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  • Publications
  • Other research products
  • 2013-2022
  • English
  • Digital Humanities and Cultural Heritage
  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Siountri, Konstantina; Vassi, Avgi; Papadaki, Kalliοpi; Poulou, Maria; Bakoyannis, Efthymios;
    Publisher: Technical Annals

    Nowadays, due to economic crisis, the number of "abandoned", empty or dilapidated listed or historic buildings of Greek cities and settlements is constantly increasing. In order to protect and enhance the Greek tangible cultural heritage, it is necessary to promote actions that give motives to owners or users of historic buildings to preserve them, by providing tools and financial support in the particularly increased costs of restoration and consolidation works of their necessary continuous maintenance. The program “Preserve” introduced by the Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Energy, and more specifically the General Secretariat of Spatial Planning & Urban Environment, relates to interventions in designated as listed or monuments or buildings within historic sites and traditional settlements and historic buildings. The interventions will include facade cleaning (with gentle water jet to remove air pollutants or anti-graffiti painting for protection against vandalism), works in order to preserve the shell of the buildings so as to avoid it’s partial or total collapse, restoration of facades and restoration of the interior of the buildings. Along with the activation of the Digital Land Bank, the Building Rights Transfer, the Single Digital Map, and the Digital Building Identity etc., it will offer the owners of the listed buildings a holistic solution for the protection and enhancement of the tangible cultural heritage of Greece.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chroni, Athina; Georgopoulos, Andreas;
    Publisher: Technical Annals

    Being at the crossway of trade routes, Ioannina, in northwestern Greece, has known overtime an economic and spiritual flourishment reflected in the city's urban web, which has, unfortunately, undergone major alterations. Focusing on the city's Post-Byzantine period, starting in 1430, for tracing its pluralistic physiognomy, studying the osmosis of its three cultures, Christian, Jewish and Muslim, and figuring out the related cultural palimpsest, still surviv-ing in the collective memory of the city, has been the great challenge of IASIS Postdoctoral Research Project.1 Extensive documentation of various origin, dynamic and combined interpreta-tion and processing of multiple data, cross-checking of the detected infor-mation, have formed the basic principles of IASIS project development. The specific paper forms the first part of Hagia Paraskevi Christian Byzantine Monastery-Namaz Giyah Muslim Mosque-Perifereia Hellenic State Adminis-trative Building cultural landmarks’ integrated management, i.e., the part on the landmarks’ integrated documentation in the framework of IASIS Postdoctoral Research Project. [35, 36]

  • Publication . Project deliverable . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Opitz, Rachel;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This archive contains reports on workshops organised by the Soil Health & Soil Heritage Project. It mirrors content linked from the ipaast-czo project website. This project aimed to build links between groups exploring how soils in farmed landscapes are qualified, studied, modelled, and valued from different perspectives: agricultural, environmental, and archaeological. It focused on data created through remote and near-surface sensing technologies to provide an impetus for cross-disciplinary conversations, because these data have the potential to serve as a shared resource for research and management. The project aimed to identify shared research and management priorities related to soil health and soil heritage in agricultural landscapes, to evaluate the capability of commercial and experimental sensors to provide data to address these shared priorities, and to identify barriers to the creation of interoperable remote and near-surface sensing data resources on soils and their role in agricultural systems. The project was led by a group of researchers at the University of Glasgow, working on initiatives including agri-environment sensing projects in CENSIS, the Global Soil Heath network, and the ipaast-czo project on archaeological remote and near-surface sensing. In 2022, the project reviewed instruments to assess their suitability for cross-domain data collection and ran two workshops, in Dalswinton and Glasgow, to build a research and practice network focused on sensing methods for soils.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Dolly;
    Publisher: RESAIM

