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  • 2012-2021
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  • Journal of Education Culture and Society

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zsuzsanna Dégi; Orsolya Kovasch;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The present research aims to explore the English language learning motivation of students at the Sapientia University, Faculty of Economics, Socio-Human Sciences and Engineering, Miercurea-Ciuc (Csíkszereda). Method. 103 students took part in the exploratory research where an online questionnaire containing 50 statements was used to find out students’ motivations to learn English, focusing on seven different motivational factors (instrumentality, desire to become a global citizen, ideal foreign language self, desire for self-satisfaction, attitudes towards learning English, cultural integration and ought-to foreign language self). Results and conclusion. Results show that instrumental motivation has a strong effect on the surveyed students as they are highly motivated by the idea of getting a well-paying job with the help of their English language knowledge. Moreover, we also found out that participant students do not want to integrate within a native English-speaking community; they do not want to speak the language as native speakers, they rather aim to become global citizens with English. Cognitive value. The results of this exploratory research might offer valuable insight into students’ language learning motivation. Therefore, the study might be helpful for university teachers to have detailed information and a clearer picture of their students’ language learning motivations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrii Smyrnov; Oksana Aloshyna; Zhanna Yankovska; Mykola B. Blyzniak; Volodymyr Marchuk;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. This research aims to reveal the peculiarities of standardization and organizational principles behind the functioning of Orthodox brotherhoods on the territory of Right-Bank Ukraine from the 1850s to the 1900s. Methods. Methodologically, the authors of the work rely on the principles of novelty, objectivity, and historicism and employ general scientific methods (internal criticism of the sources, analysis, synthesis, generalization). Results. The study revealed that during the second half of the 19th century, the activity of Orthodox brotherhoods on the territories controlled by the Russian Empire was regulated by the law “Basic Rules for the Establishment of the Orthodox Church Brotherhoods” which regulated the prioritized tasks, membership and main vectors of their work. At the beginning of the 20th century, some changes occurred in the social-political life of the Russian Empire, which also affected the position of the Orthodox brotherhoods of Right-Bank Ukraine. Conclusion. The church authorities devoted considerable efforts to revitalizing and restoring the activity of the Orthodox brotherhoods at the beginning of the 20th century. In order to find new solutions to the situation, they discussed the further functioning of the fraternities at the congresses in which participated the representatives of the Orthodox brotherhoods of the western provinces of the Russian Empire. Thus, the church management controlled brotherhoods and channelled them into the required course of action.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alena Hašková; Zdenka Gadusova; Romana Havettova;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The paper presents results of a questionnaire survey which aim was to find out English learners´ preferences of different platforms and applications to be used for home schooling. Concept. Key attention of the authors is paid to the issue of the transition of face-to-face forms of education to online platforms, caused by school closures due to the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. At first, they deal with the use of digital technologies in teaching in general. They analyse how digital didactic means were used prior to the pandemic situation and they present research results related to differences among the ways of the use of these means within different subjects teaching (natural science subjects, technically oriented subjects, languages, social science subjects, artwork subjects). Consequently, the authors deal with the methodological aspects of the use of online forms in foreign language teaching. Methodology. To find answer to such questions as which educational form, school education or home schooling, is more preferred by English learners, what are the strengths and weaknesses of home schooling, which foreign language skills are being practiced via online Zoom lessons, which foreign language skills are being practiced via worksheets, or which mobile applications are used to enlarge students` vocabulary range, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Respondents of the survey were English learners, secondary vocational school students,,aged from 16 to 20 year-olds. Results and conclusions. Based on the analysis of the data recorded from the learners` responses to the particular questionnaire items as the most significant three weaknesses of the home schooling were identified technical problems, more homework and lack of social contacts, while as the main strengths were found out home comfort, sufficient sleeping time and less dense timetable.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Patrik Maturkanič; Ivana Tomanova Cergetova; Peter Kondrla; Viktoria Kurilenko; José García Martín;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica
    Country: Spain

    Aim. Presented study deals with the cultural dimension. It analyses external and internal human activities, that are creating the polarity develop values. The aim of the study is to clarify and connect the theoretical level of thinking with the reality of life practice, which shows the true meaning of human existence. Concept. The study highlights the importance of human thinking and decision making. Through the actions, one develops and creates the values of human dignity. The study focuses on the importance of two dimensions (horizontal and vertical dimensions of man), the relationship of man to God. Human culture includes behaviour that can be learned and is shaped by the environment in which one lives. This contribution is to clarify a culture of thinking that is a reflection of the soul of human being. Since culture is not only a matter of individual dispositions but also of social reality, it is right to underline this dual aspect of the plurality dimension (Binetti et al., 2021). Conclusion. The study identifies a fundamental aspect of the culture’s values, which show the potential of the soul of every human being. Human values influence thinking and actions of human being, thus creating the image of God. This article was published with the support of International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century (contract number: 010-2021). Cooperation among: Sociedad Hispanica de Amigos de Kierkegaard, University of Granada (Spain) and College of Applied Psychology in Terezin (Czech Republic), 2021-2022. International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century 010-2021

