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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre-Edouard Danjou; Saâd Bouhsina; Sylvain Billet; Francine Cazier-Dennin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The year 2020 will be remembered as the year of COVID-19 and its subsequent lockdowns. This pandemic has profoundly changed the way we teach by forcing many institutions to offer their courses online. The time to come back to face-to-face teaching has arrived, but the shadow of the disease still hangs over teachers, students and society more generally. Disruption in teaching can still occur for students, or even teachers, if they are either diagnosed COVID-19 positive or contact case and forced to self-isolate. In order to limit the impact of self-isolation on learning, hybrid teaching (i.e. teaching face-to-face to students in a classroom and to online students at the same time) was successfully implemented owing to the combination of a videoconference software and a large interactive touchscreen. The set-up presented in this paper allows to broadcast courses to at-home students (i.e. voice, visual pedagogic support and, more interestingly, indications handwritten by the teacher) while simultaneously teaching face-to-face to students in the classroom. It also allows to self-isolated teacher to teach tutorial from home to students in the classroom. This paper focuses on the use of large interactive touchscreens for hybrid teaching. In order to evaluate this pedagogical approach, a questionnaire was completed by students and results discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jhony H. Giraldo; Arif Mahmood; Belmar Garcia-Garcia; Dorina Thanou; Thierry Bouwmans;
    Country: Switzerland

    Graph Signal Processing (GSP) is an emerging research field that extends the concepts of digital signal processing to graphs. GSP has numerous applications in different areas such as sensor networks, machine learning, and image processing. The sampling and reconstruction of static graph signals have played a central role in GSP. However, many real-world graph signals are inherently time-varying and the smoothness of the temporal differences of such graph signals may be used as a prior assumption. In the current work, we assume that the temporal differences of graph signals are smooth,and we introduce a novel algorithm based on the extension of a Sobolev smoothness function for the reconstruction of time-varying graph signals from discrete samples. We explore some theoretical aspects of the convergence rate of our Time-varying Graph signal Reconstruction via Sobolev Smoothness (Graph-TRSS) algorithm by studying the condition number of the Hessian associated with our optimization problem. Our algorithm has the advantage of converging faster than other methods that are based on Laplacian operators without requiring expensive eigenvalue decomposition or matrix inversions. The proposed Graph-TRSS is evaluated on several datasets including two COVID-19 datasets and it has outperformed many existing state-of-the-art methods for time-varying graph signal reconstruction. Graph-TRSS has also shown excellent performance on two environmental datasets for the recovery of particulate matter and sea surface temperature signals.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . Conference object . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabella Hall; Nirmalya Thakur; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The United States of America has been the worst affected country in terms of the number of cases and deaths on account of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19, a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that started spreading globally in late 2019. On account of the surge of infections, accompanied by hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19, and lack of a definitive cure at that point, a national emergency was declared in the United States on March 13, 2020. To prevent the rapid spread of the virus, several states declared stay at home and remote work guidelines shortly after this declaration of an emergency. Such guidelines caused schools, colleges, and universities, both private and public, in all the 50-United States to switch to remote or online forms of teaching for a significant period of time. As a result, Google, the most widely used search engine in the United States, experienced a surge in online shopping of remote learning-based software, systems, applications, and gadgets by both educators and students from all the 50-United States, due to both these groups responding to the associated needs and demands related to switching to remote teaching and learning. This paper aims to investigate, analyze, and interpret these trends of Google Shopping related to remote learning that emerged since March 13, 2020, on account of COVID-19 and the subsequent remote learning adoption in almost all schools, colleges, and universities, from all the 50-United States. The study was performed using Google Trends, which helps to track and study Google Shopping-based online activity emerging from different geolocations. The results and discussions show that the highest interest related to Remote Learning-based Google Shopping was recorded from Oregon, which was followed by Illinois, Florida, Texas, California, and the other states. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emma Hubert; Thibaut Mastrolia; Dylan Possamaï; Xavier Warin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France
    Project: ANR | PACMAN (ANR-16-CE05-0027)

