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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gutiérrez-Romero, Roxana; Salgado, Nayeli;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This paper evaluates the impact of the pandemic and enforcement at the US and Mexican borders on the emigration of Guatemalans during 2017-2020. During this period, the number of crossings from Guatemala fell by 10%, according to the Survey of Migration to the Southern Border of Mexico. Yet, there was a rise of nearly 30% in the number of emigration crossings of male adults travelling with their children. This new trend was partly driven by the recent reduction in the number of children deported from the US. For a one-point reduction in the number of children deported from the US to Guatemalan municipalities, there was an increase of nearly 14 in the number of crossings made by adult males leaving from Guatemala for Mexico; and nearly 0.5 additional crossings made by male adults travelling with their children. However, the surge of emigrants travelling with their children was also driven by the acute economic shock that Guatemala experienced during the pandemic. During this period, air pollution in the analysed Guatemalan municipalities fell by 4%, night light per capita fell by 15%, and homicide rates fell by 40%. Unlike in previous years, emigrants are fleeing poverty rather than violence. Our findings suggest that a reduction in violence alone will not be sufficient to reduce emigration flows from Central America, but that economic recovery is needed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andiyan Andiyan;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Aside from project delays, the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the construction industry includes the distribution of construction supplies and materials, labor and labor reductions, work hour reductions, and even temporary work stoppage for projects in the red zone. Domestic construction, on the other hand, is in a pickle since PUPR Minister Basuki Hadimuljono said that despite the COVID-19 epidemic, construction services would continue to operate under the Instruction of the Minister of PUPR No 2/2020, which was issued on March 27, 2020. This forces the construction industry to continue operating while adapting to numerous adjustments during and after the epidemic. Method A survey is the data-gathering tool that will be utilized in this study. The data collection instrument will be a questionnaire that will be distributed either online or offline. Principal Component Analysis was employed as the analytical technique (Principal Component Analysis). The findings of this research indicate that the following elements contribute to the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on construction projects: project finance factors, regional restraint factors (PSBB), labor factors, material and equipment factors, project uncertainty factors, and strike factors. Numerous ways may be used to undertake construction projects during and after a pandemic, each one tailored to the primary components generated. For the first Main component, the following solutions are possible: 1) Managing the cash flow of the project effectively and efficiently; 2) Using the way of analysis of the value of the outcomes (earn value method) to manage the project's budget and schedule; 3) Preparing an unexpected budget for the project.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yarden Golan; Mikias Ilala; Caryl Gay; Soumya Hunagund; Christine Y. Lin; Arianna G. Cassidy; Unurzul Jigmeddagva; Lin Li; Nida Ozarslan; Ifeyinwa V. Asiodu; +4 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractAnti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been found in human-milk after COVID-19 infection and vaccination. However, little is known about their persistence in milk after booster vaccination and breakthrough infection. In this study, human-milk, saliva and blood samples were collected from 33 lactating individuals before and after mRNA-based vaccination and COVID-19 breakthrough infections. Antibody levels were measured using ELISA and symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Evaluation of maternal and infant symptomatology revealed that infected mothers reported more symptoms than vaccinated mothers. We found that after vaccination, human-milk anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted for up to 8 months. In addition, distinct patterns of human milk IgA and IgG production we observed after breakthrough infection compared to 3-dose vaccination series alone, indicating a differential central and mucosal immune profiles in hybrid compared with vaccine-induced immunity. To investigate passively-derived milk antibody protection in infants, we examined the persistence of these antibodies in infant saliva after breastfeeding. We found that IgA was more abundant in infant saliva compared to IgG and persist in infant saliva longer after feeding. Our results delineate the differences in milk antibody response to vaccination as compared to breakthrough infection and emphasize the importance of improving the secretion of IgA antibodies to human milk after vaccination to improve the protection of breastfeeding infants.

