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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Terrier; Mustapha Si-Tahar; Mariette Ducatez; Christophe Chevalier; Andrés Pizzorno; Ronan Le Goffic; Thibaut Crépin; Gaëlle Simon; Nadia Naffakh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Sencio; Arnaud Machelart; Cyril Robil; Nicolas Benech; Eik Hoffmann; Chloé Galbert; Lucie Deryuter; Séverine Heumel; Aline Hantute-Ghesquier; Anne Flourens; +14 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19. Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Hibou, Béatrice; Bono, Irène;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and universalised a series of problems related to the construction of knowledge about political societies that were previously only felt by researchers conducting ‘difficult’ fieldwork. The range of fields designated as ‘difficult’ has spread, so as the number of social scientists that are required to comply with specific protocols regarding how to ‘protect’ themselves, ‘prevent risks’, and ‘avoid danger’. The division of the world’s areas into red, orange, yellow, and green zones has become familiar to social scientists since societal instability, war, terrorism and natural disasters that the Global North had previously associated with distant and exotic countries — the alleged ‘risk countries’ — has become a global norm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Denys Dukhovnov; Magali Barbieri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Preliminary studies have suggested a link between socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. Such studies have been carried out on particular geographies within the USA or selective data that do not represent the complete experience for 2020. Methods We estimated COVID-19 mortality rates, number of years of life lost to SARS-CoV-2 and reduction in life expectancy during each of the three pandemic waves in 2020 for 3144 US counties grouped into five socio-economic status categories, using daily death data from the Johns Hopkins University of Medicine and weekly mortality age structure from the Centers for Disease Control. Results During March–May 2020, COVID-19 mortality was highest in the most socio-economically advantaged quintile of counties and lowest in the two most-disadvantaged quintiles. The pattern reversed during June–August and widened by September–December, such that COVID-19 mortality rates were 2.58 times higher in the bottom than in the top quintile of counties. Differences in the number of years of life lost followed a similar pattern, ultimately resulting in 1.002 (1.000, 1.004) million years in the middle quintile to 1.381 (1.378, 1.384) million years of life lost in the first (most-disadvantaged) quintile during the whole year. Conclusions Diverging trajectories of COVID-19 mortality among the poor and affluent counties indicated a progressively higher rate of loss of life among socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Accounting for socio-economic disparities when allocating resources to control the spread of the infection and to reinforce local public health infrastructure would reduce inequities in the mortality burden of the disease.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mathiot, Jean-François; Gerbaud, Laurent; Breton, Vincent;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Abstract We develop a site-bond percolation model, called PERCOVID , in order to describe the time evolution of all epidemics propagating through respiratory tract or by skin contacts in human populations. This model is based on a network of social relationships representing interconnected households experiencing governmental non-pharmaceutical interventions. As a very first testing ground, we apply our model to the understanding of the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in France from December 2019 up to December 2021. Our model shows the impact of lockdowns and curfews, as well as the influence of the progressive vaccination campaign in order to keep COVID-19 pandemic under the percolation threshold. We illustrate the role played by social interactions by comparing two typical scenarios with low or high strengths of social relationships as compared to France during the first wave in March 2020. We investigate finally the role played by the α and δ variants in the evolution of the epidemic in France till autumn 2021, paying particular attention to the essential role played by the vaccination. Our model predicts that the rise of the epidemic observed in July and August 2021 would not result in a new major epidemic wave in France.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Brice Gouvernet; Thierry Plaie; Mireille Bonierbale;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; We investigate sexual behaviours as a means of coping with negative emotions during the first covid19-related lockdown in France. We hypothesize that sexual behaviours have been used by the most psychologically fragile individuals to cope with the constraints, pressures, and threats associated with the health situation. We are interested in the overall use of sexual behaviours for coping purposes. We also distinguish dual relationships (with partners) from masturbatory behaviours. 2234 participants (mean age: 31.4yo, Female: 68.3%) participated to an on-line non-interventional survey during the first French covid-related lockdown. We assessed frequency of sexual behaviours in order to cope with stress, depression and anxiety. Main results show an increase in the use of sexuality as way of coping with negative emotions for 17.1% of the subjects (n = 382). Masturbatory behaviours were the most impacted (+12%, n = 269). Women differed from men both in the overall use of sexual behaviours as a coping strategy and in the more specific use of partnered sex. In line with our hypotheses, increasing use of sexual behaviours as a coping strategy during lockdown is more important when subjects present psychological vulnerabilities, such as anxiety symptoms or depressive symptoms.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arnault Pachot; Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi; Benjamin Albouy-Kissi; Frédéric Chausse;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The disruption of supplies during the Covid-19 crisis has led to shortages but has also shown the adaptability of some companies, which have succeeded in adapting their production chains quickly to produce goods experiencing shortages: hydroalcoholic gel, masks, and medical gowns. These productive jumps from product A to product B are feasible because of the know-how proximity between the two classes of products. The proximities were computed from the analysis of co-exports and resulted in the construction of the product space. Based on the product space, as well as the customer-supplier relationships resulting from the input-output matrices, we propose a recommender system for companies. The goal is to promote distributed manufacturing by recommending a list of local suppliers to each company. As there is not always a local supplier for a desired product class, we consider the proximity between products to identify, in the absence of a supplier, a substitute supplier able to adapt its production tools to provide the required product. Our experiments are based on French data, from which we build a graph of synergies illustrating the potential productive links between companies. Finally, we show that our approach offers new perspectives to determine the level of territories' industrial resilience considering potential productive jumps.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