    In this work, we provide a general mathematical formalism to study the optimal control of an epidemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, via incentives to lockdown and testing. In particular, we model the interplay between the government and the population as a principal-agent problem with moral hazard, à la Cvitanić et al. (Finance Stoch 22(1):1-37, 2018), while an epidemic is spreading according to dynamics given by compartmental stochastic SIS or SIR models, as proposed respectively by Gray et al. (SIAM J Appl Math 71(3):876-902, 2011) and Tornatore et al. (Phys A Stat Mech Appl 354(15):111-126, 2005). More precisely, to limit the spread of a virus, the population can decrease the transmission rate of the disease by reducing interactions between individuals. However, this effort-which cannot be perfectly monitored by the government-comes at social and monetary cost for the population. To mitigate this cost, and thus encourage the lockdown of the population, the government can put in place an incentive policy, in the form of a tax or subsidy. In addition, the government may also implement a testing policy in order to know more precisely the spread of the epidemic within the country, and to isolate infected individuals. In terms of technical results, we demonstrate the optimal form of the tax, indexed on the proportion of infected individuals, as well as the optimal effort of the population, namely the transmission rate chosen in response to this tax. The government's optimisation problems then boils down to solving an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Numerical results confirm that if a tax policy is implemented, the population is encouraged to significantly reduce its interactions. If the government also adjusts its testing policy, less effort is required on the population side, individuals can interact almost as usual, and the epidemic is largely contained by the targeted isolation of positively-tested individuals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexis Descatha; Grace Sembajwe; Fabien Gilbert; Marc Fadel;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: France

    Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Houcemeddine Othman; Houcemeddine Othman; Haifa Ben Messaoud; Oussema Khamessi; Hazem Ben-Mabrouk; Kais Ghedira; Avani Bharuthram; Florette Treurnicht; Ikechukwu Achilonu; Yasien Sayed; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PHINDaccess (811034)

    AbstractThe Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 virus harbors a sequence of Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide named RGD motif, which has also been identified in extracellular matrix proteins that bind integrins as well as other disintegrins and viruses. Accordingly, integrins have been proposed as host receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The hypothesis was supported by sequence and structural analysis. However, given that the microenvironment of the RGD motif imposes structural hindrance to the protein-protein association, the validity of this hypothesis is still uncertain. Here, we used normal mode analysis, accelerated molecular dynamics microscale simulation, and protein-protein docking to investigate the putative role of RGD motif of SARS-CoV-2 RBD for interacting with integrins. We found, by molecular dynamics, that neither RGD motif nore its microenvironment show any significant conformational shift in the RBD structure. Highly populated clusters were used to run a protein-protein docking against three RGD-binding integrin types, showing no capability of the RBD domain to interact with the RGD binding site. Moreover, the free energy landscape revealed that the RGD conformation within RBD could not acquire an optimal geometry to allow the interaction with integrins. Our results highlighted different structural features of the RGD motif that may prevent its involvement in the interaction with integrins. We, therefore, suggest, in the case where integrins are confirmed to be the direct host receptors for SARS-CoV-2, a possible involvement of other residues to stabilize the interaction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo W Heyerdahl; Muriel Vray; Benedetta Lana; Nastassia Tvardik; Nina Gobat; Marta Wanat; Sarah Tonkin-Crine; Sibyl Anthierens; Herman Goossens; Tamara Giles-Vernick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, France
    Project: EC | RECoVER (101003589)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 vaccine rollout in recent months offers a powerful preventive measure that may help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nevertheless, long-standing public hesitation around vaccines has heightened public health concerns that vaccine coverage may not achieve desired public health impacts.This cross-sectional survey was conducted online in December 2020 among 7000 respondents (aged 18 to 65) in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine. The survey included open text boxes for fuller explanation of responses. Projected COVID-19 vaccine coverage varied and may not be sufficiently high among certain populations to achieve herd immunity. Overall, 56.9% would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 19.0% would not, and 24.1% did not know or preferred not to say. By country, between 44% (France) and 66% (Italy) of respondents would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents expressed conditionality in open responses, voicing concerns about vaccine safety and mistrust of authorities. Public health campaigns must tackle these safety concerns.HighlightsMixed-method survey studied expected COVID vaccine uptake in 7 European countries.Projected COVID vaccine acceptance by country ranged from 44% to 66%.Explicit COVID vaccine acceptance or rejection was conditional.Study finds concerns about vaccine safety and authorities’ competence and honesty.Vaccine communications should address safety anxieties and target specific groups.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacquet, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In this paper we analyse the genome sequence of covid 19 on a information point of view and we compare with past and present genomes. We use the powerful tool of joint complexity in order to quantify the various potential parent genomes.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
656 Research products, page 1 of 66
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre-Edouard Danjou; Saâd Bouhsina; Sylvain Billet; Francine Cazier-Dennin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The year 2020 will be remembered as the year of COVID-19 and its subsequent lockdowns. This pandemic has profoundly changed the way we teach by forcing many institutions to offer their courses online. The time to come back to face-to-face teaching has arrived, but the shadow of the disease still hangs over teachers, students and society more generally. Disruption in teaching can still occur for students, or even teachers, if they are either diagnosed COVID-19 positive or contact case and forced to self-isolate. In order to limit the impact of self-isolation on learning, hybrid teaching (i.e. teaching face-to-face to students in a classroom and to online students at the same time) was successfully implemented owing to the combination of a videoconference software and a large interactive touchscreen. The set-up presented in this paper allows to broadcast courses to at-home students (i.e. voice, visual pedagogic support and, more interestingly, indications handwritten by the teacher) while simultaneously teaching face-to-face to students in the classroom. It also allows to self-isolated teacher to teach tutorial from home to students in the classroom. This paper focuses on the use of large interactive touchscreens for hybrid teaching. In order to evaluate this pedagogical approach, a questionnaire was completed by students and results discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jhony H. Giraldo; Arif Mahmood; Belmar Garcia-Garcia; Dorina Thanou; Thierry Bouwmans;
    Country: Switzerland

