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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krastel, Sebastian;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Wang, Qiang; Shu, Qi; Bozec, Alexandra; Chassignet, Eric P; +15 Authors

    Abstract. This study evaluates the impact of increasing resolution on Arctic Ocean simulations using five pairs of matched low- and high-resolution models within the OMIP-2 (Ocean Model Intercomparison Project phase 2) framework. The primary objective is to assess whether a higher resolution can mitigate typical biases in low-resolution models and improve the representation of key climate-relevant variables. We reveal that increasing the horizontal resolution contributes to a reduction in biases in mean temperature and salinity and improves the simulation of the Atlantic water layer and its decadal warming events. A higher resolution also leads to better agreement with observed surface mixed-layer depth, cold halocline base depth and Arctic gateway transports in the Fram and Davis straits. However, the simulation of the mean state and temporal changes in Arctic freshwater content does not show improvement with increased resolution. Not all models achieve improvements for all analyzed ocean variables when spatial resolution is increased so it is crucial to recognize that model numerics and parameterizations also play an important role in faithful simulations. Overall, a higher resolution shows promise in improving the simulation of key Arctic Ocean features and processes, but efforts in model development are required to achieve more accurate representations across all climate-relevant variables.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geoscientific Model ...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Geoscientific Model ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Dunn, M; Vojta, S; Soltwedel, T; von Appen, W; +1 Authors
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Nissen, Cara; Lovenduski, Nicole S; Brooks, Cassandra M; Hoppema, Mario; +2 Authors

    Antarctic coastal waters are home to several established or proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) supporting exceptional biodiversity. Despite being threatened by anthropogenic climate change, uncertainties remain surrounding the future ocean acidification (OA) of these waters. Here we present 21st-century projections of OA in Antarctic MPAs under four emission scenarios using a high-resolution ocean–sea ice–biogeochemistry model with realistic ice-shelf geometry. By 2100, we project pH declines of up to 0.36 (total scale) for the top 200 m. Vigorous vertical mixing of anthropogenic carbon produces severe OA throughout the water column in coastal waters of proposed and existing MPAs. Consequently, end-of-century aragonite undersaturation is ubiquitous under the three highest emission scenarios. Given the cumulative threat to marine ecosystems by environmental change and activities such as fishing, our findings call for strong emission-mitigation efforts and further management strategies to reduce pressures on ecosystems, such as the continuation and expansion of Antarctic MPAs.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Herbst, Tanja; Fuchs, Matthias; Liebner, Susanne; Treat, Claire;

    Arctic warming increases the degradation of permafrost soils but little is known about floodplain soils in the permafrost region. This study quantifies soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nitrogen stocks, and the potential CH4 and CO2 production from seven cores in the active floodplains in the Lena River Delta, Russia. The soils were sandy but highly heterogeneous, containing deep, organic rich deposits with >60% SOC stored below 30 cm. The mean SOC stocks in the top 1 m were 12.9 ± 6.0 kg C m−2. Grain size analysis and radiocarbon ages indicated highly dynamic environments with sediment re-working. Potential CH4 and CO2 production from active floodplains was assessed using a 1-year incubation at 20°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cumulative aerobic CO2 production mineralized a mean 4.6 ± 2.8% of initial SOC. The mean cumulative aerobic:anaerobic C production ratio was 2.3 ± 0.9. Anaerobic CH4 production comprised 50 ± 9% of anaerobic C mineralization; rates were comparable or exceeded those for permafrost region organic soils. Potential C production from the incubations was correlated with total organic carbon and varied strongly over space (among cores) and depth (active layer vs. permafrost). This study provides valuable information on the carbon cycle dynamics from active floodplains in the Lena River Delta and highlights the key spatial variability, both among sites and with depth, and the need to include these dynamic permafrost environments in future estimates of the permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Humbert, Angelika; Sondershaus, Rabea; Gross, Dietmar; Müller, Ralf;

