The implementation of BIM methodologies for historical buildings presupposes not only the collection of data and information related to its geometric configuration and to the technical parameters of its constituent elements, but more generally the identification of those semantic values which make it part of the historical-cultural heritage shared in a specific context. It is therefore essential that the modelling objectives are explicitly defined in relation to the specific BIM uses required, in order to avoid risks of over-modelling. This paper proposes a process of geometric validation of building information models of high morphological complexity implemented through Scan-to-BIM procedures. By means of a controlled and interoperable workflow, a chain of software applications is defined that is able to determine the level of geometric accuracy (LOA) of the information model with respect to the numerical model derived from the point cloud. Two case studies of H-BIM modelling of historical monumental complexes dating back to the Romanesque period in Sardinia (Italy) are illustrated: the churches of Sant'Efisio a Nora (Cagliari) and Santa Maria del Regno (Sassari). In the discussion of the results, the need for a prior definition of modelling strategies in relation to the expected BIM uses is highlighted. The digital survey was carried out as a part of the research project titled, “The Romanesque and the territory. Construction materials of the Sardegna Giudicale”, and coordinated by prof. Stefano Columbu. The BIM model was developed by a students’ team as part of the teaching activities of the Architectural Drawing course at the School of Engineering, University of Florence. The imagines are extracted from the drawings of the students, Valeria Siddi, Elena Pastorelli, Liuba Gabrielli, Simone Riccio, Elisa Ricotti.
Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
The application of protective coatings is an effective preventive strategy to avoid metal corrosion. Constant monitoring of the coating’s quality is fundamental for the successful preservation of the metallic objects by reducing their interaction with corroding agents. Their evaluation over time helps to identify failure at early stages and promote their removal and substitution. Several methods have been employed for coating evaluation (i.e., chemical analysis, thickness and homogeneity investigation). In this paper, we compare three methods—Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy (CRM), and Eddy Currents (ECs)—to evaluate thickness values and coating integrity. The results from the two optical techniques (CRM and OCT) agree, being able to detect the inhomogeneity of the layer on a micron scale but requiring correction to account for the refraction phenomenon. The Eddy Current is a fast and efficient method for thickness estimation, providing data with millimetric lateral resolution.
Publisher: Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή / University of Cyprus, Faculty of Letters
Two Late Roman slag heaps located near Polis Chrysochous, western Cyprus, are studied to reconstruct the technological processes of copper production. The Pelathousa slag heap (4th-6th century C.E.) is located on the foothills of the Troodos Mountain close to the Limni mine, while the Argaka slag heap (3rd- 8th century C.E.) is near the coastline approximately five kilometers from the mine. Macroscopic examination, hhpXRF analysis, optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM-EDS) showed that the slag from both slag heaps has the same variability in manganese content, which varies from less than 1wt% to almost 40wt%. The slag assemblage derives exclusively from copper-matte smelting. The second part of the research focuses on the spatial analysis of the metallurgical remains. Using GIS spatial tools, the locations of the slag heaps are investigated in their topographic context and distance from the nearby mines, i.e. the Limni and Kinousa mines. The results will be used to understand the organization of copper production within the landscape. The Cyprus Institute, STARC
Abstract Infrared spectroscopy allows to reliably distinguish between calcites formed by different processes, e.g. geogenic and anthropogenic calcite. This approach can be used for rapid sample analysis in the radiocarbon dating of mortars. The datable component is represented by anthropogenic calcite, that results from the reaction of calcium hydroxide with the atmospheric CO2 during the hardening of the material. However, different possible sources of contamination can alter the true radiocarbon concentration and can thus make the mortar appearing either older or younger. The preventive identification of the origin of calcite present in the sample allows to measure only anthropogenic calcite, reducing the time and cost of Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements. Many papers are present in the literature discussing the use of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) with the KBr pellet method, to distinguish the origin of calcite. In this paper, the use of attenuated total reflectance mode (ATR-FTIR) is evaluated since it may present valuable advantages such as non-destructivity, in the perspective of sample reuse for dating.
