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  • 2013-2022
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  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société
  • COVID-19

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  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coquidé, Célestin; Lages, José; Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Using the United Nations Comtrade database, we perform the Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct World Trade Network (WTN) for the years 2018-2020 comprising the emergence of the COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The applied algorithms -- the PageRank, the CheiRank and the reduced Google matrix -- take into account the multiplicity of the WTN links providing new insights on the international trade comparing to the usual import-export analysis. These algorithms establish new rankings and trade balances of countries and products considering every countries on equal grounds, independently of their wealth, and every products on the basis of their relative exchanged volumes. In comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period, significant changes in these metrics occur for the year 2020 highlighting a major rewiring of the international trade flows induced by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. We define a new PageRank-CheiRank product trade balance, either export or import oriented, which is significantly perturbed by the pandemic. Comment: 22 pages, 2 tables, 13 figures, 2 appendices

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Astruc, Lisa; Lemaire, Emilie; GOLAZ, Valérie; Gastineau, Bénédicte;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Comme lors de la première vague épidémique de Covid-19 en 2020, les communications du Ministère de la santé et la presse nous alertent sur le fait que les hôpitaux de France sont saturés ou sur le point de l’être. Dans plusieurs régions françaises, des opérations chirurgicales sont déprogrammées. Les soignants, remobilisés même lorsqu’ils sont malades, montrent des signes d’épuisement, voire se mettent en grève. Que savons-nous de la tension hospitalière ? L’objectif de cette note est de clarifier la manière dont elle est mesurée, de clarifier comment l’indicateur de tension hospitalière est construit, à partir de l’analyse de ses tendances nationales et régionales. Cela nous amène à mettre en lumière le rôle de cet indicateur dans les politiques mises en place en période épidémique. Pour cela, nous allons aborder quatre questions.Comment a évolué la tension hospitalière depuis le début de la pandémie ? Connait-elle de grandes disparités régionales ? Comment la tension hospitalière est-elle calculée ? Que ne dit pas cet indicateur de tension hospitalière ?

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Émilien; Atlani-Duault, L; Peretti-Watel, p; Ward, J,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Objectives In the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chloroquine and its derivatives such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely commented upon both within the scientific community and in the media. This paper explores the different factors that influenced public perceptions in France of the efficacy of HCQ as well as their evolution between April 2020 and June 2021. Methods This article draws on 5 surveys conducted among representative samples of the French population (projects COCONEL and TRACTRUST; quota method, n = 1006; 1004; 2006; 1014 and 1005). We asked questions on the effectiveness of chloroquine against COVID-19. We also collected sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward politics and science. Results Between April and June 2021, the proportion of respondents who believed in the efficacy of HCQ decreased rapidly from 35% to 14%. The proportion of respondents who believed that HCQ is ineffective rose gradually from 6% to 21%. After adjusting for the temporal effect, the logistic regression showed a very strong association between political orientation and the belief in the efficacy of HCQ. Respondents who felt closest to the more radical parties (far-right and far-left) were more likely to believe in the efficacy of HCQ than those who felt closest to the political center (O.R. 2.48 [1.95–3.15] and 1.87 [1.44–2.43]). The role of trust in the government and in science and of the degree of political engagement were investigated in the two waves conducted after the scientific consensus was established during the summer of 2020. High levels of trust in the government and in science and of politicization are associated with belief of HCQ proven inefficacy. Across the whole period, a majority of respondents were uncertain. Even in 2021, 41.5% stated that the data were insufficient to decide whether or not HCQ is effective and 25.2% stating that they did not know. Conclusion Because media coverage of scientific controversies is higher in times of uncertainty than after these controversies have died down, the publicization of therapeutic promises can have lasting consequences on attitudes towards science and medicine.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Radtchenko-Draillard, Svetlana;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    After having carried out the analysis of numerous intercultural comparative studies and my theoretical-empirical studies on the state of mental health in the academic spheres of different countries, the purpose of my article is to describe the major causes and consequences of the mental health of students, teachers and researchers in recent years and in particular during the Covid 19 epidemic, then synthesize the main reflections on the effectiveness of medicalpsychological centers for their optimization.; Après avoir réalisé l’analyse de nombreuses études comparatives interculturelles et mes études théoriques-empiriques sur l’état de santé mentale dans les sphères académiques de différents pays, le but de mon article est de décrire les causes et conséquences majeures de la santé mentale des étudiants, enseignants et chercheurs ces dernières années et en particulier pendant l’épidémie de Covid 19, puis synthétiser les principales réflexions sur l’efficacité des centres médico-psychologiques pour leur optimisation. Mots-clés : santé mentale, dépression, anxiété, stress, burn-out, épidémie de coronavirus (Covid 19), soins médico-psychologiques.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Michael; Longuet Marx, Nicolas; Pons, Vincent; Brouard, Sylvain; Foucault, Martial; Galasso, Vincenzo; Kerrouche, Éric; León Alfonso, Sandra; Stegmueller, Daniel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Lesya Baudoin; Anne Glanard; Abdelghani Maddi; Wilfriedo Mescheba; Frédérique Sachwald;
    Publisher: CNRS Éditions
    Country: France