  • Authors: 
    Anouschka Akerman; Vanessa Milogiannakis; Tyra Jean; Camille Esneu; Mariana Ruiz Silva; Timothy Ison; Christina Fitcher; Joseph A Lopez; Deborah Chandra; Zin Naing; +36 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThe Omicron era of the COVID-19 pandemic commenced at the beginning of 2022 and whilst it started with primarily BA.1, it was latter dominated by BA.2 and related sub-lineages. Over the course of 2022, we monitored the potency and breadth of antibody neutralization responses to many emerging variants at two levels: (i) we tracked over 400,000 U.S. plasma donors over time through various vaccine booster roll outs and Omicron waves using sequentially collected IgG pools; (ii) we mapped the antibody response in individuals using blood from strigently curated vaccine and convalescent cohorts. In pooled IgG samples, we observed the maturation of neutralization breadth to Omicron variants over time through continuing vaccine and infection waves. Importantly, in many cases we observed increased antibody breadth to variants that were yet to be in circulation. Determination of viral neutralization at the cohort level supported equivalent coverage across prior and emerging variants with emerging isolates BQ.1.1, XBB.1, BR.2.1 and XBF the most evasive. Further, these emerging variants were resistant to Evusheld, whilst neutralization resistance to Sotrovimab was restricted to BQ.1.1 and XBF. We conclude at this current point in time that dominant variants derived from BQ and BA.2.75 lineages can evade antibodies at levels equivalent to their most evasive lineage counterparts but sustain an entry phenotype that continues to promote an additional outgrowth advantage. In Australia, BR2.1 and XBF share this phenotype and are dominating across NSW and Victoria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    jianmin jia; Chunsheng Liu; Hui Zhang; Yan Xiao; Xiaohan Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The outbreak of COVID-19 brings huge challenges to the bike-sharing system and even society structure. Thus, it is urgent to fully understand the impacts of pandemic on bike-sharing behavior. This paper proposed a comprehensive approach to investigate the mobility patterns influenced by the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic with the case in Washington D.C. Multiple-source data, including bike-sharing trip information, COVID-19 information, geographic and POI information, were collected. Although the total bike-sharing trips decreased up to 80% in spatial-temporal analysis, the trips made by casual user still increased. In addition, the docking stations and trips from 2019 to 2021 were utilized to construct the bike-sharing network. The results present that major network properties, such as connectivity, clustering coefficient, and accessibility, experienced significant decrease during the pandemic. Through the detection of community with modularity method, the evolution of community structure before and after pandemic was captured. The increased long-range and long-time bike-sharing trips results in the combination between central communities and outer communities. To better understand the community structure, the POI (Point of Interests) auxiliary analysis was conducted and central community was found to have similar proportion of POIs even during the pandemic. Implications for bike-sharing management and operation policy was also addressed.

  • Authors: 
    Juwon Park; Logan S Dean; Boonyanudh Jiyarom; Louie Mar Gangcuangco; Parthav Shah; Thomas Awamura; Lauren L. Ching; Vivek R. Nerurkar; Dominic C. Chow; Fritzie Igno; +2 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractBackgroundMonocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role in inflammation during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their contribution to the development of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) are not fully elucidated.MethodsA cross sectional study was conducted comparing plasma cytokine and monocyte levels among three groups: participants with pulmonary PASC (PPASC) with a reduced predicted diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCOc, <80%; (PG)]; fully recovered from SARS-CoV-2 with no residual symptoms (recovered group, RG); and negative for SARS-CoV-2 (negative group, NG). The expressions of cytokines were measured in plasma of study cohort by Luminex assay. The percentages and numbers of monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes) and monocyte activation (defined by CD169 expression) were analyzed using flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsPlasma IL-1Ra levels were elevated but FGF levels were reduced in PG compared to NG. Circulating monocytes and three subsets were significantly higher in PG and RG compared to NG. PG and RG exhibited higher levels of CD169+monocyte counts and higher CD169 expression was detected in intermediate and non-classical monocytes from RG and PG than that found in NG. Further correlation analysis with CD169+monocyte subsets revealed that CD169+intermediate monocytes negatively correlated with DLCOc%, and CD169+non-classical monocytes positively correlated with IL-1α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, Eotaxin, and IFNγ.ConclusionThis study present evidence that COVID convalescents exhibit monocyte alteration beyond the acute COVID-19 infection period even in convalescents with no residual symptoms. These data provide further rational for determining the role of monocyte subsets in PPASC pathogenesis.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Fighting terrorism is a complex task, not limited to military options. It also concerns State-building, nationalism and inclusive sustainable development. The roots of underlying conflicts were already laid during colonialism, the slave trade, plundering of resources and arbitrary border establishment. The battle cannot be won by occupation nor by internal efforts of the countries affected alone, particularly not when terrorist enjoy secret support from parts of the army and the country's political elite. There are outside sources fomenting violent conflict by close cooperation between transnational crime and terrorist networks. Money laundering and financing of terrorism in global financial systems are part and parcel of the problem. Also many activists and combatants are not just driven by religious fanaticism and ideological zeal. Revenge, mere survival and local strives between conflicting groups often play a decisive role too. Ill- and ungoverned spaces favour warlordism, both of radical jihadist and non-religious terrorist movements, driven by localism and informal networks. The military response of some governments and security services degenerated into inadequate state counterterrorism with no regard for local populations. It resulted in challenges for the rule of law and human rights in these countries. Although trans-national military counterinsurgency among ECOWAS governments improved, it remained hampered by the divide between Anglophone and Francophone countries and the vested interest of former colonial rulers France and Great Britain. By now, terrorists also effectively use cyberspace and social media to create fear and spread their violent ideologies. The interactions between crime and terror in West Africa will continue in the foreseeable future. It may even increase, considering the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and famines caused by failing cereal imports as result of the Russian war in Ukraine. The effects on the social structure are considerable, including the population's dwindling trust in the state administration and the villagers' willingness to side with the terrorists. The fight of terrorism demands viable long-term solutions that take into account the linkages between counterterrorism, the rule of law and human rights and socio-economic development. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RÉSUMÉ : [Sources extérieures des menaces terroristes en Afrique de l'Ouest] - La lutte contre le terrorisme est une tâche complexe, qui ne se limite pas aux options militaires. Il concerne également l'édification de l'État, le nationalisme et le développement durable inclusif. Les racines des conflits sous-jacents étaient déjà posées pendant le colonialisme, la traite des esclaves, le pillage des ressources et l'établissement arbitraire des frontières. La bataille ne peut être gagnée par l'occupation ni par les seuls efforts internes des pays touchés, en particulier lorsque les terroristes bénéficient du soutien secret de certaines parties de l'armée et de l'élite politique du pays. Il existe des sources extérieures fomentant des conflits violents par une coopération étroite entre la criminalité transnationale et les réseaux terroristes. Le blanchiment d'argent et le financement du terrorisme dans les systèmes financiers mondiaux font partie intégrante du problème. De plus, de nombreux militants et combattants ne sont pas seulement motivés par le fanatisme religieux et le zèle idéologique. La vengeance, la simple survie et les luttes locales entre des groupes en conflit jouent souvent aussi un rôle décisif. Les espaces mal gouvernés et non gouvernés favorisent le seigneur de la guerre, à la fois des mouvements terroristes djihadistes radicaux et non-religieux, animés par le localisme et les réseaux informels. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en un contre-terrorisme étatique inadéquat sans égard pour les populations locales. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en contre-terrorisme de l'État au détriment de la population locale. Cela a entraîné des défis pour l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme dans ces pays. Bien que la contre-insurrection militaire transnationale parmi les gouvernements de la CEDEAO se soit améliorée, elle est restée entravée par le fossé entre les pays anglophones et francophones et l'intérêt égoïste des anciens dirigeants coloniaux, la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Pendant ce temps, les terroristes utilisent également efficacement le cyberespace et les médias sociaux pour créer la peur et répandre leurs idéologies violentes. Les interactions entre le crime et le terrorisme en Afrique de l'Ouest se poursuivront dans un avenir prévisible. Il pourrait même augmenter, compte tenu des effets dévastateurs de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des famines causées par l'échec des importations de céréales à la suite de la guerre russe en Ukraine. Les effets sur la structure sociale sont considérables, notamment la perte de confiance de la population dans l'administration de l'État et la volonté des villageois de se ranger du côté des terroristes. La lutte contre le terrorisme exige des solutions viables à long terme qui tiennent compte des liens entre la lutte contre le terrorisme, l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme et le développement socioéconomique. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : [Externe Quellen terroristischer Bedrohungen in Westafrika] - . Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus ist eine komplexe Aufgabe, die nicht auf militärische Optionen beschränkt ist. Er betrifft auch den Staatsaufbau, Nationalismus und inklusive nachhaltige Entwicklung. Die Wurzeln der zugrunde liegenden Konflikte wurden bereits während des Kolonialismus, des Sklavenhandels, der Plünderung von Ressourcen und der willkürlichen Grenzziehung in Afrika gelegt. Der Kampf kann weder durch Besatzung noch durch interne Bemühungen der betroffenen Länder allein gewonnen werden, insbesondere dann nicht, wenn Terroristen heimliche Unterstützung von Teilen der Armee und der politischen Elite des Landes genießen. Es gibt externe Quellen, die durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen transnationaler Kriminalität und terroristischen Netzwerken gewalttätige Konflikte schüren. Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung in globalen Finanzsystemen sind Teil des Problems. Auch viele Aktivisten und Kämpfer werden nicht nur von religiösem Fanatismus und ideologischem Eifer getrieben. Auch Rache, bloßes Überleben und lokale Kämpfe zwischen verfeindeten Gruppen spielen oft eine entscheidende Rolle. Schlecht verwaltete und unregierbare Räume begünstigen Warlords, sowohl in radikalen dschihadistischen als auch in nicht-religiösen terroristischen Bewegungen, die von lokalen Konflikten und informellen Netzwerken angetrieben werden. Die militärische Reaktion einiger Regierungen und Sicherheitsdienste degenerierte zu unangemessener staatlicher Terrorismusbekämpfung ohne Rücksicht auf die lokale Bevölkerung. Dies führte zu Herausforderungen für die Rechtsstaatlichkeit und die Menschenrechte in diesen Ländern. Obwohl sich die transnationale militärische Aufstandsbekämpfung unter den ECOWAS-Regierungen verbesserte, wurde sie immer noch durch die Kluft zwischen anglophonen und frankophonen Ländern und eigennützigen Interessen der ehemaligen Kolonialherren Frankreich und Großbritannien behindert. Inzwischen nutzen Terroristen auch effektiv den Cyberspace und soziale Medien, um Angst zu erzeugen und ihre gewalttätigen Ideologien zu verbreiten. Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kriminalität und Terror in Westafrika werden in absehbarer Zeit fortbestehen. Angesichts der verheerenden Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie und der Hungersnöte, die durch fehlende Getreideimporte infolge des russischen Krieges in der Ukraine verursacht wurden, könnten sie sogar noch zunehmen. Die Auswirkungen auf die Sozialstruktur sind erheblich, darunter das schwindende Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die staatliche Verwaltung und die Bereitschaft der Dorfbewohner, sich auf die Seite der Terroristen zu stellen. Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus erfordert tragfähige langfristige Lösungen, die die Verbindungen zwischen Terrorismusbekämpfung, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Menschenrechten sowie sozioökonomischer Entwicklung berücksichtigen.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olayinka As;
    Publisher: Authorea, Inc.

