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  • Authors: Siyuan, Wu; Tiannian, Zhu; Sijia, Tu; Ruijuan, Xiao; +4 Authors

    A battery database compiled from literature, including DOI, testing/calculation methods, diffusion coefficient, ion conductivity, and ion migration number, from September 2022 to July 2023 

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: WANG Chunxin; FAN Anchuan; LI Bo; YAN Zihan; +1 Authors

    BackgroundLuminescence dating technology has made significant advancements in determining the chronology of archaeological materials subjected to low firing temperatures. However, the luminescence dating of archaeological materials subjected to high firing temperatures remains challenging.PurposeThis study aims to explore the luminescence emission spectrum characteristics and luminescence properties of high-firing temperature quartz to verify the feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) signals from different bands in luminescence dating.MethodsFirstly, the high-firing temperature (about 950 °C) quartz extracted from pottery unearthed at the Lingjiatan archaeological site was taken as a case study, spectral measurement platform was established using a Risø DA-20 luminescence dating instrument coupled with an Andor spectrometer and a charge-coupled device camera to analyze the luminescence spectral properties of archaeological quartz with high firing temperatures. Then, five filter combinations and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were used to compare the TL and isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) sensitivities of blue and red emissions. Kinetic parameters for Blue TL and Red TL were determined by deconvolving the glow curves with the general-order equation. Finally, exposure experiments were conducted on the Blue and Red TL using a solar simulator. The single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol was implemented to assess the applicability of the Blue TL-SAR, Blue ITL-SAR, Red TL-SAR, Red ITL-SAR, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)-SAR methods for dating archaeological quartz exposed to high temperatures during production or use.ConclusionsThe spectral analysis reveals that the archaeological quartz subjected to high firing temperature exhibits significant Red TL emissions at approximately 620 nm, which is correlated with the TL peak at 375 °C. This Red TL at 375 °C exhibits a marked insensitivity to light. The multi-wavelength TL, multiwavelength ITL, and conventional OSL dating results are consistent with the known radiocarbon age within the error range. This study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using luminescence signals of different wavelengths for chronological studies of archaeological materials subjected to high firing temperatures.

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    Nuclear Techniques
    Article . 2024
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      Nuclear Techniques
      Article . 2024
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  • Authors: Shiqian, Tao; Qiang, Li; Heliang, Yao; Song, Liu; +1 Authors

    The porcelain shreds were selected from the Baofeng Qingliangsi kiln and Ruzhou Zhanggongxaing kiln, among which 9 Ru ware and 5 Ru-type ware excavated from the central production area of Qingliangsi kiln, 19 Ru ware from the non-central production area of Qingliangsi kiln, and 31 celadon from Zhanggongxiang kiln. The experimental samples were provided by the Baofeng Ruyao Museum and Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology, respectively. The pictures of typical porcelain samples from the two kilns were shown in Fig. 1. ExperimentsThe cross-section structure of glaze layers was studied by non-destructive swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT, HSL-2100, Santec, Aichi, Japan), which consists of four separate parts: sweep source, interferometer unit, computer unit and OCT probe. The experiments were carried out in sweep mode. The central wavelength was around 1315~1340 nm, the spectral peak half-height width was 110 nm, the sweep frequency was 20 kHz, and the maximum laser power was 50 mW. The scanning range of OCT probe was 0-20 mm. In silicate materials, the largest transverse and longitudinal resolution is 5 μm/pixel and 5.3 μm/pixel, respectively. This OCT technique has been successfully applied to analyze the fracture structure of ancient Chinese porcelain and glass [18-21].Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF, OURSTEX 100FA, OURSTEX, Osaka, Japan) was employed for the chemical components analysis. For this XRF instrument, standard samples (NIST 1411 and BR CH4), purchased from the Breitlander Eichproben und Labomaterial GmbH, Germany, were used for checking the precision and accuracy. A set of standard samples (22), were purchased from the Breitlander Eichproben und Labomaterial GmbH, Germany, containing most interested major and trace elements in silicate materials were applied for making the calibration curves for porcelain glaze. Meanwhile, a set of standard samples (13), provided by the Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, were applied for making the calibration curves for the ceramic body. It was equipped with a low-vacuum sample chamber, which can effectively measure the content of light elements (such as F, Na) in air. The X-ray beam spot irradiated at the sample was about 2.5 mm in diameter, and more details can be found in the published articles. Similar equipment had already been applied in chemical composition analysis of ancient porcelain [22-24].X-ray diffractometer (XRD, D/max 2550V, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with filtered Cu Kα radiation (40 kV, 40 mA) was carried on glaze surface to acquire phase constituents (scanning speed: 2° min-1; scanning area: 10-90°). To accurately identify the phase information on crystals and base glaze, Raman spectra were collected at room temperature by confocal micro-Raman spectrometer (LRS, LabRAM XploRA, Horiba, Palaiseau, France) using a 532 nm excitation radiation source (300 mW).Optical microscopy fixed with an ultra-depth-of-field system (OM, VHX-50000, Keyence, Osaka, Japan) was applied for morphology observation. The microstructure and elemental analyses of porcelain samples (both surfaces and cross-sections) were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) configured with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) operated in the backscattered electron image mode (SEM, S-4800, HITACHI, Tokyo, Japan). Some selected nanostructures were characterized by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy at 200 kV (TEM, Tecnai G2 F20 S-TWIN, Hillsboro, America). Several glaze lamellas of 10 μm x 10 μm and 100 nm thick were cut, thinned, extracted and polished by focused ion beam (FIB) method. Typically, in this work, SEM and TEM samples was not etched in hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution. The glaze color of samples was analyzed by chromatic spectrophotometer (NS 800, Shenzheng, China). This instrument adopts the combined LED precision spectroscopy, which has higher accuracy and is sensitive to any color. In addition to measuring Lab and dE values, it can directly display the spectral reflectance curves (400~700 nm). The color characteristic parameters in this research were the average of three tests.