    Calving of iceberg at ice shelves and floating glacier tongues is a poorly understood process, hence a physically motivated calving law is not yet existing. The demands on developing appropriate models for calving is large, as calving rates are needed for large scale ice sheet models that simulate the evolution of ice sheets. Here, we present a new approach for simulating fracture in ice. Our model is based on a finite strain theory for a viscoelastic Maxwell material, as the large simulation time leads to high strains. The fracturing process is simulated using a fracture phase field model that takes into account the elastic strain energy. We conduct simulations for a typical calving front geometry, with ice rises governing the formation of cracks. To represent the stress state adequately, we first conduct a spin-up to allow the viscous contribution to develop before the fracture phase field is computed. The analysis comprises the assessment of the crack path in comparison to observations, the influence of the spin-up, as well as elastic versus viscous strain contributions based on Hencky strain. Additionally, an estimate of released energy based on high resolution optical imagery of a Greenlandic calving front is presented.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Umberto Rosani; Sofia De Felice; Riccardo Frizzo; Satoshi Kawato; +1 Authors

    Many gene families are shared across the tree of life between distantly related species because of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). However, the frequency of HGTs varies strongly between gene families and biotic realms suggesting differential selection pressures and functional bias. One gene family with a wide distribution are FIC-domain containing enzymes (FicDs). FicDs catalyze AMPylation, a post-translational protein modification consisting in the addition of adenosine monophosphate to accessible residues of target proteins. Beside the well-known conservation of FicDs in deuterostomes, we report the presence of a conserved FicD gene ortholog in a large number of protostomes and microbial eukaryotes. We also reported additional FicD gene copies in the genomes of some rotifers, parasitic worms and bivalves. A few dsDNA viruses of these invertebrates, including White spot syndrome virus, Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus, Ostreid herpesvirus-1 and the beetle nudivirus, carry copies of FicDs, with phylogenetic analysis suggesting a common origin of these FicD copies and the duplicated FicDs of their invertebrate hosts. HGTs and gene duplications possibly mediated by endogenous viruses or genetic mobile elements seem to have contributed to the transfer of AMPylation ability from bacteria and eukaryotes to pathogenic viruses, where this pathway could have been hijacked to promote viral infection.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Electronic Publicati...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Gene
    Article . 2024
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      Article . 2024
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    Authors: Cormack, A; Slavich, E; Negrete, J; Bornemann, H; +2 Authors

    Although dietary studies have provided important insights into the causes and ramifications of diet variation for the southern elephant seal (SES) (Mirounga leonina), adult males are comparatively underrepresented within that literature. Individual males can vary morphologically as well as behaviourally, leading to differences in their life history trajectories and outcomes. Therefore, to improve our understanding of the male diet, we sought to determine the degree of dietary variation between as well as within individuals from the West Antarctic Peninsula. Secondly, we investigated whether individual morphological traits, seasonality, and year influenced their dietary variation. Whiskers were sampled from 31 adult male seals and used to measure the bulk stable isotope nitrogen (δ15N). We sequentially segmented each whisker to create a time series of datapoints for each individual, allowing us to compare δ15N variation within each seal as well as assess variation between the seals. We then investigated the relationships between male dietary variation and body length, girth, season, and year. We found that adult male SESs maintained an extremely specialised diet. Variation between individuals was strongly correlated with their body size, with larger seals feeding higher up the trophic web. Interestingly, seasonality and year both influenced variation within the seals’ diets, but only year was seen to influence the variability between seals. We discuss the possible causes and ramifications of dietary specialisation for the SES and highlight the need for combined tracking and stable isotope investigations to improve our understanding of the ontogeny of the seals’ dietary specialisation.

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    Marine Ecology Progress Series
    Article . 2023
    License: CC BY
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      Marine Ecology Progress Series
      Article . 2023
      License: CC BY
      Data sources: Crossref
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Neil C. Swart; Torge Martin; Rebecca Beadling; Jia-Jia Chen; +15 Authors