Publisher: Πανεπιστήμιο Κύπρου, Φιλοσοφική Σχολή / University of Cyprus, Faculty of Letters
Includes bibliographical references. Number of sources in the bibliography: 262 Thesis (Ph. D.) -- University of Cyprus, Faculty of Letters, Department of History and Archaeology, 2022. The University of Cyprus Library holds the printed form of the thesis. Η αρχαιολογική κληρονομιά της Κύπρου, θεμέλιο της εδαφικής και πολιτιστικής ταυτότητας μιας χώρας που εξακολουθεί να είναι διχοτομημένη, παραμένει σε μεγάλο βαθμό άγνωστη εκτός των ορίων της επιστημονικής κοινότητας. Και αυτό, παρόλο που η ανάπτυξη της αρχαιολογικής έρευνας στο νησί από τον 19ο αιώνα και εξής επέτρεψε τη δημιουργία πολυάριθμων αρχαιολογικών συλλογών με κυπριακά τέχνεργα σε ολόκληρη την Ευρώπη. Οι συλλογές αυτές διατηρούν και εκθέτουν μια διασκορπισμένη αρχαιολογική κληρονομιά, η σημασία της οποίας γίνεται κατανοητή μόνο αποσπασματικά. Η μετάδοση της βασίζεται τόσο στη διατήρηση όσο και στην ανάδειξη των αρχαιολογικών καταλοίπων. Η παρούσα διατριβή, βασισμένη σε επιτόπια έρευνα και εμπειρικές παρατηρήσεις, σκιαγραφεί μια επικαιροποιημένη εικόνα αυτής της κληρονομιάς. Συγκεκριμένα, αναλύονται τα μέσα που χρησιμοποιήθηκαν για τη διατήρηση και την ανάδειξη της από το 1960 – έτος κατά το οποίο η Κύπρος ανακηρύσσεται σε ανεξάρτητο κράτος και είναι σε θέση πλέον να διαμορφώσει τη δική της πολιτική για την προστασία και την προβολή της κληρονομιάς της ‒ μέχρι σήμερα. Η μελετή επικεντρώνεται σε επιλεγμένους αρχαιολογικούς χώρους και μνημεία, που αντιπροσωπεύουν τις διάφορες περιόδους της ιστορίας του νησιού, καθώς και σε μόνιμες εκθέσεις στην Κύπρο και στα σημαντικότερα μουσεία της Ευρώπης. Η προσέγγιση αυτή προσφέρει αφορμή για προβληματισμό γύρω από την ιστορία της κυπριακής αρχαιολογίας και των συλλογών κυπριακών αρχαιοτήτων και προτείνει τη σύγκριση των μέσων διατήρησης και ανάδειξης προκειμένου να προσδιοριστούν σημερινά ζητήματα και προκλήσεις. Στη συνέχεια, με βάση αυτή τη συγκριτική και διαχρονική ανάλυση, η παρούσα μελέτη προτείνει τη διερεύνηση προοπτικών και πιθανών λύσεων για την αποτελεσματικότερη ανάδειξη της σημασίας και του χαρακτήρα αυτής της κοινής κληρονομιάς. Στο τελευταίο μέρος της παρούσας διατριβής, αναδεικνύεται η σημασία των αρχαιολογικών συμφραζομένων για τη μετάδοση της κυπριακής κληρονομιάς, και μάλιστα ως μέσο για τον σχεδιασμό και υποστήριξη νέων εμπειριών για τους επισκέπτες. The archaeological heritage of Cyprus is one of the foundations of the territorial and cultural identity of a country that is still divided, yet it remains largely unknown outside the scientific community. However, the development of archaeological excavations since the 19th century has enabled the formation of various collections throughout Europe. These collections preserve and exhibit a scattered archaeological heritage, and its meaning is only partly accessible. Passing on this heritage relies on both the preservation and the display of the remains. Based on empirical investigations, the thesis draws up an up-to-date overview of this heritage. Thus, the means used to preserve and enhance it are analyzed, starting from 1960 - the date when Cyprus became an independent state and began implementing its own policy for protecting and enhancing its heritage - to the present day. To this end, a selection of sites and monuments is studied - they are representative of different periods of the island's history - as well as a number of permanent exhibitions in Cyprus and in the major museums of Europe. This study invites questioning the history of archaeology and archaeological collections: it suggests comparing preservation and display methods, in order to highlight the current issues at stake. On the basis of this comparative and diachronic analysis, this thesis then proposes to explore the possible perspectives for giving meaning to this shared heritage. Lastly, the matter of the archaeological context is discussed in the final part of the thesis. Archaeological context is revealed as of crucial importance in the transmission of the heritage, promoting new visitor experiences. Le patrimoine archéologique chypriote - l’un des fondements de l’identité territoriale et culturelle d’un pays toujours divisé - est largement méconnu en dehors de la communauté scientifique. Paradoxalement, le développement des fouilles archéologiques dès le XIXe siècle a permis la constitution de nombreuses collections à travers l’Europe. Celles-ci