    This paper presents the roles that religious heritage among the Yorùbá plays in sustaining their peacefulness. The Yorùbá use both formal and informal interactions to engage one another in discourses that enhance their togetherness but often faced with outside influences that can truncate their desired goals. This paper, therefore, places the Yorùbá by the established peaceful societies (PS) to see how they compare in their attitude to peacefulness and providing explanation to the Yorùbá’s effort to keep the peace despite the outside influences on their society. Please note: The bulk of this article is taken from chapter 8 of the author’s doctoral dissertation with a few amendments to suit this journal. Keywords: Christian-Muslim relations, peace studies, Africa - Yorùbá, religious – ethics, culture – values, Covid-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waasila Jassat; Caroline Mudara; Caroline Vika; Richard Welch; Tracy Arendse; Murray Dryden; Lucille Blumberg; Natalie Mayet; Stefano Tempia; Arifa Parker; +8 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    ABSTRACTBackgroundA third of people may experience persistent symptoms following COVID-19. With over 90% of South Africans having evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is likely that many people could be affected by Post COVID-19 Condition (PCC).MethodsThe was a prospective, longitudinal observational cohort study recruiting hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants, infected during the periods that Beta, Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants dominated in South Africa. Participants aged 18 years or older were randomly selected to undergo telephone assessment at 1, 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants were assessed using a standardised questionnaire for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life. We used negative binomial regression models to determine factors associated with the presence of ≥1 symptoms at 6 months.FindingsAmong hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants, 46.7% (1,227/2,626) and 18.5% (199/1,074) had ≥1 symptoms at 6 months (p=<0.001). Among hospitalised participants 59.5%, 61.2% and 18.5% experienced ≥1 symptoms at 6 months among individuals infected during the Beta, Delta and Omicron dominant waves respectively. Among PLWH who were hospitalised, 40.4% had ≥1 symptoms at 6 months compared to 47.1% among HIV-uninfected participants (p=0.108).Risk factors for PCC included older age, female sex, non-black race, the presence of a comorbidity, greater number of acute COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalisation/ COVID-19 severity and wave period (individuals infected during the Omicron-dominated wave had a lower risk of persistent symptoms [adjusted Incident Risk Ratio 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval 0.36 – 0.57] compared to those infected during the Beta-dominated wave). There were no associations between self-reported vaccination status before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persistent symptoms.InterpretationThe study revealed a high prevalence of persistent symptoms among South African participants at 6 months although decreased risk for PCC among participants infected during the Omicron BA.1 wave. These findings have serious implications for countries with resource-constrained healthcare systems.FundingBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office, and Wellcome.

  • Authors: 
    Anamika Patel; Sanjeev Kumar; Lilin Lai; Chennareddy Chakravarthy; Rajesh Valanparambil; Elluri Seetharami Reddy; Kamalvishnu Gottimukkala; Prashant Bajpai; Dinesh Ravindra Raju; Venkata Viswanadh Edara; +18 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractA detailed understanding of the molecular features of the neutralizing epitopes developed by viral escape mutants is important for predicting and developing vaccines or therapeutic antibodies against continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we report three human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from COVID-19 recovered individuals during first wave of pandemic in India. These mAbs had publicly shared near germline gene usage and potently neutralized Alpha and Delta, but poorly neutralized Beta and completely failed to neutralize Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants. Structural analysis of these three mAbs in complex with trimeric spike protein showed that all three mAbs are involved in bivalent spike binding with two mAbs targeting class-1 and one targeting class-4 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) epitope. Comparison of immunogenetic makeup, structure, and function of these three mAbs with our recently reported class-3 RBD binding mAb that potently neutralized all SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed precise antibody footprint, specific molecular interactions associated with the most potent multi-variant binding / neutralization efficacy. This knowledge has timely significance for understanding how a combination of certain mutations affect the binding or neutralization of an antibody and thus have implications for predicting structural features of emerging SARS-CoV-2 escape variants and to develop vaccines or therapeutic antibodies against these.

