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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amandine Fillol; Esther McSween-Cadieux; Bruno Ventelou; Marie-Pier Larose; Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo Kanguem; Kadidiatou Kadio; Christian Dagenais; Valéry Ridde;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Background: Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods: The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results: The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions: The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices.; Contexte : Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes : L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation : Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Kloeckner, Benoît; Tolle, Pierrick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marie Cariou; Léa Picard; Laurent Guéguen; Stéphanie Jacquet; Andrea Cimarelli; Oliver I. Fregoso; Antoine Molaro; Vincent Navratil; Lucie Etienne;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that spilled from the bat reservoir. Despite numerous clinical trials and vaccines, the burden remains immense, and the host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity remain largely unknown. Signatures of positive selection detected by comparative functional-genetic analyses in primate and bat genomes can uncover important and specific adaptations that occurred at virus-host interfaces. Here, we performed high-throughput evolutionary analyses of 334 SARS- CoV-2 interacting proteins to identify SARS-CoV adaptive loci and uncover functional differences between modern humans, primates and bats. Using DGINN (Detection of Genetic INNovation), we identified 38 bat and 81 primate proteins with marks of positive selection. Seventeen genes, including the ACE2 receptor, present adaptive marks in both mammalian orders, suggesting common virus-host interfaces and past epidemics of coronaviruses shaping their genomes. Yet, 84 genes presented distinct adaptations in bats and primates. Notably, residues involved in ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the inflammatory RIPK1 have rapidly evolved in bats but not primates, suggesting different inflammation regulation versus humans. Furthermore, we discovered residues with typical virus-host arms-race marks in primates, such as in the entry factor TMPRSS2 or the autophagy adaptor FYCO1, pointing to host-specific in vivo important interfaces that may be drug targets. Finally, we found that FYCO1 sites under adaptation in primates are those associated with severe COVID-19, supporting their importance in pathogenesis and replication. Overall, we identified functional adaptations involved in SARS- CoV-2 infection in bats and primates, critically enlightening modern genetic determinants of virus susceptibility and severity.Key findings:Evolutionary history of 334 SARS-CoV-2 interacting proteins (VIPs) in bats and primates identifying how the past has shaped modern viral reservoirs and humans – results publicly-available in an online resource.Identification of 81 primate and 38 bat VIPs with signatures of adaptive evolution. The common ones among species delineate a core adaptive interactome, while the ones displaying distinct evolutionary trajectories enlighten host lineage-specific determinants.Evidence of primate specific adaptation of the entry factor TMPRSS2 pointing to its host- specific in vivo importance and predicting molecular interfaces.FYCO1 sites associated with severe COVID-19 in human (GWAS) display hallmarks of ancient adaptive evolution in primates, highlighting its importance in SARS-CoV-2 replication or pathogenesis and differences with the bat reservoir.Identification of adaptive evolution in the bat’s multifunctional RIPK1 at residues that may differentially regulate inflammation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antoine Brault; Cécile Tran-Kiem; Clément Couteaux; Valérie Olié; Juliette Paireau; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Jade Ghosn; Guillaume Martin-Blondel; Paolo Bosetti; Simon Cauchemez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Ending Zero-COVID is challenging, particularly when vaccine coverage is low. Considering Wallis and Futuna, a French Zero-COVID territory affected by reluctance to vaccination, low immunity and high levels of comorbidities, we investigate how targeted use of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (brand name Paxlovid) can complement vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and mitigate the epidemic rebound expected when Zero-COVID ends.We developed a discrete age-stratified compartmental model describing SARS-CoV-2 spread and healthcare impact once Wallis and Futuna reopens. It accounts for comorbidity risk groups (CRG), vaccine coverage (2 doses, 3 doses), the effectiveness of vaccines (recent or old injection), treatments and NPIs. In our baseline scenario, cases aged 65+ in intermediate/high CRG and 40+ in high CRG are eligible for treatment.FindingsThe epidemic is expected to start 13-20 days after reopening with a doubling time of 1·6-3·7 days. For medium transmission intensity (R0=5), 134 (115-156) hospital