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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kathleen McColl; Marion Debin; Cecile Souty; Caroline Guerrisi; Clement Turbelin; Alessandra Falchi; Isabelle Bonmarin; Daniela Paolotti; Chinelo Obi; Jim Duggan; +6 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Spain, France

    International audience; Unrealistic optimism, the underestimation of one’s risk of experiencing harm, has been investigated extensively to understand better and predict behavioural responses to health threats. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a relative dearth of research existed in this domain regarding epidemics, which is surprising considering that this optimistic bias has been associated with a lack of engagement in protective behaviours critical in fighting twenty-first-century, emergent, infectious diseases. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating whether people demonstrated optimism bias during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, how this changed over time, and whether unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with protective measures. Taking advantage of a pre-existing international participative influenza surveillance network (n = 12,378), absolute and comparative unrealistic optimism were measured at three epidemic stages (pre-, early, peak), and across four countries—France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Despite differences in culture and health response, similar patterns were observed across all four countries. The prevalence of unrealistic optimism appears to be influenced by the particular epidemic context. Paradoxically, whereas absolute unrealistic optimism decreased over time, comparative unrealistic optimism increased, suggesting that whilst people became increasingly accurate in assessing their personal risk, they nonetheless overestimated that for others. Comparative unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with the adoption of protective behaviours, which is worrying, given that these preventive measures are critical in tackling the spread and health burden of COVID-19. It is hoped these findings will inspire further research into sociocognitive mechanisms involved in risk appraisal.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Terrier; Mustapha Si-Tahar; Mariette Ducatez; Christophe Chevalier; Andrés Pizzorno; Ronan Le Goffic; Thibaut Crépin; Gaëlle Simon; Nadia Naffakh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    John Lola Okunola; Sunday Olutayo Fakunle;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    International audience; The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 and its impacts have become an academic concern. The concern has generated a plethora of studies and reports that have identified a number of negative impacts of COVID-19 on household socioeconomic lives in Nigeria. Therefore, Nigerian governments at different levels in conjunction with several international organisations have tried to deal with these impacts; however, the expected result is far below the reality. Advocacy of adopting bottom-top approaches to solving various community problems and the grand relevance of Community-Based Organisations (CBOs), as a form of community participation, prompted this study. The specific objective of the study was to investigate the roles of CBOs in complementing the governments' efforts to alleviate the negative impacts on household socioeconomic lives. The location of the study was Ife-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria where there existed a number of various CBOs as in other part of the country. The study was cross-sectional and exploratory in nature while a qualitative method, in-depth face-to-face interview, was employed to collect the primary data for this study. The study covered all the 10 electoral wards that exist in the study location. Via purposive sampling method, 5 CBOs were selected in each of the 10 wards, making a total size of 50 CBOs. To obtain the primary data, 2 CBO leaders (a man and a woman) and 4 CBO members (2 men and 2 women) among the 5 selected CBOs in each of the wards were purposively selected, making a total sample size of 60 from all the electoral wards for the in-depths face-to-face interview. Both thematic and contents analyses were utilized to analyze the collected data. The study found that the CBOs rendered economic support in forms of pooling resources together for fund provision, purchasing goods in large quantities at lower prices, creating platforms to attract loans, assistance and to invite experts for empowerment programmes for their members. The study further found that the CBO members benefited social support in form of provision of platforms to share their experiences, to boost members' morale to avert psychological challenges that tended to generate committing suicide and to invite medical experts on sensitization programmes about COVID-19 and its effects. As this study solely focused on ways that several aspects of households' socioeconomic lives were shielded from the negative impacts of the pandemic through community participation via various CBOs, this study solicited future studies that shall focus mainly on the challenges that the CBOs encounter in realizing this goal and the means of coping with the highlighted challenges.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Sencio; Arnaud Machelart; Cyril Robil; Nicolas Benech; Eik Hoffmann; Chloé Galbert; Lucie Deryuter; Séverine Heumel; Aline Hantute-Ghesquier; Anne Flourens; +14 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19. Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Merikanto, Ilona; Dauvilliers, Yves; Chung, Frances; Holzinger, Brigitte; De Gennaro, Luigi; Wing, Yun Kwok; Korman, Maria; Partinen, Markku; 2nd ICOSS members,; Yordanova, Juliana; +1 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: AKA | Development and consequen... (322312)

    International audience; This protocol paper describes the second survey produced by the International Covid Sleep Study (ICOSS) group with the aim to examine the associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and sleep, sleepiness, and circadian problems as potential predisposing factors for more severe COVID-19 disease profile and for development of Long-COVID in the general population. The survey consists of 47 questions on sleep, daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythm, health, mental wellbeing, life habits, and socioeconomic situation before and during the pandemic, and conditional questions to those reporting having had coronavirus infection, being vaccinated, or suffering from particular sleep symptoms or sleep disorders. Surveys will be administered online between May and November 2021 in Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and USA. Data collected by the survey will give valuable information on the open questions regarding COVID-19 disease risk factors, symptomatology and evolution of Long-COVID, and on other long-term consequences related to the pandemic.