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lalit Gehlot;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim/Thesis: The aim of this research is to promote the use of the three concepts-- the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), the Gettier Problem, and Corpus Linguistics (Contextual Learning)--to increase the academic performance of early undergraduate engineering students. Concept/Methods: 30 Engineering students completed one untimed Mensa IQ Test of 10 questions and one Simon-Binet IQ Test of 50 random IQ questions with a 12 minute time limit. These 30 students were chosen from two different college sections: 15 students from each section. Before the second Simon-Binet Test, one group, G(a), was given ZPD scaffolding in three major topics — Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning and Spatial Reasoning —as they had answered questions based on these concepts incorrectly in their first Mensa IQ test. The second group, G(b), was not given the ZPD scaffolding. A statistical t-test that was later performed indicated that G(a), with scaffolding, outperformed G(b), without the scaffolding, in the second IQ test.  Results and conclusion: Using the t-test, it is seen that the hypothesis of this research that ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics can enhance the performance of the students in a short time period is correct. After the first Mensa IQ test, the level of both the groups G(a) and G(b) of engineering students was almost the same, indicated by a very similar mean results. However, after supporting G(a) utilizing ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics for their three problem areas - Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning and Spatial Reasoning - identified after their first IQ test where the students needed scaffolding, the performance of this group improved more in comparison to G(b), as indicated by the results of the second online Simon-Binet Test. Research restrictions: It was not possible to provide all the random questions of the online Simon-Binet test given to all 30 students because the total number of questions would be 30*50=1500. Only the first ten questions of the Mensa IQ test are included in this research paper. Further, the third and fourth year engineering students are not included in this research as it is assumed that they have had already developed expertise and the effect of the investigated tools would not be clearly visible.  Practical application: ZPD scaffolding was applied to the students when the students’ major problem areas were identified as requiring contextual learning and support. The Gettier Problem-- an epistemological concept-- was also used to keep their mind open at all the times during the learning process and Linguistics Corpus gave the contextual support as ZPD proposes the social-contextual mode of learning. Originality/Cognitive value: The paper presents empirical research on engineering students demonstrating the practical utility of ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics in the process of learning, potentially irrespective of any discipline.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sher Nawab; Sami Ullah; Usman Farooq; Muhammad Shafi Malik; Irshad Ghafoor;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Background: The study was conducted in 2017 to know about the effects of militancy on education in the form of dropout from schools, destroyed infrastructure of educational institutions, decrease in literacy rate and to probe out the community perception about education in the context of adverse law and order situation in district Mohmand Agency. The study was significant because Mohmand Agency is the worst terrorist affected area. Objectives: The objectives of the study were examining the factors causing militancy, and to determine the effects of militancy on education in Mohmand Agency. Methodology: For this purpose, 250 sample respondents out of the total population from four selected villages viz Gurbaz, Masood, Sultan Khel and Baro Khel from tehsil Safi and Halimzai were selected. The respondents were randomly interviewed through an interview schedule. Chi-square test was used as statistical instrument to determine the association between education and different factors that cause terrorism. Results: It was found that majority of the respondents were agreed that unemployment, poverty, drone attacks, unidentified Pak-Afghan border were the main factors that caused militancy in the area and had greatly affected the primary and secondary education in the area. Respondents were of the view that brutal activities against Muslims across the globe and presence of NATO forces in the region increased terrorism. Involvement of foreign intelligence agencies in our county and weak national security network to handle terrorist activities properly were the main causes of terrorism. Parents remain worried about their children’s education due to security threats and insufficient schools remaining in the area. Conclusion: It was concluded that due to insecurity, lack of infrastructure and insufficient schools; education in the area under study was greatly affected. The study suggested that bringing of peace and reasonable security measures against militants can rebuild the educational environment in the study area.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz; Mohammad Akram;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim Caste studies conducted among Muslims in India generally focus on establishing the existence of caste system among Muslims but they seldom talk about different types of oppression and inequalities faced byMuslim women.This empirical study exploreshow gender and caste identities and their mutual intersectionality impact education,occupation and income choices and actual attainments of Muslim women. Methods This study is part of a larger study conducted among Muslims of Kashmir in India.Primary datawas collected from 704 eligible respondents (Male=392, Female=312) using mixed methods. Three layers of ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groups existing in the research area are identified and gender situation within these groups are comparatively examined. Results Each of the ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groupshas patriarchal caste capital.Higher professions within the government and private services are largely acquired by upper caste male Muslims or other male and female Muslims having rich cultural and social capital. There is preponderance of lower caste male Muslims in low income self-employment but lower caste Muslim females seldom find say in family based business and compelled to join low paid private jobs. More than fifty percent educated Muslim females are unemployed. Conclusion Although patriarchy is the general rule here, not all women face discrimination and inequality in the same way. Upper caste Muslim women often witness so called benevolent restriction of choices whereas lower caste women are the most excluded and marginalised section of the society who face double discrimination due to patriarchy and interwoven caste positions which severely impacts their educational as well as employment choices and attainments. 

