REACTing consortium, the French Ministry of Health, and the European Commission (Grant RECOVER WP 6). This work was also partly supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH (Grants ZIA AI001270 to L.D.N. and 1ZIAAI001265 to H.C.S.). This program is supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01). K.K.’s group was supported by the Estonian Research Council, through Grants PRG117 and PRG377. R.H. was supported by an Al Jalila Foundation Seed Grant (Grant AJF202019), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and a COVID-19 research grant (Grant CoV19-0307) from the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. S.G.T. is supported by Investigator and Program Grants awarded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and a University of New South Wales COVID Rapid Response Initiative Grant. L.I. reports funding from Regione Lombardia, Italy (project “Risposta immune in pazienti con COVID-19 e co-morbidità”). This research was partially supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grant COV20/0968). J.R.H. reports funding from Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (Grant HHSO10201600031C). S.O. reports funding from Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (Grant JP20fk0108531). G.G. was supported by the ANR Flash COVID-19 program and SARS-CoV-2 Program of the Faculty of Medicine from Sorbonne University iCOVID programs. The 3C Study was conducted under a partnership agreement between INSERM, Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 University, and Sanofi-Aventis. The Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale funded the preparation and initiation of the study. The 3C Study was also supported by the Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés, Direction générale de la Santé, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, Institut de la Longévité, Conseils Régionaux of Aquitaine and Bourgogne, Fondation de France, and Ministry of Research–INSERM Program “Cohortes et collections de données biologiques.” S. Debette was supported by the University of Bordeaux Initiative of Excellence. P.K.G. reports funding from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, under Contract 75N91019D00024, Task Order 75N91021F00001. J.W. is supported by a Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) Fundamental Clinical Mandate (Grant 1833317N). Sample processing at IrsiCaixa was possible thanks to the crowdfunding initiative YoMeCorono. Work at Vall d’Hebron was also partly supported by research funding from Instituto de Salud Carlos III Grant PI17/00660 cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF/FEDER). C.R.-G. and colleagues from the Canarian Health System Sequencing Hub were supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grants COV20_01333 and COV20_01334), the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation (RTC-2017-6471-1; AEI/FEDER, European Union), Fundación DISA (Grants OA18/017 and OA20/024), and Cabildo Insular de Tenerife (Grants CGIEU0000219140 and “Apuestas científicas del ITER para colaborar en la lucha contra la COVID-19”). T.H.M. was supported by grants from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (Grants NNF20OC0064890 and NNF21OC0067157). C.M.B. is supported by a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Health Professional-Investigator Award. P.Q.H. and L. Hammarström were funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Antibody Therapy Against Coronavirus consortium, Grant 101003650). Work at Y.-L.L.’s laboratory in the University of Hong Kong (HKU) was supported by the Society for the Relief of Disabled Children. MBBS/PhD study of D.L. in HKU was supported by the Croucher Foundation. J.L.F. was supported in part by the Evaluation-Orientation de la Coopération Scientifique (ECOS) Nord - Coopération Scientifique France-Colombie (ECOS-Nord/Columbian Administrative department of Science, Technology and Innovation [COLCIENCIAS]/Colombian Ministry of National Education [MEN]/Colombian Institute of Educational Credit and Technical Studies Abroad [ICETEX, Grant 806-2018] and Colciencias Contract 713-2016 [Code 111574455633]). A. Klocperk was, in part, supported by Grants NU20-05-00282 and NV18-05-00162 issued by the Czech Health Research Council and Ministry of Health, Czech Republic. L.P. was funded by Program Project COVID-19 OSR-UniSR and Ministero della Salute (Grant COVID-2020-12371617). I.M. is a Senior Clinical Investigator at the Research Foundation–Flanders and is supported by the CSL Behring Chair of Primary Immunodeficiencies (PID); by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven C1 Grant C16/18/007; by a Flanders Institute for Biotechnology-Grand Challenges - PID grant; by the FWO Grants G0C8517N, G0B5120N, and G0E8420N; and by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation. I.M. has received funding under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement 948959). E.A. received funding from the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (Grant INTERFLU 1574). M. Vidigal received funding from the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2020/09702-1) and JBS SA (Grant 69004). The NH-COVAIR study group consortium was supported by a grant from the Meath Foundation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every 5 y of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-β are found in ∼20% of deceased patients across age groups, and in ∼1% of individuals aged 4% of those >70 y old in the general population. With a sample of 1,261 unvaccinated deceased patients and 34,159 individuals of the general population sampled before the pandemic, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to noncarriers. The RRD associated with any combination of autoantibodies was higher in subjects under 70 y old. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRDs were 17.0 (95% CI: 11.7 to 24.7) and 5.8 (4.5 to 7.4) for individuals <70 y and ≥70 y old, respectively, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRDs were 188.3 (44.8 to 774.4) and 7.2 (5.0 to 10.3), respectively. In contrast, IFRs increased with age, ranging from 0.17% (0.12 to 0.31) for individuals <40 y old to 26.7% (20.3 to 35.2) for those ≥80 y old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84% (0.31 to 8.28) to 40.5% (27.82 to 61.20) for autoantibodies neutralizing both. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, especially when neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω. Remarkably, IFRs increase with age, whereas RRDs decrease with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs is a strong and common predictor of COVID-19 death. Peer reviewed

