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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Čatić, Igor; Salopek Weber, D;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Kemija u Industrijiarrow_drop_down
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Kemija u Industrijiarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Cetina, Ivana; Tušek, Dragutin; Ključarić, Valentina;

    Shortly after introduction of commercial automatic chemical detectors, mostly based on ion mobility spectrometry technology, at the end of 20th century field devices using other chemical detection techniques (FTIR, Raman, GC-MS, surface acoustic wave, photoacoustic, electrochemical, biosensor and others) were developed. Among these techniques, portable GC-MS detectors provide very reliable qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis, but high cost of these devices, the complexity of operating with them and the complexity of sample preparation for analysis present a problem. Some chemical detection technologies cannot be used for the development of a reliable hand-held chemical detector, and not a single technique, for the time being, allows the development of a universal chemical detector. A potential solution is the development of a multi-sensor device that compensates negative sides of each of the sensors. This paper provides an overview of commercially available chemical detectors based on new generation detection technologies and an overview of scientific research focused on further development of detection with simpler, more reliable and preferably cheaper solutions is given. Ubrzo nakon uvođenja komercijalnih automatskih detektora bojnih otrova, većinom temeljenih na spektrometriji ionske pokretljivosti, krajem 20. stoljeća razvijaju se terenski uređaji koji primjenjuju i druge tehnike kemijske detekcije (FTIR, Raman, GC-MS, površinski akustični val, fotoakustične, elektrokemijske, biosenzorske i ostale). Od navedenih tehnika, prijenosni GC-MS detektori omogućuju vrlo pouzdanu kvalitativnu i kvantitativnu kemijsku analizu, no problem predstavljaju visoka cijena tih uređaja, zahtjevnost u rukovanju s njima te kompleksna priprema uzoraka. Neke tehnike kemijske detekcije nisu primjenjive za razvoj pouzdanog ručnog kemijskog detektora, a niti jedna tehnika, zasad, ne omogućuje razvoj univerzalnog kemijskog detektora. Potencijalno rješenje je razvoj višestrukog senzorskog uređaja koji bi kompenzirao negativne strane svakog od senzora. U ovom radu dan je pregled komercijalno dostupnih kemijskih detektora temeljenih na novim generacijama tehnika detekcije te pregled znanstvenih istraživanja usmjerenih na daljnji razvoj detekcije bojnih otrova s jednostavnijim, pouzdanijim i poželjno jeftinijim rješenjima.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Scientific ...arrow_drop_down
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Croatian Scientific ...arrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Štrkalj, Anita; Mesek, Luka; Ocelić Bulatović, Vesna; Glavaš, Zoran;

    Metalurški otpad ima velik potencijal za uporabu kao adsorbens za uklanjanje teških metala iz otpadnih voda, ističući se kao mogući jeftini adsorbens. U ovom članku prikazano je adsorpcijsko ponašanje Zn(II) iona na dva kruta metalna otpadna materijala – otpadnoj kalupnoj mješavini (OKM) i otpadnoj anodnoj prašini (AP). Dobiveni rezultati pokazali su da se oba otpadna materijala mogu upotrebljavati kao potencijalni adsorbensi. Anodna prašina ima bolja adsorpcijska svojstva. Ravnotežni podatci za adsorpciju Zn(II) na otpadnim metalurškim materijalima ispitani su Freundlichovim i Langmuirovim izotermnim modelima. Utvrđeno je da je Langmuirov model prikladniji te da se adsorpcija odvija kao kemisorpcija. Metallurgical waste has great potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater, standing out as possible low-cost adsorbents. This article presents the adsorption behaviour of Zn(II) ions on two solid metal waste materials – waste mould sand (WMS) and anode dust (AD). The obtained results showed that both waste materials could be used as potential adsorbents. Anode dust has better adsorption properties. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Zn(II) on waste metallurgical materials were examined by Langmuir and Freundlich’s adsorption isotherm models. It was found that the Langmuir model is more appropriate, and that adsorption takes place as chemisorption.