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marcela Šarvajcová; Monika Štrbová;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The aim of the research study was to investigate the opinions of the Slovakian secondary school foreign language teachers and learn about their views on the system of education in the field of enhancement of teachers` professional qualifications. Methods. To perform the results of the study the method of focus group was used. Results. The results of the presented research show the differences between the perception of foreign language education in the past and how it appears today through the views of selected number of foreign language teachers in Slovakia. The pivotal role is played by the technological skills of the students and their ability to use information technologies instructed in foreign languages. The research results also indicate the possibilities of teachers to get in direct contact with the target foreign language as a part of their professional development. The research participants also specified the factors that they considered the most influential in the process of foreign language learning. Conclusion. The purpose of the article is to discuss the urge to achieve highly professional foreign language education in today`s technological society. As shown by the results obtained from the focus group, the teachers/participants agreed on a single highly impactful factor: family.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irena Khokholova; Natalya Danilova; Marina Ilyinichna Kysylbaikova; Kyunney Pestereva; Alina Petrovna Vasileva; Daryana Maximova; Semyon Dyachkovskiy;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The aim of the research is to study the symbolic capital of northern cities (semiotic potential) contained in "urban texts" and the influence of the historical memory of a multiethnic region on the political process of the region and the country as a whole, through a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study of the symbolic space of cities in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Methods. The study used the cognitive approach, the method of space-time analysis, and the method of historicism and questionnaire survey. Symbolic space as a text is a heterogeneous content. Results. The results of the study show the importance of a symbolic resource as a brand tool, first, depending on the political context and introduction into the collective memory through a constant "reminder" of its importance and significance in the socio-cultural and everyday life of citizens. The resulting databases of monuments served as the basis for compiling a virtual album of monuments and art objects in the cities of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The research results can practically be applied in the field of education, politics, culture, in the study and promotion of the cultural and historical heritage of the regions of Russia. Conclusions. The urgent problem is the task of preserving the accumulated experience and values, places of memory, relics of the past, as well as ideas about the past that are stored in the memory of its inhabitants and the transfer of this knowledge to the younger generation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maciej Kowalczyk; Agnieszka Lewandowska;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The subject of the article are types of rental dwelling in contemporary Poland. The aim of this paper is to present the forms of contemporary living in terms of age groups, way of study or work and financing possibilities of Poles compared to other countries in the world. Methods. The authors of the article present selected new forms of rental dwelling in Poland in context of changes after the collapse of communist system in 1989. The article discusses the present situation of Polish real estate market basing on European statistics. It indicates the problem of limited availability of housing and presents solutions implemented by the government and the private sector market. Results and Conclusion. Poland is one of the European countries with the highest rate of people living in overcrowded apartments or houses. The solutions introduced by the state in order to increase the availability of housing and allowing the alternative to buying a flat, encounter difficulties with spatial planning regulations. In the absence of sufficient support of the government private sector market see its chance for profit in constructing and renting apartments. Cognitive value. The article describes the phenomenon of a growing private rental, that could be a shift in dwelling characteristic of Poles and influence the housing market. It presents new forms of developments, showing the background of their creation.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
547 Research products, page 1 of 55