conservent et exposent un patrimoine archéologique dispersé, dont le sens n’est que partiellement saisissable. La transmission de ce patrimoine repose à la fois sur la préservation et la valorisation des vestiges. À partir d’enquêtes empiriques, cette thèse dessine une image actualisée de ce patrimoine. Dès lors, les moyens employés pour le préserver et le valoriser sont analysés depuis 1960 - date à laquelle Chypre devient un pays indépendant et mène sa propre politique de sauvegarde et de mise en valeur du patrimoine - jusqu’à nos jours. Pour cela, une sélection de sites et monuments - représentatifs de différentes périodes de l'histoire de l’île - et d’expositions permanentes à Chypre et dans les principaux musées européens sont étudiés. Cette démarche invite à s’interroger sur l’histoire de l’archéologie et des collections : elle propose de comparer les moyens de préservation et de mise en valeur pour en définir les enjeux actuels. Forte de cette analyse comparée et diachronique, cette thèse propose ensuite d’explorer les perspectives possibles pour redonner du sens à ce patrimoine en partage. Enfin, la question du contexte archéologique émerge dans la dernière partie de cette thèse et s’impose alors comme un enjeu de transmission du patrimoine, propre à soutenir de nouvelles expériences de visite. UR Histoire et critique des arts - Université Rennes 2
Publication . Article . Other literature type . 2022
Jiamei Lin; Anders Svensson; Christine S. Hvidberg; Johannes Lohmann; Steffen Kristiansen; Dorthe Dahl-Jensen; Jørgen Peder Steffensen; Sune Olander Rasmussen; Eliza Cook; Helle Astrid Kjær; +8 more
Jiamei Lin; Anders Svensson; Christine S. Hvidberg; Johannes Lohmann; Steffen Kristiansen; Dorthe Dahl-Jensen; Jørgen Peder Steffensen; Sune Olander Rasmussen; Eliza Cook; Helle Astrid Kjær; Bo M. Vinther; Hubertus Fischer; Thomas Stocker; Michael Sigl; Matthias Bigler; Mirko Severi; Rita Traversi; Robert Mulvaney;
Countries: United Kingdom, Denmark, Italy, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Denmark
Large volcanic eruptions occurring in the last glacial period can be detected by their accompanying sulfuric acid deposition in continuous ice cores. Here we employ continuous sulfate and sulfur records from three Greenland and three Antarctic ice cores to estimate the emission strength, the frequency and the climatic forcing of large volcanic eruptions that occurred during the second half of the last glacial period and the early Holocene, 60–9 kyr before 2000 CE (b2k). Over most of the investigated interval the ice cores are synchronized, making it possible to distinguish large eruptions with a global sulfate distribution from eruptions detectable in one hemisphere only. Due to limited data resolution and large variability in the sulfate background signal, particularly in the Greenland glacial climate, we only list Greenland sulfate depositions larger than 20 kg km−2 and Antarctic sulfate depositions larger than 10 kg km−2. With those restrictions, we identify 1113 volcanic eruptions in Greenland and 737 eruptions in Antarctica within the 51 kyr period – for which the sulfate deposition of 85 eruptions is found at both poles (bipolar eruptions). Based on the ratio of Greenland and Antarctic sulfate deposition, we estimate the latitudinal band of the bipolar eruptions and assess their approximate climatic forcing based on established methods. A total of 25 of the identified bipolar eruptions are larger than any volcanic eruption occurring in the last 2500 years, and 69 eruptions are estimated to have larger sulfur emission strengths than the Tambora, Indonesia, eruption (1815 CE). Throughout the investigated period, the frequency of volcanic eruptions is rather constant and comparable to that of recent times. During the deglacial period (16–9 ka b2k), however, there is a notable increase in the frequency of volcanic events recorded in Greenland and an obvious increase in the fraction of very large eruptions. For Antarctica, the deglacial period cannot be distinguished from other periods. This confirms the suggestion that the isostatic unloading of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) ice sheets may be related to the enhanced NH volcanic activity. Our ice-core-based volcanic sulfate records provide the atmospheric sulfate burden and estimates of climate forcing for further research on climate impact and understanding the mechanism of the Earth system.