    Indian subcontinent is blessed with varied cultural heritage and dimensions. From the brocades of Banaras to the ikat of Andhra Pradesh, each complex technique narrates history, tradition, culture, history, and legacy preserved in the hands of the master craftsmen. However, we are going through paramount historical change dominated by digitization and technology. It is an inevitable mega-trend that has touched upon every aspect of social life building a different concept and model of social interaction. Likewise, an increasing consensus indicates the need to reconfigure traditional social and cultural structures. In the light of the information and communication technology (ICT), our tangible and intangible material culture entails digital acquisition, storage, preservation, and reinterpretation to acclimatize with the contemporary times. One such technique that requires substantial consideration for conservation is rafugari - a fine invisible darning technique used to repair and restore damage on age-old Pashmina/Kani shawls of Kashmir. Passed down from generation to generation, the dexterity of the artisan remains varied with very few masters of the trade. It is noteworthy that extremely skilled rafu work is extremely difficult to detect. Due to the availability of limited resources, it is important to document the secrets of the trade to preserve the technique for the next generation. My paper examines the role of ICT and intangible heritage culture to preserve the technique and establish its relevance in modern times as a sustainable practice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tom Fitton; Federica Sulas; Mik Lisowski; Michelle Alexander; Abdurahman Juma; Stephanie Wynne‐Jones;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Spatial analysis is paramount for understanding, monitoring, and conserving ancient settlements and cultural landscapes. Advancing remote sensing and prospection techniques are expanding the methodological frame of archaeological settlement analysis by enabling remote, landscape‐scale approaches to mapping and investigation. Whilst particularly effective in arid lands and areas with sparse or open ground cover, such as vegetation and buildings, these approaches remain peripheral in tropical environments because of technical and contextual challenges. In tropical Eastern Africa, for example, scales, resolution and visibility are often compromised by thick vegetation cover, inadequate access to, if not lack of, imagery resources and technologies, and the availability of comparative archaeological data for interpretation. This paper presents the initial results of spatial analysis, using historic landscape characterisation, remote sensing, published and legacy data, and a pilot ground survey to examine the earliest settlement of Zanzibar, Unguja Ukuu. Comparing multiple strands of evidence in a Geographic Information System (GIS), we use each as a test on the others to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of each technique in the context of tropical and coastal Eastern Africa. Drone photogrammetry, geophysical prospection, and ground survey were compared with legacy remote sensing resources and the results of a coring survey conducted across the site during the 1990s into a GIS platform to produce multi‐phase hypothetical maps of the archaeological site in the context of its potential resource landscape. These were then tested against the results of recent excavations. The discussion highlights the challenges and potential of combining these techniques in the context of Eastern Africa and provides some suggested methods for doing so. We show that remote sensing techniques give an insight into current landscapes but are less useful in understanding or modelling how sites would have fitted into their surroundings in the past, when conditions were potentially very different.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam Hjorthén;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen Svenska institutet för nordamerikastudier (SINAS)
    Country: Sweden

    This article investigates the modern history of genealogy through the lens of keyword indexes – an essential resource for access to genealogical information. Empirically, the article studies the role of indexes in Euro-American genealogy from the nineteenth century to today. Particular attention is paid to the 1960s–2010s, when genealogy changed through growing popular engagement, new technologies, rising and falling academic interest, and increased commercialisation. Focusing on a set of grassroots cases from Sweden that have been crucial to the subfield of Swedish-American genealogy, the article explores the work of local Swedish heritage societies and the dream of empirical ‘totality’; the cooperation between heritage societies and academic historians; the impact of microfilm and digital technologies in creating a sense of information overload; the economy of unpaid volunteer and state-subsidised labour; and how paper-based indexes, created largely through grassroots initiatives, have been transformed into digital commodities on an international genealogical market. While this is an important enquiry for understanding the history of genealogy – one of the most widespread popular pursuits in modern history – it also addresses the intricate relations between grassroots initiatives, academic research, and capitalism in modern archive history.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rudokas, Kastytis; Čižaitė-Rudokienė, Silvija;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Lithuania