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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Sokol, Ivana;
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    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Kemija u Industrijiarrow_drop_down
      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Valpovac, Monika;
    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Kemija u Industrijiarrow_drop_down
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      image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Pazalja, Mirha; Salihović, Mirsada; Smajović, Alisa;

    Ash is a by-product of wood biomass combustion that must be removed daily from stoves or fireplaces. Therefore, operators or owners are exposed to the potential impact of ash. The goal of this study was to determine whether heavy metal present in wood pellet ash posed a health concern to stove operators/owners. The risk assessment procedure was carried out in several steps, including exposure evaluation, toxicity evaluation, and risk categorisation. The hazard coefficient (HQ) and non-carcinogenic hazard index (HI) were calculated for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. HQ had the highest value for the ingestion pathway (3.62 ∙ 10–6), and the value for non-carcinogenic HI was 3.70 ∙ 10–6. The value HI < 1 suggests that there is no risk to operator health related to heavy metals in analysed wood pellets ash. The carcinogenic risk (CR) was calculated for Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd, and the values were within the permitted limits. The risk assessment based on HI and CR indicators proved that there was no significant health concern regarding exposure to the analysed ashes. Pepeo je nusproizvod izgaranja drvne biomase koji se svakodnevno mora uklanjati iz peći ili kamina. Stoga su operateri ili vlasnici izloženi potencijalnom utjecaju pepela. Ovo istraživanje ima cilj procijeniti zdravstveni rizik izloženosti operatera/vlasnika pepelu drvenih peleta zbog sadržaja teških metala. Postupak procjene rizika proveden je u nekoliko koraka uključujući procjenu izloženosti, procjenu toksičnosti i kategorizaciju rizika. Izračunati su koeficijent opasnosti (HQ) i indeks nekarcinogene opasnosti (HI) za Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb i Zn. HQ je imao najveću vrijednost za izloženost putem gutanja (3.62 ∙ 10–6), a vrijednost za nekarcinogeni HI bila je 3.70 ∙ 10–6. Vrijednost HI < 1 ukazuje na to da sadržaj teških metala u analiziranom pepelu ne predstavlja rizik za zdravlje operatera. Karcinogeni rizik (CR) izračunat je za Ni, Pb, Cr i Cd, a vrijednosti su bile unutar dopuštenih granica. Rizik procijenjen primjenom HI i CR pokazatelja potvrdio je da ne postoji značajna opasnost za zdravlje osoba koje dolaze u kontakt s analiziranim pepelom.

    image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/ Kemija u Industrijiarrow_drop_down
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    Authors: Papraćanin, Edisa;

    Aerobic bioconversion is very interesting process for the mathematical modelling and optimisation from the aspect of improving and accelerating the process, which is reflected in a higher organic matter decomposition rate. The aim of this research was to estimate the kinetic parameters in a dynamic model that described aerobic biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with various additions, from an engineering aspect. The presented mathematical model based on heat and mass transfer phenomena is a dynamic model for the gas-liquid-solid system. For the optimization and process simulation, three experiments were performed in three geometrically identical reactor systems at the same time, with different initial composition of composting mixtures. Data obtained experimentally from one reactor were used to optimize kinetic parameters of the model, and data from the other two reactors were used to verify and evaluate the dynamic model. Detailed statistical analysis showed narrow values of 95 % confidence interval for estimated parameters, indicating the appropriate accuracy of parameter estimation. Better data agreement was achieved in the reactor with a smaller ratio of OFMSW and additives, and the most accurately predicted dynamic state variable was the mass of organic matter. Parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the most sensitive parameters were reaction order n and activation energy E. Overall, the application of this model with optimised kinetic parameters of the aerobic biodegradation process represents a tool to predict the most important process variables (SD = 0.3378). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Postupak aerobne biorazgradnje zanimljiv je za numerička istraživanja da bi se postigla bolja učinkovitost postupka, što se odražava u većoj brzini razgradnje organske tvari. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je procijeniti kinetičke parametre u dinamičkom modelu koji opisuje proces aerobne biorazgradnje organske frakcije komunalnog krutog otpada s različitim dodatcima s inženjerskog aspekta. Predstavljeni matematički model zasnovan na pojavama prijenosa topline i mase dinamički je model sustava plin–tekućina–krutina. U svrhu optimizacije i simulacije postupka izveden je jedan pokus u tri reaktorska sustava sa smjesama različitog početnog sastava. Eksperimentalni podatci dobiveni iz jednog reaktora upotrijebljeni su za procjenu kinetičkih parametara modela, a podatci iz preostala dva reaktora upotrijebljeni su za provjeru i procjenu dinamičkog modela koji izvodi simulaciju. Detaljna statistička analiza pokazala je uske vrijednosti 95 %-tnog intervala pouzdanosti, što ukazuje na odgovarajuću točnost procjene parametara. Bolje slaganje podataka postignuto je u reaktoru s manjim udjelom dodataka, a najpreciznije predviđena varijabla je konverzija organske tvari. Analiza osjetljivosti parametara pokazala je da su najosjetljiviji red reakcije n i energija aktivacije E. Sveukupno, primjena ovog modela s procijenjenim kinetičkim parametrima u aerobnom procesu biorazgradnje pruža alat za predviđanje najvažnijih procesnih varijabli (SD = 0,3378). Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

