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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jaroslav Lang; Barbora Zikmundová; Josef Hájek; Miloš Barták; Peter Váczi;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Fodder galega (Galega orientalis) is a perennial, wintering plant with great potential for agricultural development. The species has a large yield potential and exceptional adaptability to various environmental conditions. The sensitivity of G. orientalis to herbicides, however, as well as the photosynthetic performance of the species, are generally unknown. Our study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of selected phenoxy herbicides (MCPA, MCPB) and the imidazoline family herbicide (IMA) on the parameters of primary photosynthetic processes as understood through fast chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics (OJIP). The effect of cultivation temperature was also investigated in the plants grown at 5, 18 and 25 °C. Time courses of OJIP-derived parameters describing photosystem II functioning after foliar application revealed that the plants showed negative responses to the herbicides in the order MCPB–MCPA–IMA within 24 h after the application. The application of herbicides decreased the values of maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (FM) and increased minimum fluorescence (F0), which led to a reduction in the maximal efficiency of PSII (FV/FM). Applications of MCPA and MCPB decreased variable chlorophyll fluorescence at 2 ms (VJ), 30 ms (VI) and VP, as well as the performance index (PIABS), which is considered a vitality proxy. The application increased absorption flux (ABS/RC), trapped energy flux (TRo/RC) and dissipated energy flux (DIo/RC). The effects were more pronounced in plants grown at 18 and 25 °C. The study revealed that the OJIP-derived parameters sensitively reflected an early response of G. orientalis to the foliar application of herbicides. Negative responses of PSII were more apparent in MCPA- and MCPB- exposed plants than IMA-exposed plants.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Riccardo Guarino; Salvatore Pasta; Giuseppe Bazan; Alessandro Crisafulli; Orazio Caldarella; Gian Pietro Giusso del Galdo; Alessandro Silvestre Gristina; Vincenzo Ilardi; Antonino La Mantia; Corrado Marcenò; +6 more
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    Field investigation carried out by the Sicilian botanists in the last 20 years enabled them to identify eight habitat types of high biogeographic and conservation interest, neglected by the Directive 92/43, which deserve ad hoc conservation measures. For each of these habitats, a syntaxonomic interpretation of the corresponding plant communities, their main ecological, physiognomic and syndynamic traits and a list of diagnostic species are provided. Their classification into the macrotypes listed in the Annex I of the Directive 92/43 and the respective correspondence in EUNIS habitat classification are proposed. The habitats here described integrate those already proposed by the Italian Botanical Society, with the hope of an adequate recognition at national at supranational level.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Lestari, Sri Utami; Hakim, Dedi Budiman; Novianti, Tanti;
    Publisher: Master Program in Economics, Graduate Program of Universitas Jambi

    This study explores the asymmetric effect on the rupiah exchange rate on every subsector agriculture export in Indonesia during 2006-2020. The non-linear ARDL method is used in this study to analyze the asymmetric relationship between exchange rate and export. NARDL method includes short-run and long-run coefficient estimates and embraces the asymmetric effect. The previous studies generally used the linear models on the aggregated data and ignored the differences in each export of the agricultural sub-sector, then they offered ambiguous results. The latest studies have preferred to use the method of NARDL on the agricultural sector in general data. Instead of using agricultural export data for each subsector, this paper considers subsector export data of agriculture. The estimated NARDL results indicate an asymmetric effect of the rupiah exchange rate on exports of the agricultural sub-sector in the long run. In general, there is no asymmetric effect in the short run. Generally, depreciation and appreciation of the Rupiah have a negative effect on exports of the agricultural sub-sector in the long run. However, rupiah appreciation positively impacts lag 2, and depreciation caused a different effect on each sub-sector. The NARDL results suggest that positive movements have lesser impacts than those of negative movements in the exchange rate on the agriculture sector both in the short and long run