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302 Research products, page 1 of 31
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Gutiérrez-Romero, Roxana; Salgado, Nayeli;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    This paper evaluates the impact of the pandemic and enforcement at the US and Mexican borders on the emigration of Guatemalans during 2017-2020. During this period, the number of crossings from Guatemala fell by 10%, according to the Survey of Migration to the Southern Border of Mexico. Yet, there was a rise of nearly 30% in the number of emigration crossings of male adults travelling with their children. This new trend was partly driven by the recent reduction in the number of children deported from the US. For a one-point reduction in the number of children deported from the US to Guatemalan municipalities, there was an increase of nearly 14 in the number of crossings made by adult males leaving from Guatemala for Mexico; and nearly 0.5 additional crossings made by male adults travelling with their children. However, the surge of emigrants travelling with their children was also driven by the acute economic shock that Guatemala experienced during the pandemic. During this period, air pollution in the analysed Guatemalan municipalities fell by 4%, night light per capita fell by 15%, and homicide rates fell by 40%. Unlike in previous years, emigrants are fleeing poverty rather than violence. Our findings suggest that a reduction in violence alone will not be sufficient to reduce emigration flows from Central America, but that economic recovery is needed.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andiyan Andiyan;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract Aside from project delays, the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the construction industry includes the distribution of construction supplies and materials, labor and labor reductions, work hour reductions, and even temporary work stoppage for projects in the red zone. Domestic construction, on the other hand, is in a pickle since PUPR Minister Basuki Hadimuljono said that despite the COVID-19 epidemic, construction services would continue to operate under the Instruction of the Minister of PUPR No 2/2020, which was issued on March 27, 2020. This forces the construction industry to continue operating while adapting to numerous adjustments during and after the epidemic. Method A survey is the data-gathering tool that will be utilized in this study. The data collection instrument will be a questionnaire that will be distributed either online or offline. Principal Component Analysis was employed as the analytical technique (Principal Component Analysis). The findings of this research indicate that the following elements contribute to the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on construction projects: project finance factors, regional restraint factors (PSBB), labor factors, material and equipment factors, project uncertainty factors, and strike factors. Numerous ways may be used to undertake construction projects during and after a pandemic, each one tailored to the primary components generated. For the first Main component, the following solutions are possible: 1) Managing the cash flow of the project effectively and efficiently; 2) Using the way of analysis of the value of the outcomes (earn value method) to manage the project's budget and schedule; 3) Preparing an unexpected budget for the project.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Yarden Golan; Mikias Ilala; Caryl Gay; Soumya Hunagund; Christine Y. Lin; Arianna G. Cassidy; Unurzul Jigmeddagva; Lin Li; Nida Ozarslan; Ifeyinwa V. Asiodu; +4 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractAnti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been found in human-milk after COVID-19 infection and vaccination. However, little is known about their persistence in milk after booster vaccination and breakthrough infection. In this study, human-milk, saliva and blood samples were collected from 33 lactating individuals before and after mRNA-based vaccination and COVID-19 breakthrough infections. Antibody levels were measured using ELISA and symptoms were assessed using questionnaires. Evaluation of maternal and infant symptomatology revealed that infected mothers reported more symptoms than vaccinated mothers. We found that after vaccination, human-milk anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted for up to 8 months. In addition, distinct patterns of human milk IgA and IgG production we observed after breakthrough infection compared to 3-dose vaccination series alone, indicating a differential central and mucosal immune profiles in hybrid compared with vaccine-induced immunity. To investigate passively-derived milk antibody protection in infants, we examined the persistence of these antibodies in infant saliva after breastfeeding. We found that IgA was more abundant in infant saliva compared to IgG and persist in infant saliva longer after feeding. Our results delineate the differences in milk antibody response to vaccination as compared to breakthrough infection and emphasize the importance of improving the secretion of IgA antibodies to human milk after vaccination to improve the protection of breastfeeding infants.

  • Authors: 
    Anouschka Akerman; Vanessa Milogiannakis; Tyra Jean; Camille Esneu; Mariana Ruiz Silva; Timothy Ison; Christina Fitcher; Joseph A Lopez; Deborah Chandra; Zin Naing; +36 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    AbstractThe Omicron era of the COVID-19 pandemic commenced at the beginning of 2022 and whilst it started with primarily BA.1, it was latter dominated by BA.2 and related sub-lineages. Over the course of 2022, we monitored the potency and breadth of antibody neutralization responses to many emerging variants at two levels: (i) we tracked over 400,000 U.S. plasma donors over time through various vaccine booster roll outs and Omicron waves using sequentially collected IgG pools; (ii) we mapped the antibody response in individuals using blood from strigently curated vaccine and convalescent cohorts. In pooled IgG samples, we observed the maturation of neutralization breadth to Omicron variants over time through continuing vaccine and infection waves. Importantly, in many cases we observed increased antibody breadth to variants that were yet to be in circulation. Determination of viral neutralization at the cohort level supported equivalent coverage across prior and emerging variants with emerging isolates BQ.1.1, XBB.1, BR.2.1 and XBF the most evasive. Further, these emerging variants were resistant to Evusheld, whilst neutralization resistance to Sotrovimab was restricted to BQ.1.1 and XBF. We conclude at this current point in time that dominant variants derived from BQ and BA.2.75 lineages can evade antibodies at levels equivalent to their most evasive lineage counterparts but sustain an entry phenotype that continues to promote an additional outgrowth advantage. In Australia, BR2.1 and XBF share this phenotype and are dominating across NSW and Victoria.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    jianmin jia; Chunsheng Liu; Hui Zhang; Yan Xiao; Xiaohan Wang;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    Abstract The outbreak of COVID-19 brings huge challenges to the bike-sharing system and even society structure. Thus, it is urgent to fully understand the impacts of pandemic on bike-sharing behavior. This paper proposed a comprehensive approach to investigate the mobility patterns influenced by the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic with the case in Washington D.C. Multiple-source data, including bike-sharing trip information, COVID-19 information, geographic and POI information, were collected. Although the total bike-sharing trips decreased up to 80% in spatial-temporal analysis, the trips made by casual user still increased. In addition, the docking stations and trips from 2019 to 2021 were utilized to construct the bike-sharing network. The results present that major network properties, such as connectivity, clustering coefficient, and accessibility, experienced significant decrease during the pandemic. Through the detection of community with modularity method, the evolution of community structure before and after pandemic was captured. The increased long-range and long-time bike-sharing trips results in the combination between central communities and outer communities. To better understand the community structure, the POI (Point of Interests) auxiliary analysis was conducted and central community was found to have similar proportion of POIs even during the pandemic. Implications for bike-sharing management and operation policy was also addressed.