admissions are expected within 3 months, with no pharmaceutical measures. In our baseline scenario, admissions are reduced by 11%-21% if 50% of the target group receive treatment, with maximum impact when combined with NPIs and vaccination. The number of hospitalisations averted (HA) per patient treated (PT) is maximum when 65+ in high CRG are targeted (0·124 HA/PT), quickly followed by 65+ in intermediate/high CRG (0·097 HA/PT), and any 65+ (0·093 HA/PT). Expanding the target group increases both PT and HA, but marginal gains diminish.Modelling suggests that test and treat may contribute to the mitigation of epidemic rebounds at the end of Zero-COVID, particularly in populations with low immunity and high levels of comorbidities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Young-Jun Park; Dora Pinto; Alexandra C. Walls; Zhuoming Liu; Anna De Marco; Fabio Benigni; Fabrizia Zatta; Chiara Silacci-Fregni; Jessica Bassi; Kaitlin R. Sprouse; +42 more
    Countries: France, Belgium

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development. ispartof: Science vol:378 issue:6620 pages:619-627 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clémence Brun; Oulmann Zerhouni; Laurène Houtin; Alexis Akinyemi; Carla Aimé-Jubin; Jordane Boudesseul;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Background: Distrust of COVID-19 vaccines may hamper vaccination campaigns. We focused on the cognitive determinants of intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We were interested in (i) the effects of stress, and (ii) the effects of self-protection systems on attitudes and intentions to get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: We conducted an online observational study with 203 French students (MAge = 19, SDAge = 2.52, Women = 173), in which we measured, through self-reported questionnaires, their perceived stress and vulnerability to disease, belief in a dangerous world, pandemic-related stressors living conditions, attitudes and intentions to get vaccinated, and confidence in the government's management of COVID-19. We conducted two multiple linear mediation analyses.Results: Participants who reported higher trust in the government and who reported higher stress levels were more likely to have positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine, although both these influences seem to be –at least partially - independent. Conclusions: The factor that most robustly predicted both attitudes and intentions to vaccinate was confidence in the information provided by the government and its ability to manage the pandemic in general. Our analyses suggest the existence of two profiles of people likely to have positive attitudes toward vaccination: those who trust the government and are not stressed by vaccination, and those who do not trust the government but would get vaccinated to reduce their stress. We discuss how to improve the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine policies through communication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollenstein, Marcel; Naccache, David; R��nne, Peter B.; Ryan, Peter Y A; Weil, Robert; Yifrach-Stav, Ofer;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Luxembourg, France

    As humanity struggles to contain the global COVID-19 pandemic, privacy concerns are emerging regarding confinement, tracing and testing. The scientific debate concerning privacy of the COVID-19 tracing efforts has been intense, especially focusing on the choice between centralised and decentralised tracing apps. The privacy concerns regarding COVID-19 testing, however, have not received as much attention even though the privacy at stake is arguably even higher. COVID-19 tests require the collection of samples. Those samples possibly contain viral material but inevitably also human DNA. Patient DNA is not necessary for the test but it is technically impossible to avoid collecting it. The unlawful preservation, or misuse, of such samples at a massive scale may hence disclose patient DNA information with far-reaching privacy consequences. Inspired by the cryptographic concept of "Indistinguishability under Chosen Plaintext Attack", this paper poses the blueprint of novel types of tests allowing to detect viral presence without leaving persisting traces of the patient's DNA. Authors are listed in alphabetical order. 10 pages, 1 figure

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shushi Peng; Clément Giron; Gang Liu; Alexandre d'Aspremont; Antoine Benoit; Thomas Lauvaux; Xin Lin; Hugo De Rodrigues; Marielle Saunois; Philippe Ciais;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Accurate assessment of coal mine methane (CMM) emissions is a prerequisite for defining baselines and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Such an endeavor is jeopardized however by large uncertainties in current CMM estimates. Here, we assimilated images of methane column atmospheric mixing ratios observed by the TROPOMI space borne instrument in a high-resolution regional inversion to estimate CMM emissions in Shanxi, a province representing 15% of the global coal production. The emissions are estimated to be 8.5±0.6 and 8.6±0.6 Tg CH4 yr-1 in 2019 and 2020 respectively, close to upper bound of current bottom-up estimates. The monthly variations of emissions are well reproduced, including the drop and rebound in response to COVID-19 regulation. Data from more than a thousand of individual mines indicate that our estimated emission factors increase significantly with coal mining depth at prefecture level, that is the CH4 emission per volume of extracted coal. This result suggests that ongoing deeper mining will increase CMM emission intensity in the future, pressing needs for mitigation. Our results show robustness of estimating CMM emissions utilizing TROPOMI images, and highlight potential of monitoring methane leakages and emissions from satellites.