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  • Authors: Zhe, Han Mu;

    Archaeo_china is a professional domain ontology model developed specifically for the digital registration and semantic knowledge organization of archaeological excavation data. It is jointly completed by scholars from various fields such as library and information science, computer science, and archaeology. Archaeo_china model is based on the CIDOC CRM, which is commonly used in the field of international cultural heritage. It is developed based on the actual archaeological excavation work in China and the characteristics of archaeological information resources. It integrates models such as CRMarchaeo, CRMsci, CRMba, and CRM-EH to expand from archaeology, technological archaeology, ancient architecture, and archaeological project management, including sites, relics The three sub-domains of relics respectively realize the Knowledge representation and reasoning of archaeological data and archaeological excavation process, which can realize the two-sides narrative, bilingual comparison and multi-dimensional and extensible semantic expression of archaeological excavation data, and have practical significance for the digital collation of archaeological reports. 翻译

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zhiyang DENG; Qiang LIAO; Shujuan SHAO; Jun LIU;

    Hawthorn fruits of different varieties have varied nutritional composition, sensory properties etc., thus required for different processing for product development. Due to the limitations of traditional analytical methods of time-consuming, destructive sample preparation, and high cost ect., non-destructive techniques for variety identification are needed which would benefit for large scale production of foods with hawthorn fruits. In this study, a total of 240 hawthorn fruit samples from four different varieties were subjected for near-infrared spectroscopy analysis and the collected spectral data were pre-processed by different algorithms. In order to achieve non-destructive identification of hawthorn varieties, natural language processing (NLP) model was applied for data analysis, including long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network, logistic regression, native Bayes, decision trees, and k-nearest neighbors. The results showed that the two deep learning models both had the best discrimination effect on the spectral preprocessed by principal component analysis (PCA) with the accuracy of the validation set and test set reached 99.46%±0.00% and 100%±0.00%. While, the logistic regression model showed excellent discrimination ability for hawthorn fruit spectra but poor discrimination ability for the difference of second order (D2) pretreatment spectra (accuracy of 96.65% in the validation set and 89.58% in the test set). The naive Bayes model also showed excellent discrimination effect on the spectra processed by PCA, and the accuracy of the validation set was 95.65%, and the accuracy of the test set was 95.83%. Results gained in this study confirmed the feasibility of applying NLP to the near-infrared non-destructive identification of hawthorn fruits.