  • Authors: 
    Juwon Park; Logan S Dean; Boonyanudh Jiyarom; Louie Mar Gangcuangco; Parthav Shah; Thomas Awamura; Lauren L. Ching; Vivek R. Nerurkar; Dominic C. Chow; Fritzie Igno; +2 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractBackgroundMonocytes and macrophages play a pivotal role in inflammation during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, their contribution to the development of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC) are not fully elucidated.MethodsA cross sectional study was conducted comparing plasma cytokine and monocyte levels among three groups: participants with pulmonary PASC (PPASC) with a reduced predicted diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide [DLCOc, <80%; (PG)]; fully recovered from SARS-CoV-2 with no residual symptoms (recovered group, RG); and negative for SARS-CoV-2 (negative group, NG). The expressions of cytokines were measured in plasma of study cohort by Luminex assay. The percentages and numbers of monocyte subsets (classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes) and monocyte activation (defined by CD169 expression) were analyzed using flow cytometry analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsPlasma IL-1Ra levels were elevated but FGF levels were reduced in PG compared to NG. Circulating monocytes and three subsets were significantly higher in PG and RG compared to NG. PG and RG exhibited higher levels of CD169+monocyte counts and higher CD169 expression was detected in intermediate and non-classical monocytes from RG and PG than that found in NG. Further correlation analysis with CD169+monocyte subsets revealed that CD169+intermediate monocytes negatively correlated with DLCOc%, and CD169+non-classical monocytes positively correlated with IL-1α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, Eotaxin, and IFNγ.ConclusionThis study present evidence that COVID convalescents exhibit monocyte alteration beyond the acute COVID-19 infection period even in convalescents with no residual symptoms. These data provide further rational for determining the role of monocyte subsets in PPASC pathogenesis.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English

    ABSTRACT & RÉSUMÉ & ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : Fighting terrorism is a complex task, not limited to military options. It also concerns State-building, nationalism and inclusive sustainable development. The roots of underlying conflicts were already laid during colonialism, the slave trade, plundering of resources and arbitrary border establishment. The battle cannot be won by occupation nor by internal efforts of the countries affected alone, particularly not when terrorist enjoy secret support from parts of the army and the country's political elite. There are outside sources fomenting violent conflict by close cooperation between transnational crime and terrorist networks. Money laundering and financing of terrorism in global financial systems are part and parcel of the problem. Also many activists and combatants are not just driven by religious fanaticism and ideological zeal. Revenge, mere survival and local strives between conflicting groups often play a decisive role too. Ill- and ungoverned spaces favour warlordism, both of radical jihadist and non-religious terrorist movements, driven by localism and informal networks. The military response of some governments and security services degenerated into inadequate state counterterrorism with no regard for local populations. It resulted in challenges for the rule of law and human rights in these countries. Although trans-national military counterinsurgency among ECOWAS governments improved, it remained hampered by the divide between Anglophone and Francophone countries and the vested interest of former colonial rulers France and Great Britain. By now, terrorists also effectively use cyberspace and social media to create fear and spread their violent ideologies. The interactions between crime and terror in West Africa will continue in the foreseeable future. It may even increase, considering the devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and famines caused by failing cereal imports as result of the Russian war in Ukraine. The effects on the social structure are considerable, including the population's dwindling trust in the state administration and the villagers' willingness to side with the terrorists. The fight of terrorism demands viable long-term solutions that take into account the linkages between counterterrorism, the rule of law and human rights and socio-economic development. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- RÉSUMÉ : [Sources extérieures des menaces terroristes en Afrique de l'Ouest] - La lutte contre le terrorisme est une tâche complexe, qui ne se limite pas aux options militaires. Il concerne également l'édification de l'État, le nationalisme et le développement durable inclusif. Les racines des conflits sous-jacents étaient déjà posées pendant le colonialisme, la traite des esclaves, le pillage des ressources et l'établissement arbitraire des frontières. La bataille ne peut être gagnée par l'occupation ni par les seuls efforts internes des pays touchés, en particulier lorsque les terroristes bénéficient du soutien secret de certaines parties de l'armée et de l'élite politique du pays. Il existe des sources extérieures fomentant des conflits violents par une coopération étroite entre la criminalité transnationale et les réseaux terroristes. Le blanchiment d'argent et le financement du terrorisme dans les systèmes financiers mondiaux font partie intégrante du problème. De plus, de nombreux militants et combattants ne sont pas seulement motivés par le fanatisme religieux et le zèle idéologique. La vengeance, la simple survie et les luttes locales entre des groupes en conflit jouent souvent aussi un rôle décisif. Les espaces mal gouvernés et non gouvernés favorisent le seigneur de la guerre, à la fois des mouvements terroristes djihadistes radicaux et non-religieux, animés par le localisme et les réseaux informels. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en un contre-terrorisme étatique inadéquat sans égard pour les populations locales. La réponse militaire de certains gouvernements et services de sécurité a dégénéré en contre-terrorisme de l'État au détriment de la population locale. Cela a entraîné des défis pour l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme dans ces pays. Bien que la contre-insurrection militaire transnationale parmi les gouvernements de la CEDEAO se soit améliorée, elle est restée entravée par le fossé entre les pays anglophones et francophones et l'intérêt égoïste des anciens dirigeants coloniaux, la France et la Grande-Bretagne. Pendant ce temps, les terroristes utilisent également efficacement le cyberespace et les médias sociaux pour créer la peur et répandre leurs idéologies violentes. Les interactions entre le crime et le terrorisme en Afrique de l'Ouest se poursuivront dans un avenir prévisible. Il pourrait même augmenter, compte tenu des effets dévastateurs de la pandémie de COVID-19 et des famines causées par l'échec des importations de céréales à la suite de la guerre russe en Ukraine. Les effets sur la structure sociale sont considérables, notamment la perte de confiance de la population dans l'administration de l'État et la volonté des villageois de se ranger du côté des terroristes. La lutte contre le terrorisme exige des solutions viables à long terme qui tiennent compte des liens entre la lutte contre le terrorisme, l'état de droit et les droits de l'homme et le développement socioéconomique. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZUSAMMENFASSUNG : [Externe Quellen terroristischer Bedrohungen in Westafrika] - . Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus ist eine komplexe Aufgabe, die nicht auf militärische Optionen beschränkt ist. Er betrifft auch den Staatsaufbau, Nationalismus und inklusive nachhaltige Entwicklung. Die Wurzeln der zugrunde liegenden Konflikte wurden bereits während des Kolonialismus, des Sklavenhandels, der Plünderung von Ressourcen und der willkürlichen Grenzziehung in Afrika gelegt. Der Kampf kann weder durch Besatzung noch durch interne Bemühungen der betroffenen Länder allein gewonnen werden, insbesondere dann nicht, wenn Terroristen heimliche Unterstützung von Teilen der Armee und der politischen Elite des Landes genießen. Es gibt externe Quellen, die durch eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen transnationaler Kriminalität und terroristischen Netzwerken gewalttätige Konflikte schüren. Geldwäsche und Terrorismusfinanzierung in globalen Finanzsystemen sind Teil des Problems. Auch viele Aktivisten und Kämpfer werden nicht nur von religiösem Fanatismus und ideologischem Eifer getrieben. Auch Rache, bloßes Überleben und lokale Kämpfe zwischen verfeindeten Gruppen spielen oft eine entscheidende Rolle. Schlecht verwaltete und unregierbare Räume begünstigen Warlords, sowohl in radikalen dschihadistischen als auch in nicht-religiösen terroristischen Bewegungen, die von lokalen Konflikten und informellen Netzwerken angetrieben werden. Die militärische Reaktion einiger Regierungen und Sicherheitsdienste degenerierte zu unangemessener staatlicher Terrorismusbekämpfung ohne Rücksicht auf die lokale Bevölkerung. Dies führte zu Herausforderungen für die Rechtsstaatlichkeit und die Menschenrechte in diesen Ländern. Obwohl sich die transnationale militärische Aufstandsbekämpfung unter den ECOWAS-Regierungen verbesserte, wurde sie immer noch durch die Kluft zwischen anglophonen und frankophonen Ländern und eigennützigen Interessen der ehemaligen Kolonialherren Frankreich und Großbritannien behindert. Inzwischen nutzen Terroristen auch effektiv den Cyberspace und soziale Medien, um Angst zu erzeugen und ihre gewalttätigen Ideologien zu verbreiten. Die Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kriminalität und Terror in Westafrika werden in absehbarer Zeit fortbestehen. Angesichts der verheerenden Auswirkungen der COVID-19-Pandemie und der Hungersnöte, die durch fehlende Getreideimporte infolge des russischen Krieges in der Ukraine verursacht wurden, könnten sie sogar noch zunehmen. Die Auswirkungen auf die Sozialstruktur sind erheblich, darunter das schwindende Vertrauen der Bevölkerung in die staatliche Verwaltung und die Bereitschaft der Dorfbewohner, sich auf die Seite der Terroristen zu stellen. Der Kampf gegen den Terrorismus erfordert tragfähige langfristige Lösungen, die die Verbindungen zwischen Terrorismusbekämpfung, Rechtsstaatlichkeit und Menschenrechten sowie sozioökonomischer Entwicklung berücksichtigen.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Olayinka As;
    Publisher: Authorea, Inc.