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ https://lirias.kuleu...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Data sources: UnpayWall
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: PubMed Central
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2022
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Lirias
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: Lirias
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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    Article . 2022
    Data sources: NARCIS
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    image/svg+xml Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao Closed Access logo, derived from PLoS Open Access logo. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Closed_Access_logo_transparent.svg Jakob Voss, based on art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina and Beao
    Hyper Article en Ligne; HAL AMU
    Other literature type . Article . 2022
    HAL-Inserm
    Article . 2022
    Data sources: HAL-Inserm
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Romain Lévy; Peng Zhang; Paul Bastard; Karim Dorgham; +18 Authors

    Significance Life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia can be caused by rare inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity, or by autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω. In 2018, we reported a girl with critical influenza pneumonia due to inherited IRF9 deficiency, a component of the ISGF-3 transcription factor. We report the course of COVID-19 in the same patient. She was admitted on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection with viremia. Administration of SARS-CoV-2–specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on day 2 prevented the development of pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2–specific monoclonal antibodies were sufficient to overcome a lack of ISGF-3– and IRF9-dependent type I and type III IFN immunity to the virus. They should be considered in selected children at high risk of life-threatening COVID-19. We describe an unvaccinated child at risk for life-threatening COVID-19 due to an inherited deficiency of IRF9, which governs ISGF-3–dependent responses to type I and III interferons (IFN). She was admitted, with a high nasal SARS-CoV-2 load on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection. She was viremic on day 2 and received casirivimab and imdevimab. Her clinical manifestations and viremia disappeared on days 3 and 4, respectively. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in leukocytes on day 1, whereas the secretion of blood type I IFNs, which peaked on day 4, did not. Antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 neutralization is, therefore, sufficient to overcome a deficiency of antiviral IFNs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ HAL-Inserm; Proceedi...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Jana L. Jacobs; William Bain; Asma Naqvi; Brittany Staines; +23 Authors

    Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA (vRNA) is detected in the bloodstream of some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is not clear whether this RNAemia reflects viremia (ie, virus particles) and how it relates to host immune responses and outcomes. Methods SARS-CoV-2 vRNA was quantified in plasma samples from observational cohorts of 51 COVID-19 patients including 9 outpatients, 19 hospitalized (non–intensive care unit [ICU]), and 23 ICU patients. vRNA levels were compared with cross-sectional indices of COVID-19 severity and prospective clinical outcomes. We used multiple imaging methods to visualize virions in plasma. Results SARS-CoV-2 vRNA was detected in plasma of 100%, 52.6%, and 11.1% of ICU, non-ICU, and outpatients, respectively. Virions were detected in plasma pellets using electron tomography and immunostaining. Plasma vRNA levels were significantly higher in ICU &gt; non-ICU &gt; outpatients (P &lt; .0001); for inpatients, plasma vRNA levels were strongly associated with higher World Health Organization (WHO) score at admission (P = .01), maximum WHO score (P = .002), and discharge disposition (P = .004). A plasma vRNA level &gt;6000 copies/mL was strongly associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 10.7). Levels of vRNA were significantly associated with several inflammatory biomarkers (P &lt; .01) but not with plasma neutralizing antibody titers (P = .8). Conclusions Visualization of virus particles in plasma indicates that SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is due, at least in part, to viremia. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlate strongly with disease severity, patient outcome, and specific inflammatory biomarkers but not with neutralizing antibody titers.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Clinical Infectious ...arrow_drop_down
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    citations49
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    Dan M. Cooper; Michael Z. Zulu; Allen Jankeel; Izabela Coimbra Ibraim; +17 Authors