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Lutaud, R.; Gentile, Stéphanie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • English
    Authors: 
    Paireau, Juliette; Charpignon, Marie-Laure; Larrieu, Sophie; Calba, Clémentine; Hozé, Nathanaël; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Prague, Mélanie; Cauchemez, Simon;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Background: Multiple factors shape the temporal dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. Quantifying their relative contributions is key to guide future control strategies. Our objective was to disentangle the individual effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), weather, vaccination, and variants of concern (VOC) on local SARS-CoV-2 transmission.Methods: We developed a log-linear model for the weekly reproduction number (R) of hospital admissions in 92 French metropolitan departments. We leveraged (i) the homogeneity in data collection and NPI definitions across departments, (ii) the spatial heterogeneity in the timing of NPIs, and (iii) an extensive observation period (14 months) covering different meteorological conditions, VOC proportions, and vaccine coverage levels.Results: Three lockdowns reduced R by 72.9% (95%CI: 71.4-74.2), 70.4% (69.2-71.6) and 60.4% (56.1-64.3), respectively. Curfews implemented at 6/7pm and 8/9pm reduced R by 34.5% (28.1-40.4) and 18.4% (11.4-24.8), respectively. School closures reduced R by only 4.6% (1.6-7.4). We estimated that vaccination of the entire population would have reduced R by 74.0% (59.4-83.3), whereas the emergence of VOC (mainly Alpha during the study period) increased transmission by 46.9% (38.2-56.0) compared with the historical variant. Winter weather conditions (lower temperature and absolute humidity) increased R by 41.7% (37.0-46.7) compared to summer weather conditions. Additionally, we explored counterfactual scenarios (absence of VOC or vaccination) to assess their impact on hospital admissions.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the strong effectiveness of NPIs and vaccination and quantifies the role of meteorological factors while adjusting for other confounders. It highlights the importance of retrospective evaluation of interventions to inform future decision-making.

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868 Research products, page 1 of 87
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Amandine Fillol; Esther McSween-Cadieux; Bruno Ventelou; Marie-Pier Larose; Ulrich Boris Nguemdjo Kanguem; Kadidiatou Kadio; Christian Dagenais; Valéry Ridde;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Background: Epistemic injustices are increasingly decried in global health. This study aims to investigate whether the source of knowledge influences the perception of that knowledge and the willingness to use it in francophone African health policy-making context. Methods: The study followed a randomized experimental design in which participants were randomly assigned to one of seven policy briefs that were designed with the same scientific content but with different organizations presented as authors. Each organization was representative of financial, scientific or moral authority. For each type of authority, two organizations were proposed: one North American or European, and the other African. Results: The initial models showed that there was no significant association between the type of authority or the location of the authoring organization and the two outcomes (perceived quality and reported instrumental use). Stratified analyses highlighted that policy briefs signed by the African donor organization (financial authority) were perceived to be of higher quality than policy briefs signed by the North American/European donor organization. For both perceived quality and reported instrumental use, these analyses found that policy briefs signed by the African university (scientific authority) were associated with lower scores than policy briefs signed by the North American/European university. Conclusions: The results confirm the significant influence of sources on perceived global health knowledge and the intersectionality of sources of influence. This analysis allows us to learn more about organizations in global health leadership, and to reflect on the implications for knowledge translation practices.; Contexte : Les injustices épistémiques sont de plus en plus décriées dans le domaine de la santé mondiale. Cette étude vise à déterminer si la source des connaissances