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    https://doaj.org/article/656d3...
    Article . 2023
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      https://doaj.org/article/656d3...
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  • Authors: Qi, Liu; Yanhua, Zhang; Xingping, Li; Xuan, Qin; +1 Authors

    Amber has been well documented since the Han Dynasty as a precious material many amber artifacts have been unearthed from tombs of Han Dynasty in China, It is generally believed that amber raw materials and some already-made artifacts may come from Europe (Baltic Sea) and Myanmar during the Han Dynasty, so amber and its artifacts are considered as a vital material and hard evidence of cultural exchange between ancient China and abroad. However, the analysis of excavated amber by using scientific methods is still limited so far. This paper applies Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize several pieces of amber ornaments excavated from the tombs of Han Dynasty in central and southern Hunan Province and the results indicate that most of the ornaments were made of raw materials from Myanmar but also one Shuang Sheng amulet made of Baltic amber, Amber artifacts undergo significant deterioration during burial and exhibition, and varying degrees of deterioration and the presence of sedentary attachment may affect the results of infrared spectra of amber, which in turn interferes with the study of tracing the origin of the amber raw material. A preliminary study of amber and ornaments made of various gemstones and glass could reveal that the Hunan Province has influenced by both the Northern Steppe Silk Road and Southern Maritime Silk Road during the Han Dynasty and that in-land trade flows in this region were complex and diverse, and some amber ornaments may have been produced locally by exotic materials. More scientific data and analysis will support the study of ancient trade and cultural exchange during ancient time on a larger scale.

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  • Authors: Sebillaud, Pauline; Lixin 王立新, Wang;

    This report presents data collected during a systematic regional survey conducted between 2012 and 2016, around Yueliang Lake. The survey focused around the Houtaomuga site, located where the Tao’er River enters the Nen River, in Da’an City and Zhenlai District, in northwest Jilin Province, Northeast China. A total area of 284 km² was surveyed, including 4266 collection units covered and 152,245 pottery sherds collected. A total of 73 sites were identified, including 61 newly discovered sites. These data allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the change of the settlement patterns from the Early Neolithic (ca. 10 000 BC) to the Republican Period (early 20th c. AD). This research aims to investigate the growth and development of human communities within the Yueliang region. The project also aims to elucidate how those social changes intersect with the unique trajectory of subsistence strategies found in this region. These results are placed into broad comparison with other similar projects within the region and beyond. This is the first systematic regional survey carried out in Jilin province, and this report is the first archaeological publication on the long-term human occupation in the rich and complex Lower Nen River Valley, located at the cross-roads of Inner Mongolia Daxing’an Mountains, Jilin province’s Song River Plain and southwest Heilongjiang’s lakes.The first chapter introduces the environmental context including the topography, climate, plants, fauna, water drainage, and sediments and provides the most complete synthesis to date on the previous research in the region. This chapter also introduces in detail the research methodology, including field survey, post-survey processing and analysis methods. The field methods used in this project are only a slight variation on the successful collection strategies used by several surveys throughout China and Mongolia and thus can provide data sets that are directly comparable.In the second chapter, the data analysis is presented, and changes in settlement dynamics in the Yueliang region explained. This analysis sheds light on the degree to which the settlements are integrated with one another. The earliest detected human activities coincide with the Early Holocene and are represented by the earliest pottery in Northeast China, belonging to the Houtaomuga phase I culture and the Changtuozi 1 type (10,900-8000 BC). One of the most important results of this survey is the identification of six sites (five previously unknown) with these very early sherds, associated with large quantities of microlithic tools. The activity and impact of the few human groups inhabiting this