    Abstract Background Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is necessary to reopen schools safely. Methods We measured SARS-CoV-2 infection in 320 learners [10.5 ± 2.1 (sd); 7–17 y.o.] at four diverse schools with either remote or on-site learning. Schools A and B served low-income Hispanic learners; school C served many special-needs learners, and all provided predominantly remote instruction. School D served middle- and upper-income learners, with predominantly on-site instruction. Testing occurred in the fall (2020), and 6–8 weeks later during the fall-winter surge (notable for a tenfold increase in COVID-19 cases). Immune responses and mitigation fidelity were also measured. Results We found SARS-CoV-2 infections in 17 learners only during the surge. School A (97% remote learners) had the highest infection (10/70, 14.3%, p < 0.01) and IgG positivity rates (13/66, 19.7%). School D (93% on-site learners) had the lowest infection and IgG positivity rates (1/63, 1.6%). Mitigation compliance [physical distancing (mean 87.4%) and face-covering (91.3%)] was remarkably high at all schools. Documented SARS-CoV-2-infected learners had neutralizing antibodies (94.7%), robust IFN-γ + T cell responses, and reduced monocytes. Conclusions Schools can implement successful mitigation strategies across a wide range of student diversity. Despite asymptomatic to mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, children generate robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Impact Successful COVID-19 mitigation was implemented across a diverse range of schools. School-associated SARS-CoV-2 infections reflect regional rates rather than remote or on-site learning. Seropositive school-aged children with asymptomatic to mild SARS-CoV-2 infections generate robust humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Pediatric Research
    Article
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    Paul Krogstad; Deisy Contreras; Hwee L. Ng; Nicole H. Tobin; +4 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundSARS-CoV-2 infections of infants and toddlers are usually mild but can result in life-threatening disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA been detected in the breast milk of lactating women, but the potential role of breastfeeding in transmission to infants has remained uncertain.MethodsBreast milk specimens were examined for the presence of the virus by RT-PCR and/or culture. Specimens that contained viral RNA (vRNA) were examined for the presence of subgenomic coronavirus RNA (sgRNA), a putative marker of infectivity. Culture methods were used to determine the thermal stability of SARS-CoV-2 in human milk.ResultsBreast milk samples from 110 women (65 confirmed with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test, 36 with symptoms but without tests, and 9 with symptoms but a negative SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test) were tested by RT-PCR (285 samples) and/or viral culture (160 samples). Although vRNA of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the milk of 7 of 110 (6%) women with either a confirmed infection or symptomatic illness, and in 6 of 65 (9%) of women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test, virus was not detected in any culture. None of the 7 milk specimens with detectable vRNA contained sgRNA. Notably, when artificially added to human milk in control experiments, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could be cultured despite several freeze-thaw cycles, as occurs in the storage and usage of human milk.ConclusionsSARS-CoV-2 RNA can be found infrequently in the breastmilk of women with recent infection, but we found no evidence that breastmilk contains infectious virus or that breastfeeding represents a risk factor for transmission of infection to infants.Key PointsQuestionSARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in a small number of human milk samples collected from recently infected women. The role of breastfeeding in transmission of the virus to infants has remained uncertain due to the small number of specimens analyzed in any study published thus far.FindingsIn a total study group of 110 women, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in milk from 6 of 65 women (9.2%) with recent confirmed infection. Neither infectious virus nor subgenomic RNA (a marker of virus infectivity) were detected in any of the samples.MeaningWe found no evidence that infectious SARS-CoV-2 is present milk from recently infected women, even if SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests are positive, providing reassurance of the safety of breastfeeding.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Amir Barzin; John L. Schmitz; Samuel Rosin; Rameet Sirpal; +22 Authors

    ABSTRACT Characterizing the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was aimed at determining asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a suburban, Southern U.S. population during a period of state restrictions and physical distancing mandates. This is one of the first published seroprevalence studies from North Carolina and included multicenter, primary care, and emergency care facilities serving a low-density, suburban and rural population since description of the North Carolina state index case introducing the SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogen to this population. To estimate point seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic individuals over time, two cohort studies were examined. The first cohort study, named ScreenNC, was comprised of outpatient clinics, and the second cohort study, named ScreenNC2, was comprised of inpatients unrelated to COVID-19. Asymptomatic infection by SARS-CoV-2 (with no clinical symptoms) was examined using an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)-approved antibody test (Abbott) for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This assay as performed under CLIA had a reported specificity/sensitivity of 100%/99.6%. ScreenNC identified 24 out of 2,973 (0.8%) positive individuals among asymptomatic participants accessing health care during 28 April to 19 June 2020, which was increasing over time. A separate cohort, ScreenNC2, sampled from 3 March to 4 June 2020, identified 10 out of 1,449 (0.7%) positive participants. This study suggests limited but accelerating asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic infections, like symptomatic infections, disproportionately affected vulnerable communities in this population, and seroprevalence was higher in African American participants than in White participants. The low, overall prevalence may reflect the success of shelter-in-place mandates at the time this study was performed and of maintaining effective physical distancing practices among suburban populations. Under these public health measures and aggressive case finding, outbreak clusters did not spread into the general population.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    mBio
    Article . 2020
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    Rajendra B Nerli; Adarsh C Sanikop; Manas Sharma; Shridhar C Ghagane;