    The article focuses on the phenomenon of myth, which cannot be seen and may not even exist based on empirical evidence, although it can function as a long-lasting wave inceptor, as demonstrated in numerous cases in history. The singular presence of myth has no linear time, and the way to approach the concealed mythic meaning that is beyond tales, oral traditions or ritual practices is based on language and narrative. Narrative is how myth manifests itself in the temporal layers of discourse through collective decision-making processes within cultures and in places. The urban cultural heritage seems to be a promising source of understanding of what sort of narrative history has been telling. We emphasize that the closest possible approach to the permanence of myth lies in this subtle between-epoch or between-generational moment wherein the discourse alters. The hermeneutics of repetition within alteration processes is what could be called the narrative of cultural heritage in towns and cities. Development of the physical heritage properties has been touched by a variety of agents, and therefore it must have gathered a nearly unlimited amount of explicit and implicit knowledge. The research further demonstrates how the myth–narrative–discourse interaction affects our understanding of the authenticity of heritage objects, shifting towards a permanent pervading authenticity which could be intensive or extensive in the tangible realm. The case of Šiluva is discussed in order to explain how myth can be used practically in placemaking.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . InteractiveResource . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Ameye; Mario Hernandez; Tim Van de Voorde;
    Publisher: BELSPO
    Country: Belgium

    The main objective of the Belspo-funded LIMAMAL project was to support archaeologists in creating 3D terrain visualizations based on Lidar data and Pléiades stereoscopic imagery, and a combination or “fusion” thereof. A case study was developed to demonstrate the application of Pléiades imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) technologies for prospection and visualization of the Mesoamerican archaeological landscape. Based on this case study, guidelines in English and Spanish have been developed to explain the technical processing. The project involved a stakeholder: the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), a Mexican federal government institution responsible for research, conservation, protection and spreading of knowledge on Mexican cultural heritage. The case study and guidelines were presented to the stakeholder and other interested parties during several meetings held during a short mission to Yucatan, Mexico in the spring of 2022.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Athos Agapiou; Argyro Argyrou;
    Country: Cyprus

    The documentation and protection of archaeological and cultural heritage (ACH) using remote sensing, a non-destructive tool, is increasingly popular for experts around the world, as it allows rapid searching and mapping at multiple scales, rapid analysis of multi-source data sets, and dynamic monitoring of ACH sites and their environments. The exploitation of remote sensing data and their products have seen an increased use in recent years in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. Different spatial and spectral analysis datasets have been applied to distinguish archaeological remains and detect changes in the landscape over time, and, in the last decade, archaeologists have adopted more thoroughly automated object detection approaches for potential sites. These approaches included, among others, object detection methods, such as those of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms, as well as convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep learning (DL) models using aerial and satellite images, airborne and spaceborne remote sensing (ASRS), multispectral, hyperspectral images, and active methods (synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and light detection and ranging radar (LiDAR)). Researchers also refer to the potential for archaeologists to explore such artificial intelligence (AI) approaches in various ways, such as identifying archaeological features and classifying them. Here, we present a review study related to the contributions of remote sensing (RS) and artificial intelligence in archaeology. However, a main question remains open in the field of research: the rate of positive contribution of remote sensing and artificial intelligence techniques in archaeological research. The scope of this study is to summarize the state of the art related to AI and RS for archaeological research and provide some further insights into the existing literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rubio, Hugo; Gottschall, Julia;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Ship-based lidar systems are a cost-efficient alternative for retrieving highly-reliable offshore wind data. However, the non-stationary nature of ship-mounted lidars hinders the comparison against reference datasets and, therefore, a straightforward characterization of the uncertainty levels associated with these sorts of measurements. For this reason, in this paper we have set up and report an analytical model for estimating the uncertainties of ship-based lidar measurements. The model follows the standard uncertainty propagation method considering the relevant parameters for assessing the wind speed from pulsed Doppler-lidar observations, such as the half cone opening angle, the radial velocity estimation, or the lidar beams' orientations. Additionally, the derivation of the presented uncertainty model contemplates the technology-specific variables and considerations like the ship linear velocity or tilting, as well as the implementation of a motion correction algorithm.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
2,256 Research products, page 1 of 226
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Siountri, Konstantina; Vassi, Avgi; Papadaki, Kalliοpi; Poulou, Maria; Bakoyannis, Efthymios;
    Publisher: Technical Annals