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Zsuzsanna Dégi; Orsolya Kovasch;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The present research aims to explore the English language learning motivation of students at the Sapientia University, Faculty of Economics, Socio-Human Sciences and Engineering, Miercurea-Ciuc (Csíkszereda). Method. 103 students took part in the exploratory research where an online questionnaire containing 50 statements was used to find out students’ motivations to learn English, focusing on seven different motivational factors (instrumentality, desire to become a global citizen, ideal foreign language self, desire for self-satisfaction, attitudes towards learning English, cultural integration and ought-to foreign language self). Results and conclusion. Results show that instrumental motivation has a strong effect on the surveyed students as they are highly motivated by the idea of getting a well-paying job with the help of their English language knowledge. Moreover, we also found out that participant students do not want to integrate within a native English-speaking community; they do not want to speak the language as native speakers, they rather aim to become global citizens with English. Cognitive value. The results of this exploratory research might offer valuable insight into students’ language learning motivation. Therefore, the study might be helpful for university teachers to have detailed information and a clearer picture of their students’ language learning motivations.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Andrii Smyrnov; Oksana Aloshyna; Zhanna Yankovska; Mykola B. Blyzniak; Volodymyr Marchuk;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. This research aims to reveal the peculiarities of standardization and organizational principles behind the functioning of Orthodox brotherhoods on the territory of Right-Bank Ukraine from the 1850s to the 1900s. Methods. Methodologically, the authors of the work rely on the principles of novelty, objectivity, and historicism and employ general scientific methods (internal criticism of the sources, analysis, synthesis, generalization). Results. The study revealed that during the second half of the 19th century, the activity of Orthodox brotherhoods on the territories controlled by the Russian Empire was regulated by the law “Basic Rules for the Establishment of the Orthodox Church Brotherhoods” which regulated the prioritized tasks, membership and main vectors of their work. At the beginning of the 20th century, some changes occurred in the social-political life of the Russian Empire, which also affected the position of the Orthodox brotherhoods of Right-Bank Ukraine. Conclusion. The church authorities devoted considerable efforts to revitalizing and restoring the activity of the Orthodox brotherhoods at the beginning of the 20th century. In order to find new solutions to the situation, they discussed the further functioning of the fraternities at the congresses in which participated the representatives of the Orthodox brotherhoods of the western provinces of the Russian Empire. Thus, the church management controlled brotherhoods and channelled them into the required course of action.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alena Hašková; Zdenka Gadusova; Romana Havettova;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The paper presents results of a questionnaire survey which aim was to find out English learners´ preferences of different platforms and applications to be used for home schooling. Concept. Key attention of the authors is paid to the issue of the transition of face-to-face forms of education to online platforms, caused by school closures due to the coronavirus pandemic in 2020. At first, they deal with the use of digital technologies in teaching in general. They analyse how digital didactic means were used prior to the pandemic situation and they present research results related to differences among the ways of the use of these means within different subjects teaching (natural science subjects, technically oriented subjects, languages, social science subjects, artwork subjects). Consequently, the authors deal with the methodological aspects of the use of online forms in foreign language teaching. Methodology. To find answer to such questions as which educational form, school education or home schooling, is more preferred by English learners, what are the strengths and weaknesses of home schooling, which foreign language skills are being practiced via online Zoom lessons, which foreign language skills are being practiced via worksheets, or which mobile applications are used to enlarge students` vocabulary range, a questionnaire survey was carried out. Respondents of the survey were English learners, secondary vocational school students,,aged from 16 to 20 year-olds. Results and conclusions. Based on the analysis of the data recorded from the learners` responses to the particular questionnaire items as the most significant three weaknesses of the home schooling were identified technical problems, more homework and lack of social contacts, while as the main strengths were found out home comfort, sufficient sleeping time and less dense timetable.