    COVID-19 PANDEMIC: A CHALLENGE TO A CHILD WITH CANCER Dear Editor,People of all ages can be infected by the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Older people, and people with pre-existing medical conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease) are more vulnerable to becoming severely ill with the virus. There is a widespread anxiety among families of children with cancer due to risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2, either in the hospital or community setting. [1]Recently Ogimi et al [2] reported that infants and younger children (i.e., ≤5 years) are more likely to develop severe clinical manifestations than older children, maybe due to immaturity of the immune system. Sullivan et al [3] reported that the COVID-19 pandemic was one of the most serious global challenge to delivering affordable and equitable treatment to children with cancer. They have provided some practical advice for adapting diagnostic and treatment protocols for children with cancer during the pandemic, the measures to be taken to contain it (e.g. extreme social distancing) and how to prepare for the anticipated recovery period.The Government and administrative measures such as lockdown has further compounded these challenges. Lack of state transport, closure of district borders, non-availability of medications has put these children at risk of rapid growth of disease, delay in treatment and poor outcome. A four and half year-old child, a known case of synchronous bilateral Wilms tumour, having undergone bilateral nephron sparing surgery was on adjuvant chemotherapy. The COVID-19 pandemic brought about an interruption in his chemotherapy schedule in January 2020. When he presented in early May, he had a small swelling of 1.5 cm diameter below the left subcostal margin (Figure 1a). Ultra sonography revealed a hypoechoic lesion below the skin measuring 1.5 cm in diameter (Figure 1b). Fine needle aspiration cytology was done which revealed sheets of cells with high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio (Figure 1c). The features were highly suspicious of a malignant lesion. The lesion was excised and histo-pathological examination revealed a metastasis from WILMS tumour (Figure 1d). The child has been resumed on further chemotherapy.Most childhood cancers behave aggressively and need immediate treatment, often requiring prolonged periods of intensive multiagent chemotherapy. Postponement of treatment such as surgery, radiation and chemotherapy is not a safe option in children. There is an urgent need amongst health professionals and families for informed guidance on the range of reasonable and safe adaptations to their services and cancer treatment during the pandemic.Conflict of Interest: None.Compliance with Ethical Standards.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2018
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Meagan E Deming; Wilbur H. Chen;
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    https://doi.org/10.1513/annals...
    Article . 2020
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    Eric J. Nilles; Elizabeth W. Karlson; Maia Norman; Tal Gilboa; +12 Authors

    Background Seroepidemiology is an important tool to characterize the epidemiology and immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2 but many immunoassays have not been externally validated raising questions about reliability of study findings. To ensure meaningful data, particularly in a low seroprevalence population, assays need to be rigorously characterized with high specificity. Methods We evaluated two commercial (Roche Diagnostics and Epitope Diagnostics IgM/IgG) and two non-commercial (Simoa and Ragon/MGH IgG) immunoassays against 68 confirmed positive and 232 pre-pandemic negative controls. Sensitivity was stratified by time from symptom onset. The Simoa multiplex assay applied three pre-defined algorithm models to determine sample result. Results The Roche and Ragon/MGH IgG assays each registered 1/232 false positive, the primary Simoa model registered 2/232 false positives, and the Epitope registered 2/230 and 3/230 false positives for the IgG and IgM assays respectively. Sensitivity >21 days post symptom-onset was 100% for all assays except Epitope IgM, but lower and/or with greater variability between assays for samples collected 9–14 days (67–100%) and 15–21 days (69–100%) post-symptom onset. The Simoa and Epitope IgG assays demonstrated excellent sensitivity earlier in the disease course. The Roche and Ragon/MGH assays were less sensitive during early disease, particularly among immunosuppressed individuals. Conclusions The Epitope IgG demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity. The Roche and Ragon/MGH IgG assays registered rare false positives with lower early sensitivity. The Simoa assay primary model had excellent sensitivity and few false positives. Summary SARS-CoV-2 immunoassays can be valuable tools for informing the global response, but many currently available assays have not been independently validated. We conducted a performance assessment of four assays including the Roche Diagnostics and Epitope Diagnostics immunoassays.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
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    Preprint . 2020
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    Article . 2021
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    Wang, Hanyin; Hutch, Meghan R.; Li, Yikuan; Kline, Adrienne S.; +5 Authors