    This paper presents the roles that religious heritage among the Yorùbá plays in sustaining their peacefulness. The Yorùbá use both formal and informal interactions to engage one another in discourses that enhance their togetherness but often faced with outside influences that can truncate their desired goals. This paper, therefore, places the Yorùbá by the established peaceful societies (PS) to see how they compare in their attitude to peacefulness and providing explanation to the Yorùbá’s effort to keep the peace despite the outside influences on their society. Please note: The bulk of this article is taken from chapter 8 of the author’s doctoral dissertation with a few amendments to suit this journal. Keywords: Christian-Muslim relations, peace studies, Africa - Yorùbá, religious – ethics, culture – values, Covid-19.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Waasila Jassat; Caroline Mudara; Caroline Vika; Richard Welch; Tracy Arendse; Murray Dryden; Lucille Blumberg; Natalie Mayet; Stefano Tempia; Arifa Parker; +8 more
    Publisher: Elsevier BV

    ABSTRACTBackgroundA third of people may experience persistent symptoms following COVID-19. With over 90% of South Africans having evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is likely that many people could be affected by Post COVID-19 Condition (PCC).MethodsThe was a prospective, longitudinal observational cohort study recruiting hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants, infected during the periods that Beta, Delta and Omicron BA.1 variants dominated in South Africa. Participants aged 18 years or older were randomly selected to undergo telephone assessment at 1, 3 and 6 months after hospital discharge or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants were assessed using a standardised questionnaire for evaluation of symptoms and health-related quality of life. We used negative binomial regression models to determine factors associated with the presence of ≥1 symptoms at 6 months.FindingsAmong hospitalised and non-hospitalised participants, 46.7% (1,227/2,626) and 18.5% (199/1,074) had ≥1 symptoms at 6 months (p=<0.001). Among hospitalised participants 59.5%, 61.2% and 18.5% experienced ≥1 symptoms at 6 months among individuals infected during the Beta, Delta and Omicron dominant waves respectively. Among PLWH who were hospitalised, 40.4% had ≥1 symptoms at 6 months compared to 47.1% among HIV-uninfected participants (p=0.108).Risk factors for PCC included older age, female sex, non-black race, the presence of a comorbidity, greater number of acute COVID-19 symptoms, hospitalisation/ COVID-19 severity and wave period (individuals infected during the Omicron-dominated wave had a lower risk of persistent symptoms [adjusted Incident Risk Ratio 0.45; 95% Confidence Interval 0.36 – 0.57] compared to those infected during the Beta-dominated wave). There were no associations between self-reported vaccination status before or after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persistent symptoms.InterpretationThe study revealed a high prevalence of persistent symptoms among South African participants at 6 months although decreased risk for PCC among participants infected during the Omicron BA.1 wave. These findings have serious implications for countries with resource-constrained healthcare systems.FundingBill & Melinda Gates Foundation, UK Foreign, Commonwealth & Development Office, and Wellcome.

  • Authors: 
    Anamika Patel; Sanjeev Kumar; Lilin Lai; Chennareddy Chakravarthy; Rajesh Valanparambil; Elluri Seetharami Reddy; Kamalvishnu Gottimukkala; Prashant Bajpai; Dinesh Ravindra Raju; Venkata Viswanadh Edara; +18 more
    Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

    AbstractA detailed understanding of the molecular features of the neutralizing epitopes developed by viral escape mutants is important for predicting and developing vaccines or therapeutic antibodies against continuously emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Here, we report three human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) generated from COVID-19 recovered individuals during first wave of pandemic in India. These mAbs had publicly shared near germline gene usage and potently neutralized Alpha and Delta, but poorly neutralized Beta and completely failed to neutralize Omicron BA.1 SARS-CoV-2 variants. Structural analysis of these three mAbs in complex with trimeric spike protein showed that all three mAbs are involved in bivalent spike binding with two mAbs targeting class-1 and one targeting class-4 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) epitope. Comparison of immunogenetic makeup, structure, and function of these three mAbs with our recently reported class-3 RBD binding mAb that potently neutralized all SARS-CoV-2 variants revealed precise antibody footprint, specific molecular interactions associated with the most potent multi-variant binding / neutralization efficacy. This knowledge has timely significance for understanding how a combination of certain mutations affect the binding or neutralization of an antibody and thus have implications for predicting structural features of emerging SARS-CoV-2 escape variants and to develop vaccines or therapeutic antibodies against these.

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