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Hibou, Béatrice; Bono, Irène;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and universalised a series of problems related to the construction of knowledge about political societies that were previously only felt by researchers conducting ‘difficult’ fieldwork. The range of fields designated as ‘difficult’ has spread, so as the number of social scientists that are required to comply with specific protocols regarding how to ‘protect’ themselves, ‘prevent risks’, and ‘avoid danger’. The division of the world’s areas into red, orange, yellow, and green zones has become familiar to social scientists since societal instability, war, terrorism and natural disasters that the Global North had previously associated with distant and exotic countries — the alleged ‘risk countries’ — has become a global norm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Denys Dukhovnov; Magali Barbieri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Preliminary studies have suggested a link between socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. Such studies have been carried out on particular geographies within the USA or selective data that do not represent the complete experience for 2020. Methods We estimated COVID-19 mortality rates, number of years of life lost to SARS-CoV-2 and reduction in life expectancy during each of the three pandemic waves in 2020 for 3144 US counties grouped into five socio-economic status categories, using daily death data from the Johns Hopkins University of Medicine and weekly mortality age structure from the Centers for Disease Control. Results During March–May 2020, COVID-19 mortality was highest in the most socio-economically advantaged quintile of counties and lowest in the two most-disadvantaged quintiles. The pattern reversed during June–August and widened by September–December, such that COVID-19 mortality rates were 2.58 times higher in the bottom than in the top quintile of counties. Differences in the number of years of life lost followed a similar pattern, ultimately resulting in 1.002 (1.000, 1.004) million years in the middle quintile to 1.381 (1.378, 1.384) million years of life lost in the first (most-disadvantaged) quintile during the whole year. Conclusions Diverging trajectories of COVID-19 mortality among the poor and affluent counties indicated a progressively higher rate of loss of life among socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Accounting for socio-economic disparities when allocating resources to control the spread of the infection and to reinforce local public health infrastructure would reduce inequities in the mortality burden of the disease.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
4,398 Research products, page 1 of 440
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kathleen McColl; Marion Debin; Cecile Souty; Caroline Guerrisi; Clement Turbelin; Alessandra Falchi; Isabelle Bonmarin; Daniela Paolotti; Chinelo Obi; Jim Duggan; +6 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Spain, France

    International audience; Unrealistic optimism, the underestimation of one’s risk of experiencing harm, has been investigated extensively to understand better and predict behavioural responses to health threats. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, a relative dearth of research existed in this domain regarding epidemics, which is surprising considering that this optimistic bias has been associated with a lack of engagement in protective behaviours critical in fighting twenty-first-century, emergent, infectious diseases. The current study addresses this gap in the literature by investigating whether people demonstrated optimism bias during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Europe, how this changed over time, and whether unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with protective measures. Taking advantage of a pre-existing international participative influenza surveillance network (n = 12,378), absolute and comparative unrealistic optimism were measured at three epidemic stages (pre-, early, peak), and across four countries—France, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Despite differences in culture and health response, similar patterns were observed across all four countries. The prevalence of unrealistic optimism appears to be influenced by the particular epidemic context. Paradoxically, whereas absolute unrealistic optimism decreased over time, comparative unrealistic optimism increased, suggesting that whilst people became increasingly accurate in assessing their personal risk, they nonetheless overestimated that for others. Comparative unrealistic optimism was negatively associated with the adoption of protective behaviours, which is worrying, given that these preventive measures are critical in tackling the spread and health burden of COVID-19. It is hoped these findings will inspire further research into sociocognitive mechanisms involved in risk appraisal.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    HUA, Ping;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    By using panel data of 15 Chinese manufacturing industries over the 2005-2014 period from OECD TiVA and WIOD databases, the impact of China's GVCs participation on labor productivity is estimated. We find that while the productivity elasticity of the share of sector's foreign value added relative to sector's exports known as sector backward linkages is negative, that relative to China's gross exports named structure backward linkage is positive. As the annual average growth rates of both backward linkages are negative, China's backward linkages have contributed to productivity growth of 6.41% per year on average. We find that the positive productivity elasticity of the share of domestic intermediate goods embodied in exports of third countries relative to sector's exports, named sector forward linages together with a positive annual average growth rate, and that relative to China's exports named structure forward linkages together with a negative annual average growth rate, have increased productivity of 1.97% per year on average. We find finally that GVCs position is improved from 0.3 in 2005 to 0.7 in 2014. China's GVCs participation exerted positive productivity effects via optimizing resource allocation inside sectors towards more efficiency ones, via moving up from low productivity backward linkages to higher productivity forward linkages and via improving its position. This diminished the risk to be entrenched in low-profitability low productivity growth GVCs activities in China. However, the productivity contribution of backward linkages 3 times higher than that of forward linkage suggests that the future positive productivity impact of GVCs moving up may be much more difficult in a less favorable context (trade war between China and USA, reindustrialization and trade protection related to Covid-19 for example).