landscape was very scarce, as the settlement distribution left vast available land resources unexploited, and no regional settlement organization seems to have formed yet.The Period 2 pottery is mostly attributed to the culture of Houtaomuga phases II (8000-4300 BC) and III (4300-3500 BC). The sites are larger and distributed along the shores the lakes and waterways. The degree of integration had strengthened to some extent. The settlements show evidence of a relatively simple economic system, with low levels of competition.The Period 3 sherds are stylistically close to the Houtaomuga phase IV culture (3500-2900 BC). The sites are smaller and less numerous, and the population aggregated at higher elevations, mostly within the Houtaomuga phase IV village.The Early to Middle Bronze Age period corresponds to the Xiaolaha (ca. 2000-1600 BC) and Gucheng (ca. 1300-1000 BC) archaeological cultures. The sites are more numerous and larger, and most are located in the eastern part of the survey area. The larger sites, Hanshu and Houdiwopu, could have had a hierarchical relationship or different functions than the other average-size sites. This distribution could have played a role in controlling the Nen River communication axis.The Late Bronze Age corresponds to the Baijinbao culture (ca. 1000-500 BC). The sites show continuity of spatial occupation with the previous period. Hanshu and Houdiwopu maintained their role as settlement centers, and a clear spatial division between settlements and cemeteries appears during this period.The Early Iron Age coincides with the Hanshu phase II culture. The increased number and size of the sites show a significant increase in the intensity of occupation. This settlement system is organized around multiple centers, and the site hierarchy becomes clearer. The settlement system is integrated and shows a hierarchical social organization, as well as an integrated economic system.Sherds belonging to the period between the 3rd and the 8th c. AD, associated with the local Xianbei or pre-Khitan cultures, are very scarce. The sites are rare and small. This quasi-abandonment of the region might be connected to changes in resources and subsistence model. These small sites may be related to temporary activities, seasonal fishing activities, or indicate frequent travel along the waterways.The sherds of pottery and architectural materials of the Late Middle Age or Liao-Jin period (900-1300 AD) are overwhelmingly present at all the sites. The increase in the number of sites, site size, and sherd density reveal an unprecedented new settlement system. A large number of people may have come to the area to open up forests and drain marshes, bringing in new lifestyles. The development of a myriad of small sites and farmsteads further from the waterfront reflects the intensification of agricultural production and a new use of the hinterland.During the Modern period (1800-1949 AD), the number of sites and their size remains stable. The settlement organization shows a clear continuity with the Liao-Jin period and is also directly related to the current distribution of villages in the area.These results are compared with other surveys previously organized in Northeast China to show how settlement distribution, social structures and subsistence practices differed between the Yueliang region in the lower Nen River Valley and the Liaoxi region.The last chapter presents in details all the information about the 73 sites discovered during this survey, including all the quantitative data, the spatial distribution of the remains from each period and descriptions of the related artefacts.The spatial analysis of the results of this survey sheds new light on the interactions between archaeological cultures, and on the local trajectory of settlement patterns and subsistence strategies from over 10,000 BC to the historical era, and provides data about the current and ancient environment and socio-economic changes in this region and how they differ from other nearby regions. With its innovative structure and abundant colour maps and artefact photographs, this report provides a unique tool to visualize the sites in their landscape, as well as identify and directly compare sherds. The fact that all the periods were taken in account, up to the most recent ones, provides the readers with comparison materials for all-period excavations and surveys in Northeast China. With its extensive methodological explanation and exhaustive appendices, this report can be used in the future as a basis to organize similar projects. This research shows how spatial analysis and settlement pattern analysis, especially when focused on human-scale landscapes such as river valleys, can capture the complexity and diversity of human subsistence systems.