3,777 Research products, page 1 of 378
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Terrier; Mustapha Si-Tahar; Mariette Ducatez; Christophe Chevalier; Andrés Pizzorno; Ronan Le Goffic; Thibaut Crépin; Gaëlle Simon; Nadia Naffakh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Sencio; Arnaud Machelart; Cyril Robil; Nicolas Benech; Eik Hoffmann; Chloé Galbert; Lucie Deryuter; Séverine Heumel; Aline Hantute-Ghesquier; Anne Flourens; +14 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19. Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Hibou, Béatrice; Bono, Irène;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and universalised a series of problems related to the construction of knowledge about political societies that were previously only felt by researchers conducting ‘difficult’ fieldwork. The range of fields designated as ‘difficult’ has spread, so as the number of social scientists that are required to comply with specific protocols regarding how to ‘protect’ themselves, ‘prevent risks’, and ‘avoid danger’. The division of the world’s areas into red, orange, yellow, and green zones has become familiar to social scientists since societal instability, war, terrorism and natural disasters that the Global North had previously associated with distant and exotic countries — the alleged ‘risk countries’ — has become a global norm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Denys Dukhovnov; Magali Barbieri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Preliminary studies have suggested a link between socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. Such studies have been carried out on particular geographies within the USA or selective data that do not represent the complete experience for 2020. Methods We estimated COVID-19 mortality rates, number of years of life lost to SARS-CoV-2 and reduction in life expectancy during each of the three pandemic waves in 2020 for 3144 US counties grouped into five socio-economic status categories, using daily death data from the Johns Hopkins University of Medicine and weekly mortality age structure from the Centers for Disease Control. Results During March–May 2020, COVID-19 mortality was highest in the most socio-economically advantaged quintile of counties and lowest in the two most-disadvantaged quintiles. The pattern reversed during June–August and widened by September–December, such that COVID-19 mortality rates were 2.58 times higher in the bottom than in the top quintile of counties. Differences in the number of years of life lost followed a similar pattern, ultimately resulting in 1.002 (1.000, 1.004) million years in the middle quintile to 1.381 (1.378, 1.384) million years of life lost in the first (most-disadvantaged) quintile during the whole year. Conclusions Diverging trajectories of COVID-19 mortality among the poor and affluent counties indicated a progressively higher rate of loss of life among socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Accounting for socio-economic disparities when allocating resources to control the spread of the infection and to reinforce local public health infrastructure would reduce inequities in the mortality burden of the disease.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mathiot, Jean-François; Gerbaud, Laurent; Breton, Vincent;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Abstract We develop a site-bond percolation model, called PERCOVID , in order to describe the time evolution of all epidemics propagating through respiratory tract or by skin contacts in human populations. This model is based on a network of social relationships representing interconnected households experiencing governmental non-pharmaceutical interventions. As a very first testing ground, we apply our model to the understanding of the dynamics of the COVID-19 pandemic in France from December 2019 up to December 2021. Our model shows the impact of lockdowns and curfews, as well as the influence of the progressive vaccination campaign in order to keep COVID-19 pandemic under the percolation threshold. We illustrate the role played by social interactions by comparing two typical scenarios with low or high strengths of social relationships as compared to France during the first wave in March 2020. We investigate finally the role played by the α and δ variants in the evolution of the epidemic in France till autumn 2021, paying particular attention to the essential role played by the vaccination. Our model predicts that the rise of the epidemic observed in July and August 2021 would not result in a new major epidemic wave in France.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Brice Gouvernet; Thierry Plaie; Mireille Bonierbale;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; We investigate sexual behaviours as a means of coping with negative emotions during the first covid19-related lockdown in France. We hypothesize that sexual behaviours have been used by the most psychologically fragile individuals to cope with the constraints, pressures, and threats associated with the health situation. We are interested in the overall use of sexual behaviours for coping purposes. We also distinguish dual relationships (with partners) from masturbatory behaviours. 2234 participants (mean age: 31.4yo, Female: 68.3%) participated to an on-line non-interventional survey during the first French covid-related lockdown. We assessed frequency of sexual behaviours in order to cope with stress, depression and anxiety. Main results show an increase in the use of sexuality as way of coping with negative emotions for 17.1% of the subjects (n = 382). Masturbatory behaviours were the most impacted (+12%, n = 269). Women differed from men both in the overall use of sexual behaviours as a coping strategy and in the more specific use of partnered sex. In line with our hypotheses, increasing use of sexual behaviours as a coping strategy during lockdown is more important when subjects present psychological vulnerabilities, such as anxiety symptoms or depressive symptoms.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . Other literature type . Conference object . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Arnault Pachot; Adélaïde Albouy-Kissi; Benjamin Albouy-Kissi; Frédéric Chausse;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The disruption of supplies during the Covid-19 crisis has led to shortages but has also shown the adaptability of some companies, which have succeeded in adapting their production chains quickly to produce goods experiencing shortages: hydroalcoholic gel, masks, and medical gowns. These productive jumps from product A to product B are feasible because of the know-how proximity between the two classes of products. The proximities were computed from the analysis of co-exports and resulted in the construction of the product space. Based on the product space, as well as the customer-supplier relationships resulting from the input-output matrices, we propose a recommender system for companies. The goal is to promote distributed manufacturing by recommending a list of local suppliers to each company. As there is not always a local supplier for a desired product class, we consider the proximity between products to identify, in the absence of a supplier, a substitute supplier able to adapt its production tools to provide the required product. Our experiments are based on French data, from which we build a graph of synergies illustrating the potential productive links between companies. Finally, we show that our approach offers new perspectives to determine the level of territories' industrial resilience considering potential productive jumps.

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