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  • Publications
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  • 2013-2022
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  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coquidé, Célestin; Lages, José; Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Using the United Nations Comtrade database, we perform the Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct World Trade Network (WTN) for the years 2018-2020 comprising the emergence of the COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The applied algorithms -- the PageRank, the CheiRank and the reduced Google matrix -- take into account the multiplicity of the WTN links providing new insights on the international trade comparing to the usual import-export analysis. These algorithms establish new rankings and trade balances of countries and products considering every countries on equal grounds, independently of their wealth, and every products on the basis of their relative exchanged volumes. In comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period, significant changes in these metrics occur for the year 2020 highlighting a major rewiring of the international trade flows induced by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. We define a new PageRank-CheiRank product trade balance, either export or import oriented, which is significantly perturbed by the pandemic. Comment: 22 pages, 2 tables, 13 figures, 2 appendices

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexis Descatha; Grace Sembajwe; Fabien Gilbert; Marc Fadel;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: France

    Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Houcemeddine Othman; Houcemeddine Othman; Haifa Ben Messaoud; Oussema Khamessi; Hazem Ben-Mabrouk; Kais Ghedira; Avani Bharuthram; Florette Treurnicht; Ikechukwu Achilonu; Yasien Sayed; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PHINDaccess (811034)

    AbstractThe Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 virus harbors a sequence of Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide named RGD motif, which has also been identified in extracellular matrix proteins that bind integrins as well as other disintegrins and viruses. Accordingly, integrins have been proposed as host receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The hypothesis was supported by sequence and structural analysis. However, given that the microenvironment of the RGD motif imposes structural hindrance to the protein-protein association, the validity of this hypothesis is still uncertain. Here, we used normal mode analysis, accelerated molecular dynamics microscale simulation, and protein-protein docking to investigate the putative role of RGD motif of SARS-CoV-2 RBD for interacting with integrins. We found, by molecular dynamics, that neither RGD motif nore its microenvironment show any significant conformational shift in the RBD structure. Highly populated clusters were used to run a protein-protein docking against three RGD-binding integrin types, showing no capability of the RBD domain to interact with the RGD binding site. Moreover, the free energy landscape revealed that the RGD conformation within RBD could not acquire an optimal geometry to allow the interaction with integrins. Our results highlighted different structural features of the RGD motif that may prevent its involvement in the interaction with integrins. We, therefore, suggest, in the case where integrins are confirmed to be the direct host receptors for SARS-CoV-2, a possible involvement of other residues to stabilize the interaction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo W Heyerdahl; Muriel Vray; Benedetta Lana; Nastassia Tvardik; Nina Gobat; Marta Wanat; Sarah Tonkin-Crine; Sibyl Anthierens; Herman Goossens; Tamara Giles-Vernick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, France
    Project: EC | RECoVER (101003589)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 vaccine rollout in recent months offers a powerful preventive measure that may help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nevertheless, long-standing public hesitation around vaccines has heightened public health concerns that vaccine coverage may not achieve desired public health impacts.This cross-sectional survey was conducted online in December 2020 among 7000 respondents (aged 18 to 65) in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine. The survey included open text boxes for fuller explanation of responses. Projected COVID-19 vaccine coverage varied and may not be sufficiently high among certain populations to achieve herd immunity. Overall, 56.9% would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 19.0% would not, and 24.1% did not know or preferred not to say. By country, between 44% (France) and 66% (Italy) of respondents would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents expressed conditionality in open responses, voicing concerns about vaccine safety and mistrust of authorities. Public health campaigns must tackle these safety concerns.HighlightsMixed-method survey studied expected COVID vaccine uptake in 7 European countries.Projected COVID vaccine acceptance by country ranged from 44% to 66%.Explicit COVID vaccine acceptance or rejection was conditional.Study finds concerns about vaccine safety and authorities’ competence and honesty.Vaccine communications should address safety anxieties and target specific groups.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacquet, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In this paper we analyse the genome sequence of covid 19 on a information point of view and we compare with past and present genomes. We use the powerful tool of joint complexity in order to quantify the various potential parent genomes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maider Pagola Ugarte; Souzana Achilleos; Annalisa Quattrocchi; John Gabel; Ourania Kolokotroni; Constantina Constantinou; Nicoletta Nicolaou; Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes; Qian Huang; Olesia Verstiuk; +29 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France