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    Authors: Ayadi, Khadidja; Meziane, Malika; Rouam, Djawed; Bouziane, Mohammed Noureddine; +1 Authors

    Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of a local traditional olive mill wastewater, at Ennakhla-Chlef in northern Algeria, were evaluated. The olive mill wastewater samples had slight acidity of 0.65 % with a pH = 4.88, and electrical conductivity of 34 mS cm–1. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand (BOD5) reached up to 183 g l–1 and 7 g l–1, respectively. In addition, the samples showed 1.72 g l–1 of total phenolic compounds. Preliminary microbiological analysis of the wastewater showed the presence of various microorganisms represented especially by lactic acid bacteria and Enterococcus sp. to the aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using yeast strains isolated from olive mill wastewater in the fermentation of the latter. The results shown that fermentation with yeast can produce ethanol at an extent of 1.4 % (v/v). This can constitute a strategy for treating mentioned wastewater and transforming it into valuable biomolecules. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. U ovom radu analizirane su fizikalno-kemijske i mikrobiološke karakteristike otpadnih voda tradicionalnih postrojenja za preradu maslinova ulja u Ennakhla-Chlefu u sjevernom Alžiru. Uzorci otpadne vode imali su slabu kiselost od 0.65 % uz pH = 4,88 i električnu provodnost od 34 mS cm–1. Vrijednosti kemijske i biološke (BPK5) potrošnje kisika kretale su se do 183 odnosno 7 g l–1. Nadalje, uzorci su sadržavali 1,72 g l–1 ukupnih fenola. Preliminarna mikrobiološka analiza ukazala je na prisutnost raznih mikroorganizama, osobito bakterija mliječne kiseline i Enterococcus sp. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

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    Authors: Kovačević, Krunoslav;
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  • image/svg+xml art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos Open Access logo, converted into svg, designed by PLoS. This version with transparent background. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Open_Access_logo_PLoS_white.svg art designer at PLoS, modified by Wikipedia users Nina, Beao, JakobVoss, and AnonMoos http://www.plos.org/
    Authors: Čatić, Igor; Salopek Weber, D;
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    Authors: Cetina, Ivana; Tušek, Dragutin; Ključarić, Valentina;

    Shortly after introduction of commercial automatic chemical detectors, mostly based on ion mobility spectrometry technology, at the end of 20th century field devices using other chemical detection techniques (FTIR, Raman, GC-MS, surface acoustic wave, photoacoustic, electrochemical, biosensor and others) were developed. Among these techniques, portable GC-MS detectors provide very reliable qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis, but high cost of these devices, the complexity of operating with them and the complexity of sample preparation for analysis present a problem. Some chemical detection technologies cannot be used for the development of a reliable hand-held chemical detector, and not a single technique, for the time being, allows the development of a universal chemical detector. A potential solution is the development of a multi-sensor device that compensates negative sides of each of the sensors. This paper provides an overview of commercially available chemical detectors based on new generation detection technologies and an overview of scientific research focused on further development of detection with simpler, more reliable and preferably cheaper solutions is given. Ubrzo nakon uvođenja komercijalnih automatskih detektora bojnih otrova, većinom temeljenih na spektrometriji ionske pokretljivosti, krajem 20. stoljeća razvijaju se terenski uređaji koji primjenjuju i druge tehnike kemijske detekcije (FTIR, Raman, GC-MS, površinski akustični val, fotoakustične, elektrokemijske, biosenzorske i ostale). Od navedenih tehnika, prijenosni GC-MS detektori omogućuju vrlo pouzdanu kvalitativnu i kvantitativnu kemijsku analizu, no problem predstavljaju visoka cijena tih uređaja, zahtjevnost u rukovanju s njima te kompleksna priprema uzoraka. Neke tehnike kemijske detekcije nisu primjenjive za razvoj pouzdanog ručnog kemijskog detektora, a niti jedna tehnika, zasad, ne omogućuje razvoj univerzalnog kemijskog detektora. Potencijalno rješenje je razvoj višestrukog senzorskog uređaja koji bi kompenzirao negativne strane svakog od senzora. U ovom radu dan je pregled komercijalno dostupnih kemijskih detektora temeljenih na novim generacijama tehnika detekcije te pregled znanstvenih istraživanja usmjerenih na daljnji razvoj detekcije bojnih otrova s jednostavnijim, pouzdanijim i poželjno jeftinijim rješenjima.