    Over 12 billion doses of COVID-19 vaccines have been administered at the time of writing. However, public perceptions of vaccines have been complex. We analyzed COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets to understand the evolving perceptions of COVID-19 vaccines. We finetuned a deep learning classifier using a state-of-the-art model, XLNet, to detect each tweet's sentiment automatically. We employed validated methods to extract the users' race or ethnicity, gender, age, and geographical locations from user profiles. Incorporating multiple data sources, we assessed the sentiment patterns among subpopulations and juxtaposed them against vaccine uptake data to unravel their interactive patterns. 11,211,672 COVID-19 vaccine-related tweets corresponding to 2,203,681 users over two years were analyzed. The finetuned model for sentiment classification yielded an accuracy of 0.92 on testing set. Users from various demographic groups demonstrated distinct patterns in sentiments towards COVID-19 vaccines. User sentiments became more positive over time, upon which we observed subsequent upswing in the population-level vaccine uptake. Surrounding dates where positive sentiments crest, we detected encouraging news or events regarding vaccine development and distribution. Positive sentiments in pregnancy-related tweets demonstrated a delayed pattern compared with trends in general population, with postponed vaccine uptake trends. Distinctive patterns across subpopulations suggest the need of tailored strategies. Global news and events profoundly involved in shaping users' thoughts on social media. Populations with additional concerns, such as pregnancy, demonstrated more substantial hesitancy since lack of timely recommendations. Feature analysis revealed hesitancies of various subpopulations stemmed from clinical trial logics, risks and complications, and urgency of scientific evidence.

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    Manry, Jérémy; Bastard, Paul; Gervais, Adrian; Le Voyer, Tom; +196 Authors