    Abstract. As the climate warms, the grounded ice sheet and floating ice shelves surrounding Antarctica are melting and releasing additional freshwater into the Southern Ocean. Nonetheless, almost all existing coupled climate models have fixed ice sheets and lack the physics required to represent the dominant sources of Antarctic melt. These missing ice dynamics represent a key uncertainty that is typically unaccounted for in current global climate change projections. Previous modelling studies that have imposed additional Antarctic meltwater have demonstrated regional impacts on Southern Ocean stratification, circulation, and sea ice, as well as remote changes in atmospheric circulation, tropical precipitation, and global temperature. However, these previous studies have used widely varying rates of freshwater forcing, have been conducted using different climate models and configurations, and have reached differing conclusions on the magnitude of meltwater–climate feedbacks. The Southern Ocean Freshwater Input from Antarctica (SOFIA) initiative brings together a team of scientists to quantify the climate system response to Antarctic meltwater input along with key aspects of the uncertainty. In this paper, we summarize the state of knowledge on meltwater discharge from the Antarctic ice sheet and ice shelves to the Southern Ocean and explain the scientific objectives of our initiative. We propose a series of coupled and ocean–sea ice model experiments, including idealized meltwater experiments, historical experiments with observationally consistent meltwater input, and future scenarios driven by meltwater inputs derived from stand-alone ice sheet models. Through coordinating a multi-model ensemble of simulations using a common experimental design, open data archiving, and facilitating scientific collaboration, SOFIA aims to move the community toward better constraining our understanding of the climate system response to Antarctic melt.

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    Authors: So Kawaguchi; Angus Atkinson; Dominik Bahlburg; Kim S. Bernard; +5 Authors

    Krill habitats in the Southern Ocean are impacted by changing climate conditions, reduced sea ice and rising temperatures. These changes, in turn, affect krill occurrence, physiology and behaviour, which could have ecosystem impacts. In this Review, we examine climate change impacts on Antarctic krill and the potential implications for the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Since the 1970s, there have been apparent reductions in adult population density and the occurrence of very dense swarms in the northern Southwest Atlantic. These changes were associated with latitudinal and longitudinal rearrangement of population distribution — including a poleward contraction in the Southwest Atlantic — and were likely driven by ocean warming, sea-ice reductions and changes in the quality of larval habitats. As swarms are targeted by fishers and predators, this contraction could increase fishery–predator interactions, potentially exacerbating risk to already declining penguin populations and recovering whale populations. These risks require urgent mitigation measures to be developed. A circumpolar monitoring network using emerging technologies is needed to augment existing surveys and better record the shifts in krill distribution.

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    Nature Reviews Earth & Environment
    Article . 2023
    License: Springer Nature TDM
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      Nature Reviews Earth & Environment
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Krastel, Sebastian;
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    Authors: Wang, Qiang; Shu, Qi; Bozec, Alexandra; Chassignet, Eric P; +15 Authors

    Abstract. This study evaluates the impact of increasing resolution on Arctic Ocean simulations using five pairs of matched low- and high-resolution models within the OMIP-2 (Ocean Model Intercomparison Project phase 2) framework. The primary objective is to assess whether a higher resolution can mitigate typical biases in low-resolution models and improve the representation of key climate-relevant variables. We reveal that increasing the horizontal resolution contributes to a reduction in biases in mean temperature and salinity and improves the simulation of the Atlantic water layer and its decadal warming events. A higher resolution also leads to better agreement with observed surface mixed-layer depth, cold halocline base depth and Arctic gateway transports in the Fram and Davis straits. However, the simulation of the mean state and temporal changes in Arctic freshwater content does not show improvement with increased resolution. Not all models achieve improvements for all analyzed ocean variables when spatial resolution is increased so it is crucial to recognize that model numerics and parameterizations also play an important role in faithful simulations. Overall, a higher resolution shows promise in improving the simulation of key Arctic Ocean features and processes, but efforts in model development are required to achieve more accurate representations across all climate-relevant variables.

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    Authors: Dunn, M; Vojta, S; Soltwedel, T; von Appen, W; +1 Authors
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    Authors: Nissen, Cara; Lovenduski, Nicole S; Brooks, Cassandra M; Hoppema, Mario; +2 Authors

    Antarctic coastal waters are home to several established or proposed Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) supporting exceptional biodiversity. Despite being threatened by anthropogenic climate change, uncertainties remain surrounding the future ocean acidification (OA) of these waters. Here we present 21st-century projections of OA in Antarctic MPAs under four emission scenarios using a high-resolution ocean–sea ice–biogeochemistry model with realistic ice-shelf geometry. By 2100, we project pH declines of up to 0.36 (total scale) for the top 200 m. Vigorous vertical mixing of anthropogenic carbon produces severe OA throughout the water column in coastal waters of proposed and existing MPAs. Consequently, end-of-century aragonite undersaturation is ubiquitous under the three highest emission scenarios. Given the cumulative threat to marine ecosystems by environmental change and activities such as fishing, our findings call for strong emission-mitigation efforts and further management strategies to reduce pressures on ecosystems, such as the continuation and expansion of Antarctic MPAs.