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    Authors: Štrkalj, Anita; Mesek, Luka; Ocelić Bulatović, Vesna; Glavaš, Zoran;

    Metalurški otpad ima velik potencijal za uporabu kao adsorbens za uklanjanje teških metala iz otpadnih voda, ističući se kao mogući jeftini adsorbens. U ovom članku prikazano je adsorpcijsko ponašanje Zn(II) iona na dva kruta metalna otpadna materijala – otpadnoj kalupnoj mješavini (OKM) i otpadnoj anodnoj prašini (AP). Dobiveni rezultati pokazali su da se oba otpadna materijala mogu upotrebljavati kao potencijalni adsorbensi. Anodna prašina ima bolja adsorpcijska svojstva. Ravnotežni podatci za adsorpciju Zn(II) na otpadnim metalurškim materijalima ispitani su Freundlichovim i Langmuirovim izotermnim modelima. Utvrđeno je da je Langmuirov model prikladniji te da se adsorpcija odvija kao kemisorpcija. Metallurgical waste has great potential for use as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater, standing out as possible low-cost adsorbents. This article presents the adsorption behaviour of Zn(II) ions on two solid metal waste materials – waste mould sand (WMS) and anode dust (AD). The obtained results showed that both waste materials could be used as potential adsorbents. Anode dust has better adsorption properties. The equilibrium data for the adsorption of Zn(II) on waste metallurgical materials were examined by Langmuir and Freundlich’s adsorption isotherm models. It was found that the Langmuir model is more appropriate, and that adsorption takes place as chemisorption.

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    Authors: Sokol, Ivana;
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    Authors: Valpovac, Monika;
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    Authors: Pazalja, Mirha; Salihović, Mirsada; Smajović, Alisa;

    Ash is a by-product of wood biomass combustion that must be removed daily from stoves or fireplaces. Therefore, operators or owners are exposed to the potential impact of ash. The goal of this study was to determine whether heavy metal present in wood pellet ash posed a health concern to stove operators/owners. The risk assessment procedure was carried out in several steps, including exposure evaluation, toxicity evaluation, and risk categorisation. The hazard coefficient (HQ) and non-carcinogenic hazard index (HI) were calculated for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. HQ had the highest value for the ingestion pathway (3.62 ∙ 10–6), and the value for non-carcinogenic HI was 3.70 ∙ 10–6. The value HI < 1 suggests that there is no risk to operator health related to heavy metals in analysed wood pellets ash. The carcinogenic risk (CR) was calculated for Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd, and the values were within the permitted limits. The risk assessment based on HI and CR indicators proved that there was no significant health concern regarding exposure to the analysed ashes. Pepeo je nusproizvod izgaranja drvne biomase koji se svakodnevno mora uklanjati iz peći ili kamina. Stoga su operateri ili vlasnici izloženi potencijalnom utjecaju pepela. Ovo istraživanje ima cilj procijeniti zdravstveni rizik izloženosti operatera/vlasnika pepelu drvenih peleta zbog sadržaja teških metala. Postupak procjene rizika proveden je u nekoliko koraka uključujući procjenu izloženosti, procjenu toksičnosti i kategorizaciju rizika. Izračunati su koeficijent opasnosti (HQ) i indeks nekarcinogene opasnosti (HI) za Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb i Zn. HQ je imao najveću vrijednost za izloženost putem gutanja (3.62 ∙ 10–6), a vrijednost za nekarcinogeni HI bila je 3.70 ∙ 10–6. Vrijednost HI < 1 ukazuje na to da sadržaj teških metala u analiziranom pepelu ne predstavlja rizik za zdravlje operatera. Karcinogeni rizik (CR) izračunat je za Ni, Pb, Cr i Cd, a vrijednosti su bile unutar dopuštenih granica. Rizik procijenjen primjenom HI i CR pokazatelja potvrdio je da ne postoji značajna opasnost za zdravlje osoba koje dolaze u kontakt s analiziranim pepelom.