    The Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases is supported by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute; The Rockefeller University; the St. Giles Foundation; the NIH (Grants R01AI088364 and R01AI163029); the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences; NIH Clinical and Translational Science Awards program (Grant UL1 TR001866); a Fast Grant from Emergent Ventures; Mercatus Center at George Mason University; the Yale Center for Mendelian Genomics and the Genome Sequencing Program Coordinating Center funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute (Grants UM1HG006504 and U24HG008956); the Yale High Performance Computing Center (Grant S10OD018521); the Fisher Center for Alzheimer’s Research Foundation; the Meyer Foundation; the JPB Foundation; the French National Research Agency (ANR) under the “Investments for the Future” program (Grant ANR-10-IAHU-01); the Integrative Biology of Emerging Infectious Diseases Laboratory of Excellence (Grant ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID); the French Foundation for Medical Research (FRM) (Grant EQU201903007798); the French Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral hepatitis (ANRS) Nord-Sud (Grant ANRS-COV05); the ANR GENVIR (Grant ANR-20-CE93-003), AABIFNCOV (Grant ANR-20-CO11-0001), CNSVIRGEN (Grant ANR-19-CE15-0009-01), and GenMIS-C (Grant ANR-21-COVR-0039) projects; the Square Foundation; Grandir–Fonds de solidarité pour l’Enfance; the Fondation du Souffle; the SCOR Corporate Foundation for Science; The French Ministry of Higher Education, Research, and Innovation (Grant MESRI-COVID-19); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), REACTing-INSERM; and the University Paris Cité. P. Bastard was supported by the FRM (Award EA20170638020). P. Bastard., J.R., and T.L.V. were supported by the MD-PhD program of the Imagine Institute (with the support of Fondation Bettencourt Schueller). Work at the Neurometabolic Disease lab received funding from Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER) (Grant ACCI20-767) and the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under grant agreement 824110 (EASI Genomics). Work in the Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Disease was supported by the NIH (Grants P01AI138398-S1, 2U19AI111825, and R01AI091707-10S1), a George Mason University Fast Grant, and the G. Harold and Leila Y. Mathers Charitable Foundation. The Infanta Leonor University Hospital supported the research of the Department of Internal Medicine and Allergology. The French COVID Cohort study group was sponsored by INSERM and supported by the REACTing consortium and by a grant from the French Ministry of Health (Grant PHRC 20-0424). The Cov-Contact Cohort was supported by the REACTing consortium, the French Ministry of Health, and the European Commission (Grant RECOVER WP 6). This work was also partly supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, NIH (Grants ZIA AI001270 to L.D.N. and 1ZIAAI001265 to H.C.S.). This program is supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (Grant ANR-10-LABX-69-01). K.K.’s group was supported by the Estonian Research Council, through Grants PRG117 and PRG377. R.H. was supported by an Al Jalila Foundation Seed Grant (Grant AJF202019), Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and a COVID-19 research grant (Grant CoV19-0307) from the University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. S.G.T. is supported by Investigator and Program Grants awarded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and a University of New South Wales COVID Rapid Response Initiative Grant. L.I. reports funding from Regione Lombardia, Italy (project “Risposta immune in pazienti con COVID-19 e co-morbidità”). This research was partially supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grant COV20/0968). J.R.H. reports funding from Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (Grant HHSO10201600031C). S.O. reports funding from Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases from Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development (Grant JP20fk0108531). G.G. was supported by the ANR Flash COVID-19 program and SARS-CoV-2 Program of the Faculty of Medicine from Sorbonne University iCOVID programs. The 3C Study was conducted under a partnership agreement between INSERM, Victor Segalen Bordeaux 2 University, and Sanofi-Aventis. The Fondation pour la Recherche Médicale funded the preparation and initiation of the study. The 3C Study was also supported by the Caisse Nationale d’Assurance Maladie des Travailleurs Salariés, Direction générale de la Santé, Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale, Institut de la Longévité, Conseils Régionaux of Aquitaine and Bourgogne, Fondation de France, and Ministry of Research–INSERM Program “Cohortes et collections de données biologiques.” S. Debette was supported by the University of Bordeaux Initiative of Excellence. P.K.G. reports funding from the National Cancer Institute, NIH, under Contract 75N91019D00024, Task Order 75N91021F00001. J.W. is supported by a Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) Fundamental Clinical Mandate (Grant 1833317N). Sample processing at IrsiCaixa was possible thanks to the crowdfunding initiative YoMeCorono. Work at Vall d’Hebron was also partly supported by research funding from Instituto de Salud Carlos III Grant PI17/00660 cofinanced by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF/FEDER). C.R.-G. and colleagues from the Canarian Health System Sequencing Hub were supported by the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Grants COV20_01333 and COV20_01334), the Spanish Ministry for Science and Innovation (RTC-2017-6471-1; AEI/FEDER, European Union), Fundación DISA (Grants OA18/017 and OA20/024), and Cabildo Insular de Tenerife (Grants CGIEU0000219140 and “Apuestas científicas del ITER para colaborar en la lucha contra la COVID-19”). T.H.M. was supported by grants from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (Grants NNF20OC0064890 and NNF21OC0067157). C.M.B. is supported by a Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research Health Professional-Investigator Award. P.Q.H. and L. Hammarström were funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Antibody Therapy Against Coronavirus consortium, Grant 101003650). Work at Y.-L.L.’s laboratory in the University of Hong Kong (HKU) was supported by the Society for the Relief of Disabled Children. MBBS/PhD study of D.L. in HKU was supported by the Croucher Foundation. J.L.F. was supported in part by the Evaluation-Orientation de la Coopération Scientifique (ECOS) Nord - Coopération Scientifique France-Colombie (ECOS-Nord/Columbian Administrative department of Science, Technology and Innovation [COLCIENCIAS]/Colombian Ministry of National Education [MEN]/Colombian Institute of Educational Credit and Technical Studies Abroad [ICETEX, Grant 806-2018] and Colciencias Contract 713-2016 [Code 111574455633]). A. Klocperk was, in part, supported by Grants NU20-05-00282 and NV18-05-00162 issued by the Czech Health Research Council and Ministry of Health, Czech Republic. L.P. was funded by Program Project COVID-19 OSR-UniSR and Ministero della Salute (Grant COVID-2020-12371617). I.M. is a Senior Clinical Investigator at the Research Foundation–Flanders and is supported by the CSL Behring Chair of Primary Immunodeficiencies (PID); by the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven C1 Grant C16/18/007; by a Flanders Institute for Biotechnology-Grand Challenges - PID grant; by the FWO Grants G0C8517N, G0B5120N, and G0E8420N; and by the Jeffrey Modell Foundation. I.M. has received funding under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program (Grant Agreement 948959). E.A. received funding from the Hellenic Foundation for Research and Innovation (Grant INTERFLU 1574). M. Vidigal received funding from the São Paulo Research Foundation (Grant 2020/09702-1) and JBS SA (Grant 69004). The NH-COVAIR study group consortium was supported by a grant from the Meath Foundation. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection fatality rate (IFR) doubles with every 5 y of age from childhood onward. Circulating autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α, IFN-ω, and/or IFN-β are found in ∼20% of deceased patients across age groups, and in ∼1% of individuals aged 4% of those >70 y old in the general population. With a sample of 1,261 unvaccinated deceased patients and 34,159 individuals of the general population sampled before the pandemic, we estimated both IFR and relative risk of death (RRD) across age groups for individuals carrying autoantibodies neutralizing type I IFNs, relative to noncarriers. The RRD associated with any combination of autoantibodies was higher in subjects under 70 y old. For autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, the RRDs were 17.0 (95% CI: 11.7 to 24.7) and 5.8 (4.5 to 7.4) for individuals <70 y and ≥70 y old, respectively, whereas, for autoantibodies neutralizing both molecules, the RRDs were 188.3 (44.8 to 774.4) and 7.2 (5.0 to 10.3), respectively. In contrast, IFRs increased with age, ranging from 0.17% (0.12 to 0.31) for individuals <40 y old to 26.7% (20.3 to 35.2) for those ≥80 y old for autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω, and from 0.84% (0.31 to 8.28) to 40.5% (27.82 to 61.20) for autoantibodies neutralizing both. Autoantibodies against type I IFNs increase IFRs, and are associated with high RRDs, especially when neutralizing both IFN-α2 and IFN-ω. Remarkably, IFRs increase with age, whereas RRDs decrease with age. Autoimmunity to type I IFNs is a strong and common predictor of COVID-19 death. Peer reviewed