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Olivier Terrier; Mustapha Si-Tahar; Mariette Ducatez; Christophe Chevalier; Andrés Pizzorno; Ronan Le Goffic; Thibaut Crépin; Gaëlle Simon; Nadia Naffakh;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The development of safe and effective vaccines in a record time after the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a remarkable achievement, partly based on the experience gained from multiple viral outbreaks in the past decades. However, the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) crisis also revealed weaknesses in the global pandemic response and large gaps that remain in our knowledge of the biology of coronaviruses (CoVs) and influenza viruses, the 2 major respiratory viruses with pandemic potential. Here, we review current knowns and unknowns of influenza viruses and CoVs, and we highlight common research challenges they pose in 3 areas: the mechanisms of viral emergence and adaptation to humans, the physiological and molecular determinants of disease severity, and the development of control strategies. We outline multidisciplinary approaches and technological innovations that need to be harnessed in order to improve preparedeness to the next pandemic.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    John Lola Okunola; Sunday Olutayo Fakunle;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    International audience; The worldwide outbreak of COVID-19 and its impacts have become an academic concern. The concern has generated a plethora of studies and reports that have identified a number of negative impacts of COVID-19 on household socioeconomic lives in Nigeria. Therefore, Nigerian governments at different levels in conjunction with several international organisations have tried to deal with these impacts; however, the expected result is far below the reality. Advocacy of adopting bottom-top approaches to solving various community problems and the grand relevance of Community-Based Organisations (CBOs), as a form of community participation, prompted this study. The specific objective of the study was to investigate the roles of CBOs in complementing the governments' efforts to alleviate the negative impacts on household socioeconomic lives. The location of the study was Ife-East Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria where there existed a number of various CBOs as in other part of the country. The study was cross-sectional and exploratory in nature while a qualitative method, in-depth face-to-face interview, was employed to collect the primary data for this study. The study covered all the 10 electoral wards that exist in the study location. Via purposive sampling method, 5 CBOs were selected in each of the 10 wards, making a total size of 50 CBOs. To obtain the primary data, 2 CBO leaders (a man and a woman) and 4 CBO members (2 men and 2 women) among the 5 selected CBOs in each of the wards were purposively selected, making a total sample size of 60 from all the electoral wards for the in-depths face-to-face interview. Both thematic and contents analyses were utilized to analyze the collected data. The study found that the CBOs rendered economic support in forms of pooling resources together for fund provision, purchasing goods in large quantities at lower prices, creating platforms to attract loans, assistance and to invite experts for empowerment programmes for their members. The study further found that the CBO members benefited social support in form of provision of platforms to share their experiences, to boost members' morale to avert psychological challenges that tended to generate committing suicide and to invite medical experts on sensitization programmes about COVID-19 and its effects. As this study solely focused on ways that several aspects of households' socioeconomic lives were shielded from the negative impacts of the pandemic through community participation via various CBOs, this study solicited future studies that shall focus mainly on the challenges that the CBOs encounter in realizing this goal and the means of coping with the highlighted challenges.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Valentin Sencio; Arnaud Machelart; Cyril Robil; Nicolas Benech; Eik Hoffmann; Chloé Galbert; Lucie Deryuter; Séverine Heumel; Aline Hantute-Ghesquier; Anne Flourens; +14 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    ABSTRACT Mounting evidence suggests that the gut-to-lung axis is critical during respiratory viral infections. We herein hypothesized that disruption of gut homeostasis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may associate with early disease outcomes. To address this question, we took advantage of the Syrian hamster model. Our data confirmed that this model recapitulates some hallmark features of the human disease in the lungs. We further showed that SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with mild intestinal inflammation, relative alteration in intestinal barrier property and liver inflammation and altered lipid metabolism. These changes occurred concomitantly with an alteration of the gut microbiota composition over the course of infection, notably characterized by a higher relative abundance of deleterious bacterial taxa such as Enterobacteriaceae and Desulfovibrionaceae. Conversely, several members of the Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, including bacteria known to produce the fermentative products short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), had a reduced relative proportion compared to non-infected controls. Accordingly, infection led to a transient decrease in systemic SCFA amounts. SCFA supplementation during infection had no effect on clinical and inflammatory parameters. Lastly, a strong correlation between some gut microbiota taxa and clinical and inflammation indices of SARS-CoV-2 infection severity was evidenced. Collectively, alteration of the gut microbiota correlates with disease severity in hamsters making this experimental model valuable for the design of interventional, gut microbiota-targeted, approaches for the control of COVID-19. Abbreviations: SARS-CoV-2, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2; COVID-19, coronavirus disease 2019; SCFAs, short-chain fatty acids; dpi, day post-infection; RT-PCR, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction; IL, interleukin. ACE2, angiotensin converting enzyme 2; TMPRSS2, transmembrane serine protease 2.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Merikanto, Ilona; Dauvilliers, Yves; Chung, Frances; Holzinger, Brigitte; De Gennaro, Luigi; Wing, Yun Kwok; Korman, Maria; Partinen, Markku; 2nd ICOSS members,; Yordanova, Juliana; +1 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Countries: Italy, France