    Research on infectious diseases constitutes a transversal scientific field. A specific corpus is designed by combining a controlled language (Medline MeSH thesaurus) and the categorization of journals (Web of Science). From this global corpus, the article characterizes the publications from the top 20 countries publishing in the field and evolutions between 2000 and 2020. Topic maps show the research themes within the field of infectious diseases both in the world and in France. The explosion of publications on Covid-19 in 2020 has a quite visible impact on the topic map in infectious diseases and changes the position of some countries in this field of research. The conclusion points to issues for further research as more complete data will become available on the Covid-19 period. Comment: in French. Histoire de la recherche contemporaine : la revue du Comit{\'e} pour l'histoire du CNRS , CNRS {\'E}ditions, 2021

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • French
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    La pandémie de Covid-19 a bouleversé non seulement l'économie de la plupart des pays, mais aussi le domaine scientifique médical. Les opinions publiques se sont immiscées dans les choix des essais thérapeutiques comme le montrent les controverses autour des protocoles utilisant l'hydroxychloroquine. Le choix du public pour ces traitements est expliqué comme l'application d'un "pari de Pascal". Cet article analyse la formation du système de croyance des individus en appliquant la théorie de l'ambiguïté et la théorie de l'entropie d'information. Il montre que les choix du public sont le fruit de stratégies communication choisies par les promoteurs de tel ou tel traitement.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
257 Research products, page 1 of 26
  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coquidé, Célestin; Lages, José; Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Using the United Nations Comtrade database, we perform the Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct World Trade Network (WTN) for the years 2018-2020 comprising the emergence of the COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The applied algorithms -- the PageRank, the CheiRank and the reduced Google matrix -- take into account the multiplicity of the WTN links providing new insights on the international trade comparing to the usual import-export analysis. These algorithms establish new rankings and trade balances of countries and products considering every countries on equal grounds, independently of their wealth, and every products on the basis of their relative exchanged volumes. In comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period, significant changes in these metrics occur for the year 2020 highlighting a major rewiring of the international trade flows induced by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. We define a new PageRank-CheiRank product trade balance, either export or import oriented, which is significantly perturbed by the pandemic. Comment: 22 pages, 2 tables, 13 figures, 2 appendices

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Astruc, Lisa; Lemaire, Emilie; GOLAZ, Valérie; Gastineau, Bénédicte;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Comme lors de la première vague épidémique de Covid-19 en 2020, les communications du Ministère de la santé et la presse nous alertent sur le fait que les hôpitaux de France sont saturés ou sur le point de l’être. Dans plusieurs régions françaises, des opérations chirurgicales sont déprogrammées. Les soignants, remobilisés même lorsqu’ils sont malades, montrent des signes d’épuisement, voire se mettent en grève. Que savons-nous de la tension hospitalière ? L’objectif de cette note est de clarifier la manière dont elle est mesurée, de clarifier comment l’indicateur de tension hospitalière est construit, à partir de l’analyse de ses tendances nationales et régionales. Cela nous amène à mettre en lumière le rôle de cet indicateur dans les politiques mises en place en période épidémique. Pour cela, nous allons aborder quatre questions.Comment a évolué la tension hospitalière depuis le début de la pandémie ? Connait-elle de grandes disparités régionales ? Comment la tension hospitalière est-elle calculée ? Que ne dit pas cet indicateur de tension hospitalière ?