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    Romain Lévy; Peng Zhang; Paul Bastard; Karim Dorgham; +18 Authors

    Significance Life-threatening COVID-19 pneumonia can be caused by rare inborn errors of type I interferon (IFN) immunity, or by autoantibodies neutralizing IFN-α2 or IFN-ω. In 2018, we reported a girl with critical influenza pneumonia due to inherited IRF9 deficiency, a component of the ISGF-3 transcription factor. We report the course of COVID-19 in the same patient. She was admitted on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection with viremia. Administration of SARS-CoV-2–specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on day 2 prevented the development of pneumonia. SARS-CoV-2–specific monoclonal antibodies were sufficient to overcome a lack of ISGF-3– and IRF9-dependent type I and type III IFN immunity to the virus. They should be considered in selected children at high risk of life-threatening COVID-19. We describe an unvaccinated child at risk for life-threatening COVID-19 due to an inherited deficiency of IRF9, which governs ISGF-3–dependent responses to type I and III interferons (IFN). She was admitted, with a high nasal SARS-CoV-2 load on day 1 of upper respiratory tract infection. She was viremic on day 2 and received casirivimab and imdevimab. Her clinical manifestations and viremia disappeared on days 3 and 4, respectively. Circulating SARS-CoV-2 virus induced the expression of IFN-stimulated genes in leukocytes on day 1, whereas the secretion of blood type I IFNs, which peaked on day 4, did not. Antibody-mediated SARS-CoV-2 neutralization is, therefore, sufficient to overcome a deficiency of antiviral IFNs.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Jana L. Jacobs; William Bain; Asma Naqvi; Brittany Staines; +23 Authors

    Abstract Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral RNA (vRNA) is detected in the bloodstream of some patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but it is not clear whether this RNAemia reflects viremia (ie, virus particles) and how it relates to host immune responses and outcomes. Methods SARS-CoV-2 vRNA was quantified in plasma samples from observational cohorts of 51 COVID-19 patients including 9 outpatients, 19 hospitalized (non–intensive care unit [ICU]), and 23 ICU patients. vRNA levels were compared with cross-sectional indices of COVID-19 severity and prospective clinical outcomes. We used multiple imaging methods to visualize virions in plasma. Results SARS-CoV-2 vRNA was detected in plasma of 100%, 52.6%, and 11.1% of ICU, non-ICU, and outpatients, respectively. Virions were detected in plasma pellets using electron tomography and immunostaining. Plasma vRNA levels were significantly higher in ICU &gt; non-ICU &gt; outpatients (P &lt; .0001); for inpatients, plasma vRNA levels were strongly associated with higher World Health Organization (WHO) score at admission (P = .01), maximum WHO score (P = .002), and discharge disposition (P = .004). A plasma vRNA level &gt;6000 copies/mL was strongly associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 10.7). Levels of vRNA were significantly associated with several inflammatory biomarkers (P &lt; .01) but not with plasma neutralizing antibody titers (P = .8). Conclusions Visualization of virus particles in plasma indicates that SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia is due, at least in part, to viremia. The levels of SARS-CoV-2 RNAemia correlate strongly with disease severity, patient outcome, and specific inflammatory biomarkers but not with neutralizing antibody titers.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Dan M. Cooper; Michael Z. Zulu; Allen Jankeel; Izabela Coimbra Ibraim; +17 Authors

    Abstract Background Understanding SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is necessary to reopen schools safely. Methods We measured SARS-CoV-2 infection in 320 learners [10.5 ± 2.1 (sd); 7–17 y.o.] at four diverse schools with either remote or on-site learning. Schools A and B served low-income Hispanic learners; school C served many special-needs learners, and all provided predominantly remote instruction. School D served middle- and upper-income learners, with predominantly on-site instruction. Testing occurred in the fall (2020), and 6–8 weeks later during the fall-winter surge (notable for a tenfold increase in COVID-19 cases). Immune responses and mitigation fidelity were also measured. Results We found SARS-CoV-2 infections in 17 learners only during the surge. School A (97% remote learners) had the highest infection (10/70, 14.3%, p < 0.01) and IgG positivity rates (13/66, 19.7%). School D (93% on-site learners) had the lowest infection and IgG positivity rates (1/63, 1.6%). Mitigation compliance [physical distancing (mean 87.4%) and face-covering (91.3%)] was remarkably high at all schools. Documented SARS-CoV-2-infected learners had neutralizing antibodies (94.7%), robust IFN-γ + T cell responses, and reduced monocytes. Conclusions Schools can implement successful mitigation strategies across a wide range of student diversity. Despite asymptomatic to mild SARS-CoV-2 infection, children generate robust humoral and cellular immune responses. Impact Successful COVID-19 mitigation was implemented across a diverse range of schools. School-associated SARS-CoV-2 infections reflect regional rates rather than remote or on-site learning. Seropositive school-aged children with asymptomatic to mild SARS-CoV-2 infections generate robust humoral and cellular immunity.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Other literature type . 2021
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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
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    Pediatric Research
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    Paul Krogstad; Deisy Contreras; Hwee L. Ng; Nicole H. Tobin; +4 Authors