    Abstract Background Understanding the impact of the burden of COVID-19 is key to successfully navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of a larger investigation on COVID-19 mortality impact, this study aims to estimate the Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) in 17 countries and territories across the world (Australia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Cyprus, France, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Peru, Norway, England & Wales, Scotland, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, and the United States [USA]). Methods Age- and sex-specific COVID-19 death numbers from primary national sources were collected by an international research consortium. The study period was established based on the availability of data from the inception of the pandemic to the end of August 2020. The PYLL for each country were computed using 80 years as the maximum life expectancy. Results As of August 2020, 442,677 (range: 18–185,083) deaths attributed to COVID-19 were recorded in 17 countries which translated to 4,210,654 (range: 112–1,554,225) PYLL. The average PYLL per death was 8.7 years, with substantial variation ranging from 2.7 years in Australia to 19.3 PYLL in Ukraine. North and South American countries as well as England & Wales, Scotland and Sweden experienced the highest PYLL per 100,000 population; whereas Australia, Slovenia and Georgia experienced the lowest. Overall, males experienced higher PYLL rate and higher PYLL per death than females. In most countries, most of the PYLL were observed for people aged over 60 or 65 years, irrespective of sex. Yet, Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Israel, Peru, Scotland, Ukraine, and the USA concentrated most PYLL in younger age groups. Conclusions Our results highlight the role of PYLL as a tool to understand the impact of COVID-19 on demographic groups within and across countries, guiding preventive measures to protect these groups under the ongoing pandemic. Continuous monitoring of PYLL is therefore needed to better understand the burden of COVID-19 in terms of premature mortality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Émilien; Atlani-Duault, L; Peretti-Watel, p; Ward, J,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Objectives In the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chloroquine and its derivatives such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely commented upon both within the scientific community and in the media. This paper explores the different factors that influenced public perceptions in France of the efficacy of HCQ as well as their evolution between April 2020 and June 2021. Methods This article draws on 5 surveys conducted among representative samples of the French population (projects COCONEL and TRACTRUST; quota method, n = 1006; 1004; 2006; 1014 and 1005). We asked questions on the effectiveness of chloroquine against COVID-19. We also collected sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward politics and science. Results Between April and June 2021, the proportion of respondents who believed in the efficacy of HCQ decreased rapidly from 35% to 14%. The proportion of respondents who believed that HCQ is ineffective rose gradually from 6% to 21%. After adjusting for the temporal effect, the logistic regression showed a very strong association between political orientation and the belief in the efficacy of HCQ. Respondents who felt closest to the more radical parties (far-right and far-left) were more likely to believe in the efficacy of HCQ than those who felt closest to the political center (O.R. 2.48 [1.95–3.15] and 1.87 [1.44–2.43]). The role of trust in the government and in science and of the degree of political engagement were investigated in the two waves conducted after the scientific consensus was established during the summer of 2020. High levels of trust in the government and in science and of politicization are associated with belief of HCQ proven inefficacy. Across the whole period, a majority of respondents were uncertain. Even in 2021, 41.5% stated that the data were insufficient to decide whether or not HCQ is effective and 25.2% stating that they did not know. Conclusion Because media coverage of scientific controversies is higher in times of uncertainty than after these controversies have died down, the publicization of therapeutic promises can have lasting consequences on attitudes towards science and medicine.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mariana Galvão Ferrarini; Aguiar-Pulido; Eric T. Dawson; Andrea Guarracino; Andreas Gruber; Lukas Heumos; Alexander Kanitz; Amit Kumar Lal; Brett E. Pickett; Rita Rebollo; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    As part of the virtual BioHackathon 2020, we formed a working group that focused on the analysis of gene expression in the context of COVID-19. More specifically, we performed transcriptome analyses on published datasets in order to better understand the interaction between the human host and the SARS-CoV-2 virus.The ideas proposed during this hackathon were divided into five projects. Projects 1 and 2 aimed to identify human genes that are important in the process of viral infection of human cells. Projects 3 and 4 aimed to take the candidate genes identified in projects 1 and 2, as well as by independent studies, and relate them to clinical information and to possible therapeutic interventions. Finally, Project 5 aimed to package and containerize software and workflows used and generated here in a reusable manner, ultimately providing scalable and reproducible workflows.

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
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arrow_drop_down
Include:
617 Research products, page 1 of 62
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Preprint . Article . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Coquidé, Célestin; Lages, José; Ermann, Leonardo; Shepelyansky, Dima L.;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Using the United Nations Comtrade database, we perform the Google matrix analysis of the multiproduct World Trade Network (WTN) for the years 2018-2020 comprising the emergence of the COVID-19 as a global pandemic. The applied algorithms -- the PageRank, the CheiRank and the reduced Google matrix -- take into account the multiplicity of the WTN links providing new insights on the international trade comparing to the usual import-export analysis. These algorithms establish new rankings and trade balances of countries and products considering every countries on equal grounds, independently of their wealth, and every products on the basis of their relative exchanged volumes. In comparison with the pre-COVID-19 period, significant changes in these metrics occur for the year 2020 highlighting a major rewiring of the international trade flows induced by the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. We define a new PageRank-CheiRank product trade balance, either export or import oriented, which is significantly perturbed by the pandemic. Comment: 22 pages