International audience; This paper describes the genesis of discoveries that have allowed cell reprogramming and derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells. This achievement has been distinguished by the 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to John B. Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka. The verdict of the Nobel Committee was as follows: "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent". The basis for the discovery was done by Gurdon in the 60s of the twentieth century, although he was not a pioneer in his field of research. The last word was pronounced, however, by Yamanaka at the beginning of the twenty-first century. The Japanese was born fifty years ago, that is exactly the year when Gurdon made his most important discoveries. Despite such a large difference in age of the two scientists their studies complement each other perfectly and promise numerous applications in regenerative medicine.