    AbstractBackgroundSARS-CoV-2 infections of infants and toddlers are usually mild but can result in life-threatening disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNA been detected in the breast milk of lactating women, but the potential role of breastfeeding in transmission to infants has remained uncertain.MethodsBreast milk specimens were examined for the presence of the virus by RT-PCR and/or culture. Specimens that contained viral RNA (vRNA) were examined for the presence of subgenomic coronavirus RNA (sgRNA), a putative marker of infectivity. Culture methods were used to determine the thermal stability of SARS-CoV-2 in human milk.ResultsBreast milk samples from 110 women (65 confirmed with a SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test, 36 with symptoms but without tests, and 9 with symptoms but a negative SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test) were tested by RT-PCR (285 samples) and/or viral culture (160 samples). Although vRNA of SARS-CoV-2 was detected in the milk of 7 of 110 (6%) women with either a confirmed infection or symptomatic illness, and in 6 of 65 (9%) of women with a positive SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic test, virus was not detected in any culture. None of the 7 milk specimens with detectable vRNA contained sgRNA. Notably, when artificially added to human milk in control experiments, infectious SARS-CoV-2 could be cultured despite several freeze-thaw cycles, as occurs in the storage and usage of human milk.ConclusionsSARS-CoV-2 RNA can be found infrequently in the breastmilk of women with recent infection, but we found no evidence that breastmilk contains infectious virus or that breastfeeding represents a risk factor for transmission of infection to infants.Key PointsQuestionSARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in a small number of human milk samples collected from recently infected women. The role of breastfeeding in transmission of the virus to infants has remained uncertain due to the small number of specimens analyzed in any study published thus far.FindingsIn a total study group of 110 women, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in milk from 6 of 65 women (9.2%) with recent confirmed infection. Neither infectious virus nor subgenomic RNA (a marker of virus infectivity) were detected in any of the samples.MeaningWe found no evidence that infectious SARS-CoV-2 is present milk from recently infected women, even if SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests are positive, providing reassurance of the safety of breastfeeding.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2021
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Amir Barzin; John L. Schmitz; Samuel Rosin; Rameet Sirpal; +22 Authors

    ABSTRACT Characterizing the asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 is important for understanding the COVID-19 pandemic. This study was aimed at determining asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a suburban, Southern U.S. population during a period of state restrictions and physical distancing mandates. This is one of the first published seroprevalence studies from North Carolina and included multicenter, primary care, and emergency care facilities serving a low-density, suburban and rural population since description of the North Carolina state index case introducing the SARS-CoV-2 respiratory pathogen to this population. To estimate point seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among asymptomatic individuals over time, two cohort studies were examined. The first cohort study, named ScreenNC, was comprised of outpatient clinics, and the second cohort study, named ScreenNC2, was comprised of inpatients unrelated to COVID-19. Asymptomatic infection by SARS-CoV-2 (with no clinical symptoms) was examined using an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)-approved antibody test (Abbott) for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This assay as performed under CLIA had a reported specificity/sensitivity of 100%/99.6%. ScreenNC identified 24 out of 2,973 (0.8%) positive individuals among asymptomatic participants accessing health care during 28 April to 19 June 2020, which was increasing over time. A separate cohort, ScreenNC2, sampled from 3 March to 4 June 2020, identified 10 out of 1,449 (0.7%) positive participants. This study suggests limited but accelerating asymptomatic spread of SARS-CoV-2. Asymptomatic infections, like symptomatic infections, disproportionately affected vulnerable communities in this population, and seroprevalence was higher in African American participants than in White participants. The low, overall prevalence may reflect the success of shelter-in-place mandates at the time this study was performed and of maintaining effective physical distancing practices among suburban populations. Under these public health measures and aggressive case finding, outbreak clusters did not spread into the general population.

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    Europe PubMed Central
    Article . 2020
    Data sources: PubMed Central
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    Article . 2020
    Data sources: DOAJ-Articles
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