    Project: AKA | Development and consequen... (322312)

    International audience; This protocol paper describes the second survey produced by the International Covid Sleep Study (ICOSS) group with the aim to examine the associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and sleep, sleepiness, and circadian problems as potential predisposing factors for more severe COVID-19 disease profile and for development of Long-COVID in the general population. The survey consists of 47 questions on sleep, daytime sleepiness, circadian rhythm, health, mental wellbeing, life habits, and socioeconomic situation before and during the pandemic, and conditional questions to those reporting having had coronavirus infection, being vaccinated, or suffering from particular sleep symptoms or sleep disorders. Surveys will be administered online between May and November 2021 in Austria, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Norway, Portugal, Sweden and USA. Data collected by the survey will give valuable information on the open questions regarding COVID-19 disease risk factors, symptomatology and evolution of Long-COVID, and on other long-term consequences related to the pandemic.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Hibou, Béatrice; Bono, Irène;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted and universalised a series of problems related to the construction of knowledge about political societies that were previously only felt by researchers conducting ‘difficult’ fieldwork. The range of fields designated as ‘difficult’ has spread, so as the number of social scientists that are required to comply with specific protocols regarding how to ‘protect’ themselves, ‘prevent risks’, and ‘avoid danger’. The division of the world’s areas into red, orange, yellow, and green zones has become familiar to social scientists since societal instability, war, terrorism and natural disasters that the Global North had previously associated with distant and exotic countries — the alleged ‘risk countries’ — has become a global norm.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Denys Dukhovnov; Magali Barbieri;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Abstract Background Preliminary studies have suggested a link between socio-economic characteristics and COVID-19 mortality. Such studies have been carried out on particular geographies within the USA or selective data that do not represent the complete experience for 2020. Methods We estimated COVID-19 mortality rates, number of years of life lost to SARS-CoV-2 and reduction in life expectancy during each of the three pandemic waves in 2020 for 3144 US counties grouped into five socio-economic status categories, using daily death data from the Johns Hopkins University of Medicine and weekly mortality age structure from the Centers for Disease Control. Results During March–May 2020, COVID-19 mortality was highest in the most socio-economically advantaged quintile of counties and lowest in the two most-disadvantaged quintiles. The pattern reversed during June–August and widened by September–December, such that COVID-19 mortality rates were 2.58 times higher in the bottom than in the top quintile of counties. Differences in the number of years of life lost followed a similar pattern, ultimately resulting in 1.002 (1.000, 1.004) million years in the middle quintile to 1.381 (1.378, 1.384) million years of life lost in the first (most-disadvantaged) quintile during the whole year. Conclusions Diverging trajectories of COVID-19 mortality among the poor and affluent counties indicated a progressively higher rate of loss of life among socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Accounting for socio-economic disparities when allocating resources to control the spread of the infection and to reinforce local public health infrastructure would reduce inequities in the mortality burden of the disease.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Mondello, Gérard;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The Covid-19 pandemic upset both the economies of most countries, but also the field of medical science. As never, public opinion has interfered in the choice of therapeutic trials as evidenced by the controversies surrounding protocols using hydroxychloroquine. The public's choice for these treatments is explained as the application of a kind of individual "Pascal's wager". This article analyses the formation of the belief system of individuals by applying ambiguity theory's insights and information entropy. It shows that the public's choices are the result of efficient communication strategies chosen by these treatments' promoters.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Henseler; Helene Maisonnave; Asiya Maskaeva;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    The worldwide COVID-19 pandemic has affected the tourism sector by closing borders, reducing both the transportation of tourists and tourist demand. Developing countries, such as Tanzania, where the tourism sector contributes a high share to gross domestic product, are facing considerable economic consequences. Tourism interlinks domestic sectors such as transport, accommodation, beverages and food, and retail trade and thus plays an important role in household income. Our study assessed the macroeconomic impacts of COVID-19 on the tourism sector and the Tanzanian economy as a case study of an impacted developing economy. We used a computable general equilibrium model framework to simulate the economic impacts resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic and quantitatively analysed the economic impacts.

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