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sara Stephanie Valencia-Salazar; Guillermo Jiménez-Ferrer; Isabel Cristina Molina-Botero; Juan Carlos Ku-Vera; Ngonidzashe Chirinda; Jacobo Arango;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Enteric methane (CH4) emitted by ruminant species is known as one of the main greenhouse gases produced by the agricultural sector. The objective of this study was to assess the potential the potential for CH4 mitigation and additionally the chemical composition, in vitro gas production, dry matter degradation (DMD), digestibility and CO2 production of five tropical tree species with novel forage potential including: Spondias mombin, Acacia pennatula, Parmentiera aculeata, Brosimum alicastrum and Bursera simaruba mixed at two levels of inclusion (15 and 30%) with a tropical grass (Pennisetum purpureum). The forage samples were incubated for 48 h, and a randomized complete block design was used. Crude protein content was similar across treatments (135 ± 42 g kg−1 DM), while P. purpureum was characterized by a high content of acid detergent fiber (335.9 g kg−1 DM) and B. simaruba by a high concentration of condensed tannins (20 g kg−1 DM). Likewise, A. pennatula and P. aculeata were characterized by a high content of cyanogenic glycosides and alkaloids respectively. Treatments SM30-PP70 (30% S. mombin + 70% P. purpureum) and BA30-PP70 (30% B. alicastrum + 70% P. purpureum) resulted in superior degradability at 48h than P. purpureum, while in the AP30-PP70 (30% A. pennatula + 70% P. purpureum) was lower than the control treatment (p ≤ 0.05). At 24 and 48 h, treatments that contained P. aculeata and B. alicastrum yield higher CH4 mL g−1 DOM than P. purpureum (p ≤ 0.05). The inclusion of these forage species had no statistical effect on the reduction of CH4 emissions per unit of DM incubated or degraded at 24 and 48 h with respect to P. purpureum although reductions were observed. The use of fodders locally available is an economic and viable strategy for the mitigation of the environmental impact generated from tropical livestock systems.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mauro Fois; Gianluigi Bacchetta; Maria Carmela Caria; Donatella Cogoni; Emmanuele Farris; Giuseppe Fenu; Manuela Manca; Maria Silvia Pinna; Stefania Pisanu; Giovanni Rivieccio; +1 more
    Publisher: Pensoft Publishers

    The ‘Habitats’ Directive (HD 92/43/EEC) is one of the primary legal tools aiming at conserving nature in Europe. Due to the complex iter to revise it, the habitats listed in the Annex I have been seldom updated after the HD adoption. Basing on already available information and expert knowledge, this paper presents a preliminary list of relevant habitats occurring in Sardinia, not yet considered and worth to be placed in the Annex I. Two new habitat proposals, one habitat new for Italy, and nine new subtypes of already existing HD habitats are here described. Most of the proposed new habitats and subtypes have a limited distribution range, due to the high number of narrow, often endangered, endemic species that characterize them. Being neglected, they are consequently poorly investigated, inconstantly monitored and unprotected. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to promote their conservation through implementation of HD and its interpretation manuals.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Sofia Costanzini; Francesca Despini; Leonardo Beltrami; Sara Fabbi; Alberto Muscio; Sergio Teggi;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    The urban heat island (UHI) is an increasingly widespread phenomenon of concern to the wellbeing and the health of populations living in urban environments. The SUHI (Surface UHI) is directly related to UHI and influences its extension and intensity. Satellite images in the thermal infrared spectral region can be used to identify and study the SUHI. In this work, Landsat 8 TIR images were acquired to study the SUHI of a medium-sized municipality of the Po valley in the northern part of Italy. An additional Worldview 3 satellite image was used to classify the study area and retrieve the surface albedo of building roofs. Using the Local Climate Zone approach, existing roof materials were virtually replaced by solar reflective materials, and the mitigation potential of the SUHI and the UHI was quantified. This virtual scenario shows a decrease in the overheating of building roofs with respect to the ambient temperature of up to 33% compared to the current situation in the industrial areas. Focusing on UHI intensity, the air temperature decrease could be up to 0.5 °C.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Enrique Troyo-Diéguez; Francyelli Regina Costa Becheleni; Luis Bustamante-Salazar; Alejandra Nieto-Garibay; Bernardo Murillo-Amador; Hugo Garcia;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