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Émilien; Atlani-Duault, L; Peretti-Watel, p; Ward, J,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Objectives In the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chloroquine and its derivatives such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely commented upon both within the scientific community and in the media. This paper explores the different factors that influenced public perceptions in France of the efficacy of HCQ as well as their evolution between April 2020 and June 2021. Methods This article draws on 5 surveys conducted among representative samples of the French population (projects COCONEL and TRACTRUST; quota method, n = 1006; 1004; 2006; 1014 and 1005). We asked questions on the effectiveness of chloroquine against COVID-19. We also collected sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward politics and science. Results Between April and June 2021, the proportion of respondents who believed in the efficacy of HCQ decreased rapidly from 35% to 14%. The proportion of respondents who believed that HCQ is ineffective rose gradually from 6% to 21%. After adjusting for the temporal effect, the logistic regression showed a very strong association between political orientation and the belief in the efficacy of HCQ. Respondents who felt closest to the more radical parties (far-right and far-left) were more likely to believe in the efficacy of HCQ than those who felt closest to the political center (O.R. 2.48 [1.95–3.15] and 1.87 [1.44–2.43]). The role of trust in the government and in science and of the degree of political engagement were investigated in the two waves conducted after the scientific consensus was established during the summer of 2020. High levels of trust in the government and in science and of politicization are associated with belief of HCQ proven inefficacy. Across the whole period, a majority of respondents were uncertain. Even in 2021, 41.5% stated that the data were insufficient to decide whether or not HCQ is effective and 25.2% stating that they did not know. Conclusion Because media coverage of scientific controversies is higher in times of uncertainty than after these controversies have died down, the publicization of therapeutic promises can have lasting consequences on attitudes towards science and medicine.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Radtchenko-Draillard, Svetlana;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    After having carried out the analysis of numerous intercultural comparative studies and my theoretical-empirical studies on the state of mental health in the academic spheres of different countries, the purpose of my article is to describe the major causes and consequences of the mental health of students, teachers and researchers in recent years and in particular during the Covid 19 epidemic, then synthesize the main reflections on the effectiveness of medicalpsychological centers for their optimization.; Après avoir réalisé l’analyse de nombreuses études comparatives interculturelles et mes études théoriques-empiriques sur l’état de santé mentale dans les sphères académiques de différents pays, le but de mon article est de décrire les causes et conséquences majeures de la santé mentale des étudiants, enseignants et chercheurs ces dernières années et en particulier pendant l’épidémie de Covid 19, puis synthétiser les principales réflexions sur l’efficacité des centres médico-psychologiques pour leur optimisation. Mots-clés : santé mentale, dépression, anxiété, stress, burn-out, épidémie de coronavirus (Covid 19), soins médico-psychologiques.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Becher, Michael; Longuet Marx, Nicolas; Pons, Vincent; Brouard, Sylvain; Foucault, Martial; Galasso, Vincenzo; Kerrouche, Éric; León Alfonso, Sandra; Stegmueller, Daniel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Lesya Baudoin; Anne Glanard; Abdelghani Maddi; Wilfriedo Mescheba; Frédérique Sachwald;
    Publisher: CNRS Éditions
    Country: France

    Research on infectious diseases constitutes a transversal scientific field. A specific corpus is designed by combining a controlled language (Medline MeSH thesaurus) and the categorization of journals (Web of Science). From this global corpus, the article characterizes the publications from the top 20 countries publishing in the field and evolutions between 2000 and 2020. Topic maps show the research themes within the field of infectious diseases both in the world and in France. The explosion of publications on Covid-19 in 2020 has a quite visible impact on the topic map in infectious diseases and changes the position of some countries in this field of research. The conclusion points to issues for further research as more complete data will become available on the Covid-19 period. Comment: in French. Histoire de la recherche contemporaine : la revue du Comit{\'e} pour l'histoire du CNRS , CNRS {\'E}ditions, 2021

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • French
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    La pandémie de Covid-19 a bouleversé non seulement l'économie de la plupart des pays, mais aussi le domaine scientifique médical. Les opinions publiques se sont immiscées dans les choix des essais thérapeutiques comme le montrent les controverses autour des protocoles utilisant l'hydroxychloroquine. Le choix du public pour ces traitements est expliqué comme l'application d'un "pari de Pascal". Cet article analyse la formation du système de croyance des individus en appliquant la théorie de l'ambiguïté et la théorie de l'entropie d'information. Il montre que les choix du public sont le fruit de stratégies communication choisies par les promoteurs de tel ou tel traitement.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

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