    Graph Signal Processing (GSP) is an emerging research field that extends the concepts of digital signal processing to graphs. GSP has numerous applications in different areas such as sensor networks, machine learning, and image processing. The sampling and reconstruction of static graph signals have played a central role in GSP. However, many real-world graph signals are inherently time-varying and the smoothness of the temporal differences of such graph signals may be used as a prior assumption. In the current work, we assume that the temporal differences of graph signals are smooth,and we introduce a novel algorithm based on the extension of a Sobolev smoothness function for the reconstruction of time-varying graph signals from discrete samples. We explore some theoretical aspects of the convergence rate of our Time-varying Graph signal Reconstruction via Sobolev Smoothness (Graph-TRSS) algorithm by studying the condition number of the Hessian associated with our optimization problem. Our algorithm has the advantage of converging faster than other methods that are based on Laplacian operators without requiring expensive eigenvalue decomposition or matrix inversions. The proposed Graph-TRSS is evaluated on several datasets including two COVID-19 datasets and it has outperformed many existing state-of-the-art methods for time-varying graph signal reconstruction. Graph-TRSS has also shown excellent performance on two environmental datasets for the recovery of particulate matter and sea surface temperature signals.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . Conference object . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabella Hall; Nirmalya Thakur; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The United States of America has been the worst affected country in terms of the number of cases and deaths on account of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19, a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that started spreading globally in late 2019. On account of the surge of infections, accompanied by hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19, and lack of a definitive cure at that point, a national emergency was declared in the United States on March 13, 2020. To prevent the rapid spread of the virus, several states declared stay at home and remote work guidelines shortly after this declaration of an emergency. Such guidelines caused schools, colleges, and universities, both private and public, in all the 50-United States to switch to remote or online forms of teaching for a significant period of time. As a result, Google, the most widely used search engine in the United States, experienced a surge in online shopping of remote learning-based software, systems, applications, and gadgets by both educators and students from all the 50-United States, due to both these groups responding to the associated needs and demands related to switching to remote teaching and learning. This paper aims to investigate, analyze, and interpret these trends of Google Shopping related to remote learning that emerged since March 13, 2020, on account of COVID-19 and the subsequent remote learning adoption in almost all schools, colleges, and universities, from all the 50-United States. The study was performed using Google Trends, which helps to track and study Google Shopping-based online activity emerging from different geolocations. The results and discussions show that the highest interest related to Remote Learning-based Google Shopping was recorded from Oregon, which was followed by Illinois, Florida, Texas, California, and the other states. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Emma Hubert; Thibaut Mastrolia; Dylan Possamaï; Xavier Warin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United States, France
    Project: ANR | PACMAN (ANR-16-CE05-0027)

    In this work, we provide a general mathematical formalism to study the optimal control of an epidemic, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, via incentives to lockdown and testing. In particular, we model the interplay between the government and the population as a principal-agent problem with moral hazard, à la Cvitanić et al. (Finance Stoch 22(1):1-37, 2018), while an epidemic is spreading according to dynamics given by compartmental stochastic SIS or SIR models, as proposed respectively by Gray et al. (SIAM J Appl Math 71(3):876-902, 2011) and Tornatore et al. (Phys A Stat Mech Appl 354(15):111-126, 2005). More precisely, to limit the spread of a virus, the population can decrease the transmission rate of the disease by reducing interactions between individuals. However, this effort-which cannot be perfectly monitored by the government-comes at social and monetary cost for the population. To mitigate this cost, and thus encourage the lockdown of the population, the government can put in place an incentive policy, in the form of a tax or subsidy. In addition, the government may also implement a testing policy in order to know more precisely the spread of the epidemic within the country, and to isolate infected individuals. In terms of technical results, we demonstrate the optimal form of the tax, indexed on the proportion of infected individuals, as well as the optimal effort of the population, namely the transmission rate chosen in response to this tax. The government's optimisation problems then boils down to solving an Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Numerical results confirm that if a tax policy is implemented, the population is encouraged to significantly reduce its interactions. If the government also adjusts its testing policy, less effort is required on the population side, individuals can interact almost as usual, and the epidemic is largely contained by the targeted isolation of positively-tested individuals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexis Descatha; Grace Sembajwe; Fabien Gilbert; Marc Fadel;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: France

    Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Houcemeddine Othman; Houcemeddine Othman; Haifa Ben Messaoud; Oussema Khamessi; Hazem Ben-Mabrouk; Kais Ghedira; Avani Bharuthram; Florette Treurnicht; Ikechukwu Achilonu; Yasien Sayed; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PHINDaccess (811034)

    AbstractThe Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 virus harbors a sequence of Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide named RGD motif, which has also been identified in extracellular matrix proteins that bind integrins as well as other disintegrins and viruses. Accordingly, integrins have been proposed as host receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The hypothesis was supported by sequence and structural analysis. However, given that the microenvironment of the RGD motif imposes structural hindrance to the protein-protein association, the validity of this hypothesis is still uncertain. Here, we used normal mode analysis, accelerated molecular dynamics microscale simulation, and protein-protein docking to investigate the putative role of RGD motif of SARS-CoV-2 RBD for interacting with integrins. We found, by molecular dynamics, that neither RGD motif nore its microenvironment show any significant conformational shift in the RBD structure. Highly populated clusters were used to run a protein-protein docking against three RGD-binding integrin types, showing no capability of the RBD domain to interact with the RGD binding site. Moreover, the free energy landscape revealed that the RGD conformation within RBD could not acquire an optimal geometry to allow the interaction with integrins. Our results highlighted different structural features of the RGD motif that may prevent its involvement in the interaction with integrins. We, therefore, suggest, in the case where integrins are confirmed to be the direct host receptors for SARS-CoV-2, a possible involvement of other residues to stabilize the interaction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo W Heyerdahl; Muriel Vray; Benedetta Lana; Nastassia Tvardik; Nina Gobat; Marta Wanat; Sarah Tonkin-Crine; Sibyl Anthierens; Herman Goossens; Tamara Giles-Vernick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, France
    Project: EC | RECoVER (101003589)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 vaccine rollout in recent months offers a powerful preventive measure that may help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nevertheless, long-standing public hesitation around vaccines has heightened public health concerns that vaccine coverage may not achieve desired public health impacts.This cross-sectional survey was conducted online in December 2020 among 7000 respondents (aged 18 to 65) in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine. The survey included open text boxes for fuller explanation of responses. Projected COVID-19 vaccine coverage varied and may not be sufficiently high among certain populations to achieve herd immunity. Overall, 56.9% would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 19.0% would not, and 24.1% did not know or preferred not to say. By country, between 44% (France) and 66% (Italy) of respondents would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents expressed conditionality in open responses, voicing concerns about vaccine safety and mistrust of authorities. Public health campaigns must tackle these safety concerns.HighlightsMixed-method survey studied expected COVID vaccine uptake in 7 European countries.Projected COVID vaccine acceptance by country ranged from 44% to 66%.Explicit COVID vaccine acceptance or rejection was conditional.Study finds concerns about vaccine safety and authorities’ competence and honesty.Vaccine communications should address safety anxieties and target specific groups.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacquet, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In this paper we analyse the genome sequence of covid 19 on a information point of view and we compare with past and present genomes. We use the powerful tool of joint complexity in order to quantify the various potential parent genomes.

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