    Suaeda edulis (Flores Olvera & Noguez) is a halophile species that grows in saline environments, with concomitant difficulties to germinate and reproduce. Once a null germination under a salinity gradient or fresh water was observed, a plant-growth bioregulator (BioR) was applied to interrupt dormancy and improve germination in vitro. This BioR is composed of gibberellins and adjuvant regulators; and 12.5, 25.0, and 37.5 mg L−1 of gibberellins with immersion at 24, 48, and 72 h were assayed. Most of the normality and homoscedasticity tests were favorable, except in three of 24 cases. On the germination percentage (transformed values), the dose 25.0 mg L−1 reflected the highest values of 5.5 and 6.0 units at 48 and 72 h. For the mean germination time, the highest level of 37.5 mg L−1 at 24 h reflected the best response. For the germination rate, the best one was 25 mg L−1 at 48 h, reaching 12% per day, but for the germination speed coefficient, the best value was observed with 25.0 mg L−1 at 24 h. It was concluded that to improve germination of S. edulis seeds, it is necessary to assess a dose-gradient of gibberellins, starting at 25.0 mg L−1, with higher values to break dormancy.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Milena Szalata; Mariola Dreger;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L., family Cannabaceae) is a multi-purpose crop, used in the production of food, nutraceuticals, cosmetics and medicines. Therefore, development of new varieties with specific chemical profiles is necessary. In vitro culture methods could be complementary to conventional breeding and a useful tool for large-scale propagation. Strong apical dominance is considered as one of the factors contributing to the recalcitrance of industrial hemp in shoot proliferation. In this study, we tested the polar transport inhibitors N-1-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA) and 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) to enhance shoot regeneration as the result of suppression of apical dominance and to develop in vitro protocols for Diana, Finola and Fedora 17 cultivars. Shoot tips derived from epicotyls were cultivated on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) supplemented with meta-topolin (mT) and NPA, and also thidiazuron (TDZ) with a combination of TIBA and NPA. The results showed that the combination of TDZ with NPA (1–5 mg L−1) and TDZ with TIBA (0.5–2.5 mg L−1) increased the response of explants and the multiplication rate, but the effect was genotype-dependent and malformations were observed. To optimize the developed protocol, a two-step procedure with shortened time of exposure to inhibitors and reduced concentrations of them was applied. Shoots were rooted on media containing indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and then successfully acclimatized. The obtained results will be useful in micropropagation of recalcitrant industrial hemp varieties.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Saffet Sansar;
    Publisher: Arıcılık Araştırma Enstitüsü Müdürlüğü

    Pesticides used to prevent or control unwanted pests are often being considered as a cause of the decline of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) population. Exposure to insecticides, or a group of pesticides, has many negative effects on honey bees. Here we elucidated whether feeding carbon microparticles, designed to absorb pesticide residues, improved to the survival of honey bees exposed to pesticides. Honey bees were exposed to different classes of insecticides (thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos, and carbaryl) for 10 days. The study shows that feeding carbon microparticles didn’t ameliorate the survival of honey bees exposed to insecticidal compounds.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alessandro Suardi; Sergio Saia; Vincenzo Alfano; Negar Rezaei; Paola Cetera; Simone Bergonzoli; Luigi Pari;
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Project: EC | EUROPRUNING (312078), EC | EUROPRUNING (312078)

    Pruning residues can have a high quality as feedstock for energy purposes and are largely available in Europe. However, it is still an untapped resource. Such scarce use is due to the need to optimize their supply chain in term of collection machines and the associate cost of collection. A modular chipper (prototype PC50) for pruning harvest was developed. Such prototype is adaptable to various harvesting logistics and may produce a higher quality woodchip compared with the one produced by shredders available in the market. In this work, we tested the performance and quality of the product delivered by the prototype PC50 in various conditions and plant species, after a modulation of the machine settings (counter-rotating toothed rollers [CRR] speed), loading systems ([LS], either big bag or container), and knife types ([KT], either discontinuous hoe shaped knives or continuous helicoidal knives). To take into account of the covariates in the experiment (Cropping season and plant species), LSmeans were computed to have an unbiased estimate of the treatments means. The modulation of LS and KT scarcely affected the performance of the machine. In particular, the choice of the KT affected the field efficiency when the LS was a Tilting box but not a Big Bag. Whereas the continuous knife resulted in a 97% higher material capacity compared to hoe shape knives, the last of which the amount of short sized (<16 mm) fractions compared to helicoidal knives. No role of the CCR was found on the machine performance, but increasing CRR speed reduced the chip apparent bulk density and the fraction chips with a size <8 mm.

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