    Nowadays, due to economic crisis, the number of "abandoned", empty or dilapidated listed or historic buildings of Greek cities and settlements is constantly increasing. In order to protect and enhance the Greek tangible cultural heritage, it is necessary to promote actions that give motives to owners or users of historic buildings to preserve them, by providing tools and financial support in the particularly increased costs of restoration and consolidation works of their necessary continuous maintenance. The program “Preserve” introduced by the Hellenic Ministry of Environment and Energy, and more specifically the General Secretariat of Spatial Planning & Urban Environment, relates to interventions in designated as listed or monuments or buildings within historic sites and traditional settlements and historic buildings. The interventions will include facade cleaning (with gentle water jet to remove air pollutants or anti-graffiti painting for protection against vandalism), works in order to preserve the shell of the buildings so as to avoid it’s partial or total collapse, restoration of facades and restoration of the interior of the buildings. Along with the activation of the Digital Land Bank, the Building Rights Transfer, the Single Digital Map, and the Digital Building Identity etc., it will offer the owners of the listed buildings a holistic solution for the protection and enhancement of the tangible cultural heritage of Greece.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chroni, Athina; Georgopoulos, Andreas;
    Publisher: Technical Annals

    Being at the crossway of trade routes, Ioannina, in northwestern Greece, has known overtime an economic and spiritual flourishment reflected in the city's urban web, which has, unfortunately, undergone major alterations. Focusing on the city's Post-Byzantine period, starting in 1430, for tracing its pluralistic physiognomy, studying the osmosis of its three cultures, Christian, Jewish and Muslim, and figuring out the related cultural palimpsest, still surviv-ing in the collective memory of the city, has been the great challenge of IASIS Postdoctoral Research Project.1 Extensive documentation of various origin, dynamic and combined interpreta-tion and processing of multiple data, cross-checking of the detected infor-mation, have formed the basic principles of IASIS project development. The specific paper forms the first part of Hagia Paraskevi Christian Byzantine Monastery-Namaz Giyah Muslim Mosque-Perifereia Hellenic State Adminis-trative Building cultural landmarks’ integrated management, i.e., the part on the landmarks’ integrated documentation in the framework of IASIS Postdoctoral Research Project. [35, 36]

  • Publication . Project deliverable . Other literature type . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Opitz, Rachel;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    This archive contains reports on workshops organised by the Soil Health & Soil Heritage Project. It mirrors content linked from the ipaast-czo project website. This project aimed to build links between groups exploring how soils in farmed landscapes are qualified, studied, modelled, and valued from different perspectives: agricultural, environmental, and archaeological. It focused on data created through remote and near-surface sensing technologies to provide an impetus for cross-disciplinary conversations, because these data have the potential to serve as a shared resource for research and management. The project aimed to identify shared research and management priorities related to soil health and soil heritage in agricultural landscapes, to evaluate the capability of commercial and experimental sensors to provide data to address these shared priorities, and to identify barriers to the creation of interoperable remote and near-surface sensing data resources on soils and their role in agricultural systems. The project was led by a group of researchers at the University of Glasgow, working on initiatives including agri-environment sensing projects in CENSIS, the Global Soil Heath network, and the ipaast-czo project on archaeological remote and near-surface sensing. In 2022, the project reviewed instruments to assess their suitability for cross-domain data collection and ran two workshops, in Dalswinton and Glasgow, to build a research and practice network focused on sensing methods for soils.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kumar, Dolly;
    Publisher: RESAIM