Publisher: Universität Hamburg, Hiob Ludolf Centre for Ethiopian and Eritrean Studies
Research for this article had the purpose of exploring medieval Armenian–Ethiopian connections. The investigations revealed three main contexts where Ethiopia and Ethiopians feature in the Armenian sources of the first millennium, without necessarily implying real-life encounters. Firstly, the earliest Armenian texts locate Ethiopia and discuss the genealogy of its people in line with the biblical account of the Diamerismos, as well as notions based on Eusebius of Caesarea’s Chronicle translated into Armenian from Syriac in the fifth century. Each author, then, interpreted this information according to his narrative needs or the purpose of a given composition. The discussion of these sources reveals the circulation of classical and Hellenistic notions on Ethiopia and the Ethiopians in Armenian, too, such as the confusion between Ethiopia, Arabia, and India, as well as anthropological or spiritual features attributed to Ethiopians already by classical authors. Secondly, the article analyses a series of calendrical treatises, starting with one authored by the seventh-century polymath Anania Širakac‘i, that passed on a short tale about a sixth-century gathering of scholars in Alexandria in order to determine the date of the Easter and establish tables for its calculation in the future. An Ethiopian wise man Abdiē was part of this international endeavour too, according to this tradition, and his presence marked Ethiopia as part of the eastern Mediterranean learned world, with its own cultural traditions. Armenian language hemerologia also preserved month names in Gǝʿǝz, reproduced in the Appendix. Thirdly, the article draws attention to a completely new way of viewing Ethiopia in ninth- to eleventh-century Armenian anti-dyophysite (antiByzantine) treatises where the Armenian Church and its doctrines or ritual practices were imagined as part of a vast, non-dyophysite orthodox world that included the Ethiopian Church. Intriguingly, this argumentative technique, formulated in terms that one may callanti-colonial ante litteram, may be traced among Coptic and Syriac polemicists as well, a subject of research that would benefit from further analysis.
The interest in high-resolution semantic 3D models of historical buildings continuously increased during the last decade, thanks to their utility in protection, conservation and restoration of cultural heritage sites. The current generation of surveying tools allows the quick collection of large and detailed amount of data: such data ensure accurate spatial representations of the buildings, but their employment in the creation of informative semantic 3D models is still a challenging task, and it currently still requires manual time-consuming intervention by expert operators. Hence, increasing the level of automation, for instance developing an automatic semantic segmentation procedure enabling machine scene understanding and comprehension, can represent a dramatic improvement in the overall processing procedure. In accordance with this observation, this paper aims at presenting a new workflow for the automatic semantic segmentation of 3D point clouds based on a multi-view approach. Two steps compose this workflow: first, neural network-based semantic segmentation is performed on building images. Then, image labelling is back-projected, through the use of masked images, on the 3D space by exploiting photogrammetry and dense image matching principles. The obtained results are quite promising, with a good performance in the image segmentation, and a remarkable potential in the 3D reconstruction procedure. International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLVI-2/W1-2022 ISSN:2194-9034 ISSN:1682-1777 ISSN:1682-1750
The theoretical presupposition of the discourse developed here is Benjamin’s conception of a dialectical image applied to the experience of the modern and contemporary city. The starting point is that of the radical strangeness between the inner life of the individual and the time of the modern metropolis. In this regard, we compare some verses taken from the third book of the Stundenbuch by Rainer Maria Rilke and Georg Simmel’s essay, Die Großstädte und das geistiges Leben, at the center of which is the Nervenleben as an intensification of the perceptive life typical of the experience of the modern city. We then move on to focus on the theme of the labyrinth analyzed by Benjamin in some passages of the Passagenwerk. In this regard, it is emphasized how the modern city realizes the ancient dream of the labyrinth elevating it to the sphere of language. The experience of the city as a labyrinth is interpreted as a «monotonous wandering», which is not delayed in a senseless roaming. In conclusion, the image of the Generic City and of the Junkspace theorized by Rem Koolhaas is compared, as an image that describes our present in the interweaving of the virtual city of cyberspace with the real city, as an alternative image to that of monad. As a monad, the image of the city still reserves the possibility of experiencing the truth, in a paradoxical gaze that captures the original idea of the city from the inside. This confirms that in the connection between city and monad already underlined by Leibniz “the true has no windows”, according to one of the most esoteric passages of the Passagenwerk.
This article analyses the representation of the pandemic in modern and contemporary literature, according to a thematological perspective. It aims to show the way in which the motives of guilt and destiny are inevitably mixed, through some declinations of the theme proposed by great writers ��� from Defoe to Camus, from Saramago to Philip Roth. LEA - Lingue e Letterature d'Oriente e d'Occidente, Vol. 10 (2021)