  • Publication . Article . 2021
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Patrik Maturkanič; Ivana Tomanova Cergetova; Peter Kondrla; Viktoria Kurilenko; José García Martín;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica
    Country: Spain

    Aim. Presented study deals with the cultural dimension. It analyses external and internal human activities, that are creating the polarity develop values. The aim of the study is to clarify and connect the theoretical level of thinking with the reality of life practice, which shows the true meaning of human existence. Concept. The study highlights the importance of human thinking and decision making. Through the actions, one develops and creates the values of human dignity. The study focuses on the importance of two dimensions (horizontal and vertical dimensions of man), the relationship of man to God. Human culture includes behaviour that can be learned and is shaped by the environment in which one lives. This contribution is to clarify a culture of thinking that is a reflection of the soul of human being. Since culture is not only a matter of individual dispositions but also of social reality, it is right to underline this dual aspect of the plurality dimension (Binetti et al., 2021). Conclusion. The study identifies a fundamental aspect of the culture’s values, which show the potential of the soul of every human being. Human values influence thinking and actions of human being, thus creating the image of God. This article was published with the support of International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century (contract number: 010-2021). Cooperation among: Sociedad Hispanica de Amigos de Kierkegaard, University of Granada (Spain) and College of Applied Psychology in Terezin (Czech Republic), 2021-2022. International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century 010-2021

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Lalit Gehlot;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim/Thesis: The aim of this research is to promote the use of the three concepts-- the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD), the Gettier Problem, and Corpus Linguistics (Contextual Learning)--to increase the academic performance of early undergraduate engineering students. Concept/Methods: 30 Engineering students completed one untimed Mensa IQ Test of 10 questions and one Simon-Binet IQ Test of 50 random IQ questions with a 12 minute time limit. These 30 students were chosen from two different college sections: 15 students from each section. Before the second Simon-Binet Test, one group, G(a), was given ZPD scaffolding in three major topics — Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning and Spatial Reasoning —as they had answered questions based on these concepts incorrectly in their first Mensa IQ test. The second group, G(b), was not given the ZPD scaffolding. A statistical t-test that was later performed indicated that G(a), with scaffolding, outperformed G(b), without the scaffolding, in the second IQ test.  Results and conclusion: Using the t-test, it is seen that the hypothesis of this research that ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics can enhance the performance of the students in a short time period is correct. After the first Mensa IQ test, the level of both the groups G(a) and G(b) of engineering students was almost the same, indicated by a very similar mean results. However, after supporting G(a) utilizing ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics for their three problem areas - Working Memory, Fluid Reasoning and Spatial Reasoning - identified after their first IQ test where the students needed scaffolding, the performance of this group improved more in comparison to G(b), as indicated by the results of the second online Simon-Binet Test. Research restrictions: It was not possible to provide all the random questions of the online Simon-Binet test given to all 30 students because the total number of questions would be 30*50=1500. Only the first ten questions of the Mensa IQ test are included in this research paper. Further, the third and fourth year engineering students are not included in this research as it is assumed that they have had already developed expertise and the effect of the investigated tools would not be clearly visible.  Practical application: ZPD scaffolding was applied to the students when the students’ major problem areas were identified as requiring contextual learning and support. The Gettier Problem-- an epistemological concept-- was also used to keep their mind open at all the times during the learning process and Linguistics Corpus gave the contextual support as ZPD proposes the social-contextual mode of learning. Originality/Cognitive value: The paper presents empirical research on engineering students demonstrating the practical utility of ZPD, Gettier Problem and Corpus Linguistics in the process of learning, potentially irrespective of any discipline.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Sher Nawab; Sami Ullah; Usman Farooq; Muhammad Shafi Malik; Irshad Ghafoor;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Background: The study was conducted in 2017 to know about the effects of militancy on education in the form of dropout from schools, destroyed infrastructure of educational institutions, decrease in literacy rate and to probe out the community perception about education in the context of adverse law and order situation in district Mohmand Agency. The study was significant because Mohmand Agency is the worst terrorist affected area. Objectives: The objectives of the study were examining the factors causing militancy, and to determine the effects of militancy on education in Mohmand Agency. Methodology: For this purpose, 250 sample respondents out of the total population from four selected villages viz Gurbaz, Masood, Sultan Khel and Baro Khel from tehsil Safi and Halimzai were selected. The respondents were randomly interviewed through an interview schedule. Chi-square test was used as statistical instrument to determine the association between education and different factors that cause terrorism. Results: It was found that majority of the respondents were agreed that unemployment, poverty, drone attacks, unidentified Pak-Afghan border were the main factors that caused militancy in the area and had greatly affected the primary and secondary education in the area. Respondents were of the view that brutal activities against Muslims across the globe and presence of NATO forces in the region increased terrorism. Involvement of foreign intelligence agencies in our county and weak national security network to handle terrorist activities properly were the main causes of terrorism. Parents remain worried about their children’s education due to security threats and insufficient schools remaining in the area. Conclusion: It was concluded that due to insecurity, lack of infrastructure and insufficient schools; education in the area under study was greatly affected. The study suggested that bringing of peace and reasonable security measures against militants can rebuild the educational environment in the study area.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Rabiya Yaseen Bazaz; Mohammad Akram;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim Caste studies conducted among Muslims in India generally focus on establishing the existence of caste system among Muslims but they seldom talk about different types of oppression and inequalities faced byMuslim women.This empirical study exploreshow gender and caste identities and their mutual intersectionality impact education,occupation and income choices and actual attainments of Muslim women. Methods This study is part of a larger study conducted among Muslims of Kashmir in India.Primary datawas collected from 704 eligible respondents (Male=392, Female=312) using mixed methods. Three layers of ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groups existing in the research area are identified and gender situation within these groups are comparatively examined. Results Each of the ‘caste like’ and ‘caste’ groupshas patriarchal caste capital.Higher professions within the government and private services are largely acquired by upper caste male Muslims or other male and female Muslims having rich cultural and social capital. There is preponderance of lower caste male Muslims in low income self-employment but lower caste Muslim females seldom find say in family based business and compelled to join low paid private jobs. More than fifty percent educated Muslim females are unemployed. Conclusion Although patriarchy is the general rule here, not all women face discrimination and inequality in the same way. Upper caste Muslim women often witness so called benevolent restriction of choices whereas lower caste women are the most excluded and marginalised section of the society who face double discrimination due to patriarchy and interwoven caste positions which severely impacts their educational as well as employment choices and attainments. 