influence la perception de ces connaissances et la volonté de les utiliser. Méthodes : L’étude suit un devis expérimental randomisé dans lequel les participant·es ont été assigné·es au hasard à l'une des sept notes politiques conçues avec le même contenu scientifique, mais avec différentes organisations présentées comme autrices. Chaque organisation était représentative d'une autorité financière, scientifique ou morale. Pour chaque type d'autorité, deux organisations étaient proposées : l'une nord-américaine ou européenne, l'autre africaine. Résultats : Les résultats montrent que le type d’autorité et la localisation des organisations autrices ne sont pas significativement associés à la qualité perçue et à l’utilisation instrumentale déclarée. Toutefois, des interactions entre le type d’autorité et la localisation étaient significatives. Ainsi, les analyses stratifiées ont mis en évidence que pour la qualité perçue, les notes de politique signées par l'organisme bailleur (autorité financière) africain obtenaient de meilleurs scores que les notes de politique signées par l’organisme bailleur nord-américain / européen. Tant pour la qualité perçue que pour l'utilisation instrumentale déclarée, ces analyses stratifiées ont révélé que les notes de politique signées par l'université africaine (autorité scientifique) étaient associées à des scores plus faibles que les notes de politique signées par l'université nord-américaine/européenne. Interprétation : Les résultats confirment l'influence significative des sources sur la perception des connaissances en santé mondiale et rappellent l’intersectionnalité de l’influence des sources d’autorité. Cette analyse nous permet à la fois d'en apprendre davantage sur les organisations qui dominent la scène de la gouvernance mondiale en santé et de réfléchir aux implications pour les pratiques d'application des connaissances.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Kloeckner, Benoît; Tolle, Pierrick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Marie Cariou; Léa Picard; Laurent Guéguen; Stéphanie Jacquet; Andrea Cimarelli; Oliver I. Fregoso; Antoine Molaro; Vincent Navratil; Lucie Etienne;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    AbstractThe COVID-19 pandemic is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus that spilled from the bat reservoir. Despite numerous clinical trials and vaccines, the burden remains immense, and the host determinants of SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility and COVID-19 severity remain largely unknown. Signatures of positive selection detected by comparative functional-genetic analyses in primate and bat genomes can uncover important and specific adaptations that occurred at virus-host interfaces. Here, we performed high-throughput evolutionary analyses of 334 SARS- CoV-2 interacting proteins to identify SARS-CoV adaptive loci and uncover functional differences between modern humans, primates and bats. Using DGINN (Detection of Genetic INNovation), we identified 38 bat and 81 primate proteins with marks of positive selection. Seventeen genes, including the ACE2 receptor, present adaptive marks in both mammalian orders, suggesting common virus-host interfaces and past epidemics of coronaviruses shaping their genomes. Yet, 84 genes presented distinct adaptations in bats and primates. Notably, residues involved in ubiquitination and phosphorylation of the inflammatory RIPK1 have rapidly evolved in bats but not primates, suggesting different inflammation regulation versus humans. Furthermore, we discovered residues with typical virus-host arms-race marks in primates, such as in the entry factor TMPRSS2 or the autophagy adaptor FYCO1, pointing to host-specific in vivo important interfaces that may be drug targets. Finally, we found that FYCO1 sites under adaptation in primates are those associated with severe COVID-19, supporting their importance in pathogenesis and replication. Overall, we identified functional adaptations involved in SARS- CoV-2 infection in bats and primates, critically enlightening modern genetic determinants of virus susceptibility and severity.Key findings:Evolutionary history of 334 SARS-CoV-2 interacting proteins (VIPs) in bats and primates identifying how the past has shaped modern viral reservoirs and humans – results publicly-available in an online resource.Identification of 81 primate and 38 bat VIPs with signatures of adaptive evolution. The common ones among species delineate a core adaptive interactome, while the ones displaying distinct evolutionary trajectories enlighten host lineage-specific determinants.Evidence of primate specific adaptation of the entry factor TMPRSS2 pointing to its host- specific in vivo importance and predicting molecular interfaces.FYCO1 sites associated with severe COVID-19 in human (GWAS) display hallmarks of ancient adaptive evolution in primates, highlighting its importance in SARS-CoV-2 replication or pathogenesis and differences with the bat reservoir.Identification of adaptive evolution in the bat’s multifunctional RIPK1 at residues that may differentially regulate inflammation.