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  • Authors: Ning, Qi; Xiang, Bing;

    Multi-feature fusion data model

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zhang Jinsheng; Lin Zefei;

    [Purpose/Significance] By jointly mining multiple diaries related to National South-west Associated University (NSAU), a social network graph of NSAU that integrates information from multiple sources is constructed. The aim is to discover more potential social relationships through joint mining of multiple diaries, and break through the limitations of single diary social network mining. [Method/Process] Using multiple diaries related to NSAU from 1938 to 1941 as corpus, Python program is used to count co-occurrence relationships of characters, and Gephi is used to construct multi-diary social network graph. Through social network analysis methods, the network topology features, character centrality features and character group features based on modularity and K-core are analyzed and discussed. [Result/Conclusion] Compared with independent diary mining, multi-diary social network joint mining showed more obvious network structure features, more decentralized and rich social relationship information, which can reveal more hidden social relationships, and has good application value in the field of digital humanities.

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      Zhishi guanli luntan
      Article . 2023
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    Authors: Qiu Junjie; Ren Yongqing; Jin Jianhui; Liu Haijie; +1 Authors

    The lower reaches of the Minjiang River are located in an area of land-sea-air interaction. It is not only a sensitive area concerning environmental evolution, but also a hotspot for archaeological research on the southeast coast of China. Exploring the scope of ancient human activities and the evolution of land-use patterns is of great significance for understanding the development of human-land relations. By generating various cost surfaces of sites through GIS cost distance analysis and combining with the site catchment theory and method, we comprehensively analyzed the human activity range and land-use pattern in every cultural period from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age in the lower reaches of the Minjiang River and reconstructed the potential population in each period of the region. The results show that: (1) the area of site catchment, available and actually developed land increased from the Keqiutou to Huangtulun culture period in the lower reaches of the Minjiang River. Chronologically, the area of the site catchment continues to grow from 212 km2 to 4,858 km2, the accessible land area increased from 261 km2 to 7,599 km2, and the land area that was actually used by ancient humans continuously increased from 173 km2 to 3,914 km2. (2) With the development process of culture, the land-use intensity of prehistoric humans in the region first increased and then decreased by 81.58%, 92.95%, 87.99%, 79.33% and 80.57%, respectively, and the degree of land development was reduced, which may be related to the development and progress of productive forces. The frequency of ancient human exchanges can be represented by the ratio of the number of sites in the overlapping site catchment to the total number of sites in the same period (87.50%, 60.00%, 66.67%, 92.54%, and 97.81%, respectively). (3) The reconstruction results showed that the potential population in the area continued to expand, with substantial population growth in the lower Tanshishan-Tanshishan and Huangguashan-Huangtulun transitional periods. It was inferred that there was a relationship between population pressure and culture succession.

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    Redai dili
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      Redai dili
      Article . 2023
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  • Authors: Siyuan, Wu; Tiannian, Zhu; Sijia, Tu; Ruijuan, Xiao; +4 Authors

    A battery database compiled from literature, including DOI, testing/calculation methods, diffusion coefficient, ion conductivity, and ion migration number, from September 2022 to July 2023 

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: WANG Chunxin; FAN Anchuan; LI Bo; YAN Zihan; +1 Authors

    BackgroundLuminescence dating technology has made significant advancements in determining the chronology of archaeological materials subjected to low firing temperatures. However, the luminescence dating of archaeological materials subjected to high firing temperatures remains challenging.PurposeThis study aims to explore the luminescence emission spectrum characteristics and luminescence properties of high-firing temperature quartz to verify the feasibility of thermoluminescence (TL) signals from different bands in luminescence dating.MethodsFirstly, the high-firing temperature (about 950 °C) quartz extracted from pottery unearthed at the Lingjiatan archaeological site was taken as a case study, spectral measurement platform was established using a Risø DA-20 luminescence dating instrument coupled with an Andor spectrometer and a charge-coupled device camera to analyze the luminescence spectral properties of archaeological quartz with high firing temperatures. Then, five filter combinations and two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) were used to compare the TL and isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) sensitivities of blue and red emissions. Kinetic parameters for Blue TL and Red TL were determined by deconvolving the glow curves with the general-order equation. Finally, exposure experiments were conducted on the Blue and Red TL using a solar simulator. The single aliquot regenerative dose (SAR) protocol was implemented to assess the applicability of the Blue TL-SAR, Blue ITL-SAR, Red TL-SAR, Red ITL-SAR, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL)-SAR methods for dating archaeological quartz exposed to high temperatures during production or use.ConclusionsThe spectral analysis reveals that the archaeological quartz subjected to high firing temperature exhibits significant Red TL emissions at approximately 620 nm, which is correlated with the TL peak at 375 °C. This Red TL at 375 °C exhibits a marked insensitivity to light. The multi-wavelength TL, multiwavelength ITL, and conventional OSL dating results are consistent with the known radiocarbon age within the error range. This study demonstrates the potential feasibility of using luminescence signals of different wavelengths for chronological studies of archaeological materials subjected to high firing temperatures.

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    Nuclear Techniques
    Article . 2024
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      Nuclear Techniques
      Article . 2024
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  • Authors: Shiqian, Tao; Qiang, Li; Heliang, Yao; Song, Liu; +1 Authors