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marcela Šarvajcová; Monika Štrbová;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The aim of the research study was to investigate the opinions of the Slovakian secondary school foreign language teachers and learn about their views on the system of education in the field of enhancement of teachers` professional qualifications. Methods. To perform the results of the study the method of focus group was used. Results. The results of the presented research show the differences between the perception of foreign language education in the past and how it appears today through the views of selected number of foreign language teachers in Slovakia. The pivotal role is played by the technological skills of the students and their ability to use information technologies instructed in foreign languages. The research results also indicate the possibilities of teachers to get in direct contact with the target foreign language as a part of their professional development. The research participants also specified the factors that they considered the most influential in the process of foreign language learning. Conclusion. The purpose of the article is to discuss the urge to achieve highly professional foreign language education in today`s technological society. As shown by the results obtained from the focus group, the teachers/participants agreed on a single highly impactful factor: family.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Irena Khokholova; Natalya Danilova; Marina Ilyinichna Kysylbaikova; Kyunney Pestereva; Alina Petrovna Vasileva; Daryana Maximova; Semyon Dyachkovskiy;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The aim of the research is to study the symbolic capital of northern cities (semiotic potential) contained in "urban texts" and the influence of the historical memory of a multiethnic region on the political process of the region and the country as a whole, through a comprehensive and interdisciplinary study of the symbolic space of cities in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). Methods. The study used the cognitive approach, the method of space-time analysis, and the method of historicism and questionnaire survey. Symbolic space as a text is a heterogeneous content. Results. The results of the study show the importance of a symbolic resource as a brand tool, first, depending on the political context and introduction into the collective memory through a constant "reminder" of its importance and significance in the socio-cultural and everyday life of citizens. The resulting databases of monuments served as the basis for compiling a virtual album of monuments and art objects in the cities of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). The research results can practically be applied in the field of education, politics, culture, in the study and promotion of the cultural and historical heritage of the regions of Russia. Conclusions. The urgent problem is the task of preserving the accumulated experience and values, places of memory, relics of the past, as well as ideas about the past that are stored in the memory of its inhabitants and the transfer of this knowledge to the younger generation.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Maciej Kowalczyk; Agnieszka Lewandowska;
    Publisher: Foundation Pro Scientia Publica

    Aim. The subject of the article are types of rental dwelling in contemporary Poland. The aim of this paper is to present the forms of contemporary living in terms of age groups, way of study or work and financing possibilities of Poles compared to other countries in the world. Methods. The authors of the article present selected new forms of rental dwelling in Poland in context of changes after the collapse of communist system in 1989. The article discusses the present situation of Polish real estate market basing on European statistics. It indicates the problem of limited availability of housing and presents solutions implemented by the government and the private sector market. Results and Conclusion. Poland is one of the European countries with the highest rate of people living in overcrowded apartments or houses. The solutions introduced by the state in order to increase the availability of housing and allowing the alternative to buying a flat, encounter difficulties with spatial planning regulations. In the absence of sufficient support of the government private sector market see its chance for profit in constructing and renting apartments. Cognitive value. The article describes the phenomenon of a growing private rental, that could be a shift in dwelling characteristic of Poles and influence the housing market. It presents new forms of developments, showing the background of their creation.

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