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    Authors: Papraćanin, Edisa;

    Aerobic bioconversion is very interesting process for the mathematical modelling and optimisation from the aspect of improving and accelerating the process, which is reflected in a higher organic matter decomposition rate. The aim of this research was to estimate the kinetic parameters in a dynamic model that described aerobic biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with various additions, from an engineering aspect. The presented mathematical model based on heat and mass transfer phenomena is a dynamic model for the gas-liquid-solid system. For the optimization and process simulation, three experiments were performed in three geometrically identical reactor systems at the same time, with different initial composition of composting mixtures. Data obtained experimentally from one reactor were used to optimize kinetic parameters of the model, and data from the other two reactors were used to verify and evaluate the dynamic model. Detailed statistical analysis showed narrow values of 95 % confidence interval for estimated parameters, indicating the appropriate accuracy of parameter estimation. Better data agreement was achieved in the reactor with a smaller ratio of OFMSW and additives, and the most accurately predicted dynamic state variable was the mass of organic matter. Parameter sensitivity analysis showed that the most sensitive parameters were reaction order n and activation energy E. Overall, the application of this model with optimised kinetic parameters of the aerobic biodegradation process represents a tool to predict the most important process variables (SD = 0.3378). This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Postupak aerobne biorazgradnje zanimljiv je za numerička istraživanja da bi se postigla bolja učinkovitost postupka, što se odražava u većoj brzini razgradnje organske tvari. Cilj ovog istraživanja bio je procijeniti kinetičke parametre u dinamičkom modelu koji opisuje proces aerobne biorazgradnje organske frakcije komunalnog krutog otpada s različitim dodatcima s inženjerskog aspekta. Predstavljeni matematički model zasnovan na pojavama prijenosa topline i mase dinamički je model sustava plin–tekućina–krutina. U svrhu optimizacije i simulacije postupka izveden je jedan pokus u tri reaktorska sustava sa smjesama različitog početnog sastava. Eksperimentalni podatci dobiveni iz jednog reaktora upotrijebljeni su za procjenu kinetičkih parametara modela, a podatci iz preostala dva reaktora upotrijebljeni su za provjeru i procjenu dinamičkog modela koji izvodi simulaciju. Detaljna statistička analiza pokazala je uske vrijednosti 95 %-tnog intervala pouzdanosti, što ukazuje na odgovarajuću točnost procjene parametara. Bolje slaganje podataka postignuto je u reaktoru s manjim udjelom dodataka, a najpreciznije predviđena varijabla je konverzija organske tvari. Analiza osjetljivosti parametara pokazala je da su najosjetljiviji red reakcije n i energija aktivacije E. Sveukupno, primjena ovog modela s procijenjenim kinetičkim parametrima u aerobnom procesu biorazgradnje pruža alat za predviđanje najvažnijih procesnih varijabli (SD = 0,3378). Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

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    Authors: Ayadi, Khadidja; Meziane, Malika; Rouam, Djawed; Bouziane, Mohammed Noureddine; +1 Authors

    Physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of a local traditional olive mill wastewater, at Ennakhla-Chlef in northern Algeria, were evaluated. The olive mill wastewater samples had slight acidity of 0.65 % with a pH = 4.88, and electrical conductivity of 34 mS cm–1. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the biological oxygen demand (BOD5) reached up to 183 g l–1 and 7 g l–1, respectively. In addition, the samples showed 1.72 g l–1 of total phenolic compounds. Preliminary microbiological analysis of the wastewater showed the presence of various microorganisms represented especially by lactic acid bacteria and Enterococcus sp. to the aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of using yeast strains isolated from olive mill wastewater in the fermentation of the latter. The results shown that fermentation with yeast can produce ethanol at an extent of 1.4 % (v/v). This can constitute a strategy for treating mentioned wastewater and transforming it into valuable biomolecules. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. U ovom radu analizirane su fizikalno-kemijske i mikrobiološke karakteristike otpadnih voda tradicionalnih postrojenja za preradu maslinova ulja u Ennakhla-Chlefu u sjevernom Alžiru. Uzorci otpadne vode imali su slabu kiselost od 0.65 % uz pH = 4,88 i električnu provodnost od 34 mS cm–1. Vrijednosti kemijske i biološke (BPK5) potrošnje kisika kretale su se do 183 odnosno 7 g l–1. Nadalje, uzorci su sadržavali 1,72 g l–1 ukupnih fenola. Preliminarna mikrobiološka analiza ukazala je na prisutnost raznih mikroorganizama, osobito bakterija mliječne kiseline i Enterococcus sp. Ovo djelo je dano na korištenje pod licencom Creative Commons Imenovanje 4.0 međunarodna.

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    Authors: Kovačević, Krunoslav;
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