    The porcelain shreds were selected from the Baofeng Qingliangsi kiln and Ruzhou Zhanggongxaing kiln, among which 9 Ru ware and 5 Ru-type ware excavated from the central production area of Qingliangsi kiln, 19 Ru ware from the non-central production area of Qingliangsi kiln, and 31 celadon from Zhanggongxiang kiln. The experimental samples were provided by the Baofeng Ruyao Museum and Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Heritage and Archaeology, respectively. The pictures of typical porcelain samples from the two kilns were shown in Fig. 1. ExperimentsThe cross-section structure of glaze layers was studied by non-destructive swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT, HSL-2100, Santec, Aichi, Japan), which consists of four separate parts: sweep source, interferometer unit, computer unit and OCT probe. The experiments were carried out in sweep mode. The central wavelength was around 1315~1340 nm, the spectral peak half-height width was 110 nm, the sweep frequency was 20 kHz, and the maximum laser power was 50 mW. The scanning range of OCT probe was 0-20 mm. In silicate materials, the largest transverse and longitudinal resolution is 5 μm/pixel and 5.3 μm/pixel, respectively. This OCT technique has been successfully applied to analyze the fracture structure of ancient Chinese porcelain and glass [18-21].Portable energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF, OURSTEX 100FA, OURSTEX, Osaka, Japan) was employed for the chemical components analysis. For this XRF instrument, standard samples (NIST 1411 and BR CH4), purchased from the Breitlander Eichproben und Labomaterial GmbH, Germany, were used for checking the precision and accuracy. A set of standard samples (22), were purchased from the Breitlander Eichproben und Labomaterial GmbH, Germany, containing most interested major and trace elements in silicate materials were applied for making the calibration curves for porcelain glaze. Meanwhile, a set of standard samples (13), provided by the Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, were applied for making the calibration curves for the ceramic body. It was equipped with a low-vacuum sample chamber, which can effectively measure the content of light elements (such as F, Na) in air. The X-ray beam spot irradiated at the sample was about 2.5 mm in diameter, and more details can be found in the published articles. Similar equipment had already been applied in chemical composition analysis of ancient porcelain [22-24].X-ray diffractometer (XRD, D/max 2550V, Rigaku, Tokyo, Japan) equipped with filtered Cu Kα radiation (40 kV, 40 mA) was carried on glaze surface to acquire phase constituents (scanning speed: 2° min-1; scanning area: 10-90°). To accurately identify the phase information on crystals and base glaze, Raman spectra were collected at room temperature by confocal micro-Raman spectrometer (LRS, LabRAM XploRA, Horiba, Palaiseau, France) using a 532 nm excitation radiation source (300 mW).Optical microscopy fixed with an ultra-depth-of-field system (OM, VHX-50000, Keyence, Osaka, Japan) was applied for morphology observation. The microstructure and elemental analyses of porcelain samples (both surfaces and cross-sections) were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) configured with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) operated in the backscattered electron image mode (SEM, S-4800, HITACHI, Tokyo, Japan). Some selected nanostructures were characterized by a high resolution transmission electron microscopy at 200 kV (TEM, Tecnai G2 F20 S-TWIN, Hillsboro, America). Several glaze lamellas of 10 μm x 10 μm and 100 nm thick were cut, thinned, extracted and polished by focused ion beam (FIB) method. Typically, in this work, SEM and TEM samples was not etched in hydrofluoric (HF) acid solution. The glaze color of samples was analyzed by chromatic spectrophotometer (NS 800, Shenzheng, China). This instrument adopts the combined LED precision spectroscopy, which has higher accuracy and is sensitive to any color. In addition to measuring Lab and dE values, it can directly display the spectral reflectance curves (400~700 nm). The color characteristic parameters in this research were the average of three tests.

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  • Authors: Zhe, Han Mu;

    Archaeo_china is a professional domain ontology model developed specifically for the digital registration and semantic knowledge organization of archaeological excavation data. It is jointly completed by scholars from various fields such as library and information science, computer science, and archaeology. Archaeo_china model is based on the CIDOC CRM, which is commonly used in the field of international cultural heritage. It is developed based on the actual archaeological excavation work in China and the characteristics of archaeological information resources. It integrates models such as CRMarchaeo, CRMsci, CRMba, and CRM-EH to expand from archaeology, technological archaeology, ancient architecture, and archaeological project management, including sites, relics The three sub-domains of relics respectively realize the Knowledge representation and reasoning of archaeological data and archaeological excavation process, which can realize the two-sides narrative, bilingual comparison and multi-dimensional and extensible semantic expression of archaeological excavation data, and have practical significance for the digital collation of archaeological reports. 翻译

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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Zhiyang DENG; Qiang LIAO; Shujuan SHAO; Jun LIU;