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antoine Brault; Cécile Tran-Kiem; Clément Couteaux; Valérie Olié; Juliette Paireau; Yazdan Yazdanpanah; Jade Ghosn; Guillaume Martin-Blondel; Paolo Bosetti; Simon Cauchemez;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Ending Zero-COVID is challenging, particularly when vaccine coverage is low. Considering Wallis and Futuna, a French Zero-COVID territory affected by reluctance to vaccination, low immunity and high levels of comorbidities, we investigate how targeted use of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (brand name Paxlovid) can complement vaccination and non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) and mitigate the epidemic rebound expected when Zero-COVID ends.We developed a discrete age-stratified compartmental model describing SARS-CoV-2 spread and healthcare impact once Wallis and Futuna reopens. It accounts for comorbidity risk groups (CRG), vaccine coverage (2 doses, 3 doses), the effectiveness of vaccines (recent or old injection), treatments and NPIs. In our baseline scenario, cases aged 65+ in intermediate/high CRG and 40+ in high CRG are eligible for treatment.FindingsThe epidemic is expected to start 13-20 days after reopening with a doubling time of 1·6-3·7 days. For medium transmission intensity (R0=5), 134 (115-156) hospital admissions are expected within 3 months, with no pharmaceutical measures. In our baseline scenario, admissions are reduced by 11%-21% if 50% of the target group receive treatment, with maximum impact when combined with NPIs and vaccination. The number of hospitalisations averted (HA) per patient treated (PT) is maximum when 65+ in high CRG are targeted (0·124 HA/PT), quickly followed by 65+ in intermediate/high CRG (0·097 HA/PT), and any 65+ (0·093 HA/PT). Expanding the target group increases both PT and HA, but marginal gains diminish.Modelling suggests that test and treat may contribute to the mitigation of epidemic rebounds at the end of Zero-COVID, particularly in populations with low immunity and high levels of comorbidities.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Young-Jun Park; Dora Pinto; Alexandra C. Walls; Zhuoming Liu; Anna De Marco; Fabio Benigni; Fabrizia Zatta; Chiara Silacci-Fregni; Jessica Bassi; Kaitlin R. Sprouse; +42 more
    Countries: France, Belgium

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Omicron sublineages carry distinct spike mutations resulting in escape from antibodies induced by previous infection or vaccination. We show that hybrid immunity or vaccine boosters elicit plasma-neutralizing antibodies against Omicron BA.1, BA.2, BA.2.12.1, and BA.4/5, and that breakthrough infections, but not vaccination alone, induce neutralizing antibodies in the nasal mucosa. Consistent with immunological imprinting, most antibodies derived from memory B cells or plasma cells of Omicron breakthrough cases cross-react with the Wuhan-Hu-1, BA.1, BA.2, and BA.4/5 receptor-binding domains, whereas Omicron primary infections elicit B cells of narrow specificity up to 6 months after infection. Although most clinical antibodies have reduced neutralization of Omicron, we identified an ultrapotent pan-variant-neutralizing antibody that is a strong candidate for clinical development. ispartof: Science vol:378 issue:6620 pages:619-627 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Clémence Brun; Oulmann Zerhouni; Laurène Houtin; Alexis Akinyemi; Carla Aimé-Jubin; Jordane Boudesseul;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Background: Distrust of COVID-19 vaccines may hamper vaccination campaigns. We focused on the cognitive determinants of intentions to get vaccinated against COVID-19. We were interested in (i) the effects of stress, and (ii) the effects of self-protection systems on attitudes and intentions to get vaccinated with a COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: We conducted an online observational study with 203 French students (MAge = 19, SDAge = 2.52, Women = 173), in which we measured, through self-reported questionnaires, their perceived stress and vulnerability to disease, belief in a dangerous world, pandemic-related stressors living conditions, attitudes and intentions to get vaccinated, and confidence in the government's management of COVID-19. We conducted two multiple linear mediation analyses.Results: Participants who reported higher trust in the government and who reported higher stress levels were more likely to have positive attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine, although both these influences seem to be –at least partially - independent. Conclusions: The factor that most robustly predicted both attitudes and intentions to vaccinate was confidence in the information provided by the government and its ability to manage the pandemic in general. Our analyses suggest the existence of two profiles of people likely to have positive attitudes toward vaccination: those who trust the government and are not stressed by vaccination, and those who do not trust the government but would get vaccinated to reduce their stress. We discuss how to improve the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine policies through communication.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hollenstein, Marcel; Naccache, David; R��nne, Peter B.; Ryan, Peter Y A; Weil, Robert; Yifrach-Stav, Ofer;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Luxembourg, France