    Indian subcontinent is blessed with varied cultural heritage and dimensions. From the brocades of Banaras to the ikat of Andhra Pradesh, each complex technique narrates history, tradition, culture, history, and legacy preserved in the hands of the master craftsmen. However, we are going through paramount historical change dominated by digitization and technology. It is an inevitable mega-trend that has touched upon every aspect of social life building a different concept and model of social interaction. Likewise, an increasing consensus indicates the need to reconfigure traditional social and cultural structures. In the light of the information and communication technology (ICT), our tangible and intangible material culture entails digital acquisition, storage, preservation, and reinterpretation to acclimatize with the contemporary times. One such technique that requires substantial consideration for conservation is rafugari - a fine invisible darning technique used to repair and restore damage on age-old Pashmina/Kani shawls of Kashmir. Passed down from generation to generation, the dexterity of the artisan remains varied with very few masters of the trade. It is noteworthy that extremely skilled rafu work is extremely difficult to detect. Due to the availability of limited resources, it is important to document the secrets of the trade to preserve the technique for the next generation. My paper examines the role of ICT and intangible heritage culture to preserve the technique and establish its relevance in modern times as a sustainable practice.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tom Fitton; Federica Sulas; Mik Lisowski; Michelle Alexander; Abdurahman Juma; Stephanie Wynne‐Jones;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    Spatial analysis is paramount for understanding, monitoring, and conserving ancient settlements and cultural landscapes. Advancing remote sensing and prospection techniques are expanding the methodological frame of archaeological settlement analysis by enabling remote, landscape‐scale approaches to mapping and investigation. Whilst particularly effective in arid lands and areas with sparse or open ground cover, such as vegetation and buildings, these approaches remain peripheral in tropical environments because of technical and contextual challenges. In tropical Eastern Africa, for example, scales, resolution and visibility are often compromised by thick vegetation cover, inadequate access to, if not lack of, imagery resources and technologies, and the availability of comparative archaeological data for interpretation. This paper presents the initial results of spatial analysis, using historic landscape characterisation, remote sensing, published and legacy data, and a pilot ground survey to examine the earliest settlement of Zanzibar, Unguja Ukuu. Comparing multiple strands of evidence in a Geographic Information System (GIS), we use each as a test on the others to draw out the strengths and weaknesses of each technique in the context of tropical and coastal Eastern Africa. Drone photogrammetry, geophysical prospection, and ground survey were compared with legacy remote sensing resources and the results of a coring survey conducted across the site during the 1990s into a GIS platform to produce multi‐phase hypothetical maps of the archaeological site in the context of its potential resource landscape. These were then tested against the results of recent excavations. The discussion highlights the challenges and potential of combining these techniques in the context of Eastern Africa and provides some suggested methods for doing so. We show that remote sensing techniques give an insight into current landscapes but are less useful in understanding or modelling how sites would have fitted into their surroundings in the past, when conditions were potentially very different.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Adam Hjorthén;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Avdelningen Svenska institutet för nordamerikastudier (SINAS)
    Country: Sweden

    This article investigates the modern history of genealogy through the lens of keyword indexes – an essential resource for access to genealogical information. Empirically, the article studies the role of indexes in Euro-American genealogy from the nineteenth century to today. Particular attention is paid to the 1960s–2010s, when genealogy changed through growing popular engagement, new technologies, rising and falling academic interest, and increased commercialisation. Focusing on a set of grassroots cases from Sweden that have been crucial to the subfield of Swedish-American genealogy, the article explores the work of local Swedish heritage societies and the dream of empirical ‘totality’; the cooperation between heritage societies and academic historians; the impact of microfilm and digital technologies in creating a sense of information overload; the economy of unpaid volunteer and state-subsidised labour; and how paper-based indexes, created largely through grassroots initiatives, have been transformed into digital commodities on an international genealogical market. While this is an important enquiry for understanding the history of genealogy – one of the most widespread popular pursuits in modern history – it also addresses the intricate relations between grassroots initiatives, academic research, and capitalism in modern archive history.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rudokas, Kastytis; Čižaitė-Rudokienė, Silvija;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Country: Lithuania