    Hawthorn fruits of different varieties have varied nutritional composition, sensory properties etc., thus required for different processing for product development. Due to the limitations of traditional analytical methods of time-consuming, destructive sample preparation, and high cost ect., non-destructive techniques for variety identification are needed which would benefit for large scale production of foods with hawthorn fruits. In this study, a total of 240 hawthorn fruit samples from four different varieties were subjected for near-infrared spectroscopy analysis and the collected spectral data were pre-processed by different algorithms. In order to achieve non-destructive identification of hawthorn varieties, natural language processing (NLP) model was applied for data analysis, including long short-term memory (LSTM), gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network, logistic regression, native Bayes, decision trees, and k-nearest neighbors. The results showed that the two deep learning models both had the best discrimination effect on the spectral preprocessed by principal component analysis (PCA) with the accuracy of the validation set and test set reached 99.46%±0.00% and 100%±0.00%. While, the logistic regression model showed excellent discrimination ability for hawthorn fruit spectra but poor discrimination ability for the difference of second order (D2) pretreatment spectra (accuracy of 96.65% in the validation set and 89.58% in the test set). The naive Bayes model also showed excellent discrimination effect on the spectra processed by PCA, and the accuracy of the validation set was 95.65%, and the accuracy of the test set was 95.83%. Results gained in this study confirmed the feasibility of applying NLP to the near-infrared non-destructive identification of hawthorn fruits.

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    https://doaj.org/article/656d3...
    Article . 2023
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  • Authors: Qi, Liu; Yanhua, Zhang; Xingping, Li; Xuan, Qin; +1 Authors

    Amber has been well documented since the Han Dynasty as a precious material many amber artifacts have been unearthed from tombs of Han Dynasty in China, It is generally believed that amber raw materials and some already-made artifacts may come from Europe (Baltic Sea) and Myanmar during the Han Dynasty, so amber and its artifacts are considered as a vital material and hard evidence of cultural exchange between ancient China and abroad. However, the analysis of excavated amber by using scientific methods is still limited so far. This paper applies Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize several pieces of amber ornaments excavated from the tombs of Han Dynasty in central and southern Hunan Province and the results indicate that most of the ornaments were made of raw materials from Myanmar but also one Shuang Sheng amulet made of Baltic amber, Amber artifacts undergo significant deterioration during burial and exhibition, and varying degrees of deterioration and the presence of sedentary attachment may affect the results of infrared spectra of amber, which in turn interferes with the study of tracing the origin of the amber raw material. A preliminary study of amber and ornaments made of various gemstones and glass could reveal that the Hunan Province has influenced by both the Northern Steppe Silk Road and Southern Maritime Silk Road during the Han Dynasty and that in-land trade flows in this region were complex and diverse, and some amber ornaments may have been produced locally by exotic materials. More scientific data and analysis will support the study of ancient trade and cultural exchange during ancient time on a larger scale.

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  • Authors: Sebillaud, Pauline; Lixin 王立新, Wang;