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    Authors: Herbst, Tanja; Fuchs, Matthias; Liebner, Susanne; Treat, Claire;

    Arctic warming increases the degradation of permafrost soils but little is known about floodplain soils in the permafrost region. This study quantifies soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nitrogen stocks, and the potential CH4 and CO2 production from seven cores in the active floodplains in the Lena River Delta, Russia. The soils were sandy but highly heterogeneous, containing deep, organic rich deposits with >60% SOC stored below 30 cm. The mean SOC stocks in the top 1 m were 12.9 ± 6.0 kg C m−2. Grain size analysis and radiocarbon ages indicated highly dynamic environments with sediment re-working. Potential CH4 and CO2 production from active floodplains was assessed using a 1-year incubation at 20°C under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cumulative aerobic CO2 production mineralized a mean 4.6 ± 2.8% of initial SOC. The mean cumulative aerobic:anaerobic C production ratio was 2.3 ± 0.9. Anaerobic CH4 production comprised 50 ± 9% of anaerobic C mineralization; rates were comparable or exceeded those for permafrost region organic soils. Potential C production from the incubations was correlated with total organic carbon and varied strongly over space (among cores) and depth (active layer vs. permafrost). This study provides valuable information on the carbon cycle dynamics from active floodplains in the Lena River Delta and highlights the key spatial variability, both among sites and with depth, and the need to include these dynamic permafrost environments in future estimates of the permafrost carbon-climate feedback.

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    Authors: Humbert, Angelika; Sondershaus, Rabea; Gross, Dietmar; Müller, Ralf;

    Calving of iceberg at ice shelves and floating glacier tongues is a poorly understood process, hence a physically motivated calving law is not yet existing. The demands on developing appropriate models for calving is large, as calving rates are needed for large scale ice sheet models that simulate the evolution of ice sheets. Here, we present a new approach for simulating fracture in ice. Our model is based on a finite strain theory for a viscoelastic Maxwell material, as the large simulation time leads to high strains. The fracturing process is simulated using a fracture phase field model that takes into account the elastic strain energy. We conduct simulations for a typical calving front geometry, with ice rises governing the formation of cracks. To represent the stress state adequately, we first conduct a spin-up to allow the viscous contribution to develop before the fracture phase field is computed. The analysis comprises the assessment of the crack path in comparison to observations, the influence of the spin-up, as well as elastic versus viscous strain contributions based on Hencky strain. Additionally, an estimate of released energy based on high resolution optical imagery of a Greenlandic calving front is presented.

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    Authors: Umberto Rosani; Sofia De Felice; Riccardo Frizzo; Satoshi Kawato; +1 Authors

    Many gene families are shared across the tree of life between distantly related species because of horizontal gene transfers (HGTs). However, the frequency of HGTs varies strongly between gene families and biotic realms suggesting differential selection pressures and functional bias. One gene family with a wide distribution are FIC-domain containing enzymes (FicDs). FicDs catalyze AMPylation, a post-translational protein modification consisting in the addition of adenosine monophosphate to accessible residues of target proteins. Beside the well-known conservation of FicDs in deuterostomes, we report the presence of a conserved FicD gene ortholog in a large number of protostomes and microbial eukaryotes. We also reported additional FicD gene copies in the genomes of some rotifers, parasitic worms and bivalves. A few dsDNA viruses of these invertebrates, including White spot syndrome virus, Cherax quadricarinatus iridovirus, Ostreid herpesvirus-1 and the beetle nudivirus, carry copies of FicDs, with phylogenetic analysis suggesting a common origin of these FicD copies and the duplicated FicDs of their invertebrate hosts. HGTs and gene duplications possibly mediated by endogenous viruses or genetic mobile elements seem to have contributed to the transfer of AMPylation ability from bacteria and eukaryotes to pathogenic viruses, where this pathway could have been hijacked to promote viral infection.

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    Article . 2024
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