    The article focuses on the phenomenon of myth, which cannot be seen and may not even exist based on empirical evidence, although it can function as a long-lasting wave inceptor, as demonstrated in numerous cases in history. The singular presence of myth has no linear time, and the way to approach the concealed mythic meaning that is beyond tales, oral traditions or ritual practices is based on language and narrative. Narrative is how myth manifests itself in the temporal layers of discourse through collective decision-making processes within cultures and in places. The urban cultural heritage seems to be a promising source of understanding of what sort of narrative history has been telling. We emphasize that the closest possible approach to the permanence of myth lies in this subtle between-epoch or between-generational moment wherein the discourse alters. The hermeneutics of repetition within alteration processes is what could be called the narrative of cultural heritage in towns and cities. Development of the physical heritage properties has been touched by a variety of agents, and therefore it must have gathered a nearly unlimited amount of explicit and implicit knowledge. The research further demonstrates how the myth–narrative–discourse interaction affects our understanding of the authenticity of heritage objects, shifting towards a permanent pervading authenticity which could be intensive or extensive in the tangible realm. The case of Šiluva is discussed in order to explain how myth can be used practically in placemaking.

  • Other research product . Other ORP type . InteractiveResource . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jana Ameye; Mario Hernandez; Tim Van de Voorde;
    Publisher: BELSPO
    Country: Belgium

    The main objective of the Belspo-funded LIMAMAL project was to support archaeologists in creating 3D terrain visualizations based on Lidar data and Pléiades stereoscopic imagery, and a combination or “fusion” thereof. A case study was developed to demonstrate the application of Pléiades imagery and light detection and ranging (lidar) technologies for prospection and visualization of the Mesoamerican archaeological landscape. Based on this case study, guidelines in English and Spanish have been developed to explain the technical processing. The project involved a stakeholder: the National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), a Mexican federal government institution responsible for research, conservation, protection and spreading of knowledge on Mexican cultural heritage. The case study and guidelines were presented to the stakeholder and other interested parties during several meetings held during a short mission to Yucatan, Mexico in the spring of 2022.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Athos Agapiou; Argyro Argyrou;
    Country: Cyprus

    The documentation and protection of archaeological and cultural heritage (ACH) using remote sensing, a non-destructive tool, is increasingly popular for experts around the world, as it allows rapid searching and mapping at multiple scales, rapid analysis of multi-source data sets, and dynamic monitoring of ACH sites and their environments. The exploitation of remote sensing data and their products have seen an increased use in recent years in the fields of archaeological science and cultural heritage. Different spatial and spectral analysis datasets have been applied to distinguish archaeological remains and detect changes in the landscape over time, and, in the last decade, archaeologists have adopted more thoroughly automated object detection approaches for potential sites. These approaches included, among others, object detection methods, such as those of machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) algorithms, as well as convolutional neural networks (CNN) and deep learning (DL) models using aerial and satellite images, airborne and spaceborne remote sensing (ASRS), multispectral, hyperspectral images, and active methods (synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and light detection and ranging radar (LiDAR)). Researchers also refer to the potential for archaeologists to explore such artificial intelligence (AI) approaches in various ways, such as identifying archaeological features and classifying them. Here, we present a review study related to the contributions of remote sensing (RS) and artificial intelligence in archaeology. However, a main question remains open in the field of research: the rate of positive contribution of remote sensing and artificial intelligence techniques in archaeological research. The scope of this study is to summarize the state of the art related to AI and RS for archaeological research and provide some further insights into the existing literature.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rubio, Hugo; Gottschall, Julia;
    Publisher: Zenodo

    Ship-based lidar systems are a cost-efficient alternative for retrieving highly-reliable offshore wind data. However, the non-stationary nature of ship-mounted lidars hinders the comparison against reference datasets and, therefore, a straightforward characterization of the uncertainty levels associated with these sorts of measurements. For this reason, in this paper we have set up and report an analytical model for estimating the uncertainties of ship-based lidar measurements. The model follows the standard uncertainty propagation method considering the relevant parameters for assessing the wind speed from pulsed Doppler-lidar observations, such as the half cone opening angle, the radial velocity estimation, or the lidar beams' orientations. Additionally, the derivation of the presented uncertainty model contemplates the technology-specific variables and considerations like the ship linear velocity or tilting, as well as the implementation of a motion correction algorithm.

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