    This report presents data collected during a systematic regional survey conducted between 2012 and 2016, around Yueliang Lake. The survey focused around the Houtaomuga site, located where the Tao’er River enters the Nen River, in Da’an City and Zhenlai District, in northwest Jilin Province, Northeast China. A total area of 284 km² was surveyed, including 4266 collection units covered and 152,245 pottery sherds collected. A total of 73 sites were identified, including 61 newly discovered sites. These data allowed for a comprehensive analysis of the change of the settlement patterns from the Early Neolithic (ca. 10 000 BC) to the Republican Period (early 20th c. AD). This research aims to investigate the growth and development of human communities within the Yueliang region. The project also aims to elucidate how those social changes intersect with the unique trajectory of subsistence strategies found in this region. These results are placed into broad comparison with other similar projects within the region and beyond. This is the first systematic regional survey carried out in Jilin province, and this report is the first archaeological publication on the long-term human occupation in the rich and complex Lower Nen River Valley, located at the cross-roads of Inner Mongolia Daxing’an Mountains, Jilin province’s Song River Plain and southwest Heilongjiang’s lakes.The first chapter introduces the environmental context including the topography, climate, plants, fauna, water drainage, and sediments and provides the most complete synthesis to date on the previous research in the region. This chapter also introduces in detail the research methodology, including field survey, post-survey processing and analysis methods. The field methods used in this project are only a slight variation on the successful collection strategies used by several surveys throughout China and Mongolia and thus can provide data sets that are directly comparable.In the second chapter, the data analysis is presented, and changes in settlement dynamics in the Yueliang region explained. This analysis sheds light on the degree to which the settlements are integrated with one another. The earliest detected human activities coincide with the Early Holocene and are represented by the earliest pottery in Northeast China, belonging to the Houtaomuga phase I culture and the Changtuozi 1 type (10,900-8000 BC). One of the most important results of this survey is the identification of six sites (five previously unknown) with these very early sherds, associated with large quantities of microlithic tools. The activity and impact of the few human groups inhabiting this landscape was very scarce, as the settlement distribution left vast available land resources unexploited, and no regional settlement organization seems to have formed yet.The Period 2 pottery is mostly attributed to the culture of Houtaomuga phases II (8000-4300 BC) and III (4300-3500 BC). The sites are larger and distributed along the shores the lakes and waterways. The degree of integration had strengthened to some extent. The settlements show evidence of a relatively simple economic system, with low levels of competition.The Period 3 sherds are stylistically close to the Houtaomuga phase IV culture (3500-2900 BC). The sites are smaller and less numerous, and the population aggregated at higher elevations, mostly within the Houtaomuga phase IV village.The Early to Middle Bronze Age period corresponds to the Xiaolaha (ca. 2000-1600 BC) and Gucheng (ca. 1300-1000 BC) archaeological cultures. The sites are more numerous and larger, and most are located in the eastern part of the survey area. The larger sites, Hanshu and Houdiwopu, could have had a hierarchical relationship or different functions than the other average-size sites. This distribution could have played a role in controlling the Nen River communication axis.The Late Bronze Age corresponds to the Baijinbao culture (ca. 1000-500 BC). The sites show continuity of spatial occupation with the previous period. Hanshu and Houdiwopu maintained their role as settlement centers, and a clear spatial division between settlements and cemeteries appears during this period.The Early Iron Age coincides with the Hanshu phase II culture. The increased number and size of the sites show a significant increase in the intensity of occupation. This settlement system is organized around multiple centers, and the site hierarchy becomes clearer. The settlement system is integrated and shows a hierarchical social organization, as well as an integrated economic system.Sherds belonging to the period between the 3rd and the 8th c. AD, associated with the local Xianbei or pre-Khitan cultures, are very scarce. The sites are rare and small. This quasi-abandonment of the region might be connected to changes in resources and subsistence model. These small sites may be related to temporary activities, seasonal fishing activities, or indicate frequent travel along the waterways.The sherds of pottery and architectural materials of the Late Middle Age or Liao-Jin period (900-1300 AD) are overwhelmingly present at all the sites. The increase in the number of sites, site size, and sherd density reveal an unprecedented new settlement system. A large number of people may have come to the area to open up forests and drain marshes, bringing in new lifestyles. The development of a myriad of small sites and farmsteads further from the waterfront reflects the intensification of agricultural production and a new use of the hinterland.During the Modern period (1800-1949 AD), the number of sites and their size remains stable. The settlement organization shows a clear continuity with the Liao-Jin period and is also directly related to the current distribution of villages in the area.These results are compared with other surveys previously organized in Northeast China to show how settlement distribution, social structures and subsistence practices differed between the Yueliang region in the lower Nen River Valley and the Liaoxi region.The last chapter presents in details all the information about the 73 sites discovered during this survey, including all the quantitative data, the spatial distribution of the remains from each period and descriptions of the related artefacts.The spatial analysis of the results of this survey sheds new light on the interactions between archaeological cultures, and on the local trajectory of settlement patterns and subsistence strategies from over 10,000 BC to the historical era, and provides data about the current and ancient environment and socio-economic changes in this region and how they differ from other nearby regions. With its innovative structure and abundant colour maps and artefact photographs, this report provides a unique tool to visualize the sites in their landscape, as well as identify and directly compare sherds. The fact that all the periods were taken in account, up to the most recent ones, provides the readers with comparison materials for all-period excavations and surveys in Northeast China. With its extensive methodological explanation and exhaustive appendices, this report can be used in the future as a basis to organize similar projects. This research shows how spatial analysis and settlement pattern analysis, especially when focused on human-scale landscapes such as river valleys, can capture the complexity and diversity of human subsistence systems.

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  • Authors: Ning, Qi; Xiang, Bing;

    Multi-feature fusion data model

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