    As humanity struggles to contain the global COVID-19 pandemic, privacy concerns are emerging regarding confinement, tracing and testing. The scientific debate concerning privacy of the COVID-19 tracing efforts has been intense, especially focusing on the choice between centralised and decentralised tracing apps. The privacy concerns regarding COVID-19 testing, however, have not received as much attention even though the privacy at stake is arguably even higher. COVID-19 tests require the collection of samples. Those samples possibly contain viral material but inevitably also human DNA. Patient DNA is not necessary for the test but it is technically impossible to avoid collecting it. The unlawful preservation, or misuse, of such samples at a massive scale may hence disclose patient DNA information with far-reaching privacy consequences. Inspired by the cryptographic concept of "Indistinguishability under Chosen Plaintext Attack", this paper poses the blueprint of novel types of tests allowing to detect viral presence without leaving persisting traces of the patient's DNA. Authors are listed in alphabetical order. 10 pages, 1 figure

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shushi Peng; Clément Giron; Gang Liu; Alexandre d'Aspremont; Antoine Benoit; Thomas Lauvaux; Xin Lin; Hugo De Rodrigues; Marielle Saunois; Philippe Ciais;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Accurate assessment of coal mine methane (CMM) emissions is a prerequisite for defining baselines and assessing the effectiveness of mitigation measures. Such an endeavor is jeopardized however by large uncertainties in current CMM estimates. Here, we assimilated images of methane column atmospheric mixing ratios observed by the TROPOMI space borne instrument in a high-resolution regional inversion to estimate CMM emissions in Shanxi, a province representing 15% of the global coal production. The emissions are estimated to be 8.5±0.6 and 8.6±0.6 Tg CH4 yr-1 in 2019 and 2020 respectively, close to upper bound of current bottom-up estimates. The monthly variations of emissions are well reproduced, including the drop and rebound in response to COVID-19 regulation. Data from more than a thousand of individual mines indicate that our estimated emission factors increase significantly with coal mining depth at prefecture level, that is the CH4 emission per volume of extracted coal. This result suggests that ongoing deeper mining will increase CMM emission intensity in the future, pressing needs for mitigation. Our results show robustness of estimating CMM emissions utilizing TROPOMI images, and highlight potential of monitoring methane leakages and emissions from satellites.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Lutaud, R.; Gentile, Stéphanie;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • English
    Authors: 
    Paireau, Juliette; Charpignon, Marie-Laure; Larrieu, Sophie; Calba, Clémentine; Hozé, Nathanaël; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Thiébaut, Rodolphe; Prague, Mélanie; Cauchemez, Simon;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Background: Multiple factors shape the temporal dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic. Quantifying their relative contributions is key to guide future control strategies. Our objective was to disentangle the individual effects of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), weather, vaccination, and variants of concern (VOC) on local SARS-CoV-2 transmission.Methods: We developed a log-linear model for the weekly reproduction number (R) of hospital admissions in 92 French metropolitan departments. We leveraged (i) the homogeneity in data collection and NPI definitions across departments, (ii) the spatial heterogeneity in the timing of NPIs, and (iii) an extensive observation period (14 months) covering different meteorological conditions, VOC proportions, and vaccine coverage levels.Results: Three lockdowns reduced R by 72.9% (95%CI: 71.4-74.2), 70.4% (69.2-71.6) and 60.4% (56.1-64.3), respectively. Curfews implemented at 6/7pm and 8/9pm reduced R by 34.5% (28.1-40.4) and 18.4% (11.4-24.8), respectively. School closures reduced R by only 4.6% (1.6-7.4). We estimated that vaccination of the entire population would have reduced R by 74.0% (59.4-83.3), whereas the emergence of VOC (mainly Alpha during the study period) increased transmission by 46.9% (38.2-56.0) compared with the historical variant. Winter weather conditions (lower temperature and absolute humidity) increased R by 41.7% (37.0-46.7) compared to summer weather conditions. Additionally, we explored counterfactual scenarios (absence of VOC or vaccination) to assess their impact on hospital admissions.Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the strong effectiveness of NPIs and vaccination and quantifies the role of meteorological factors while adjusting for other confounders. It highlights the importance of retrospective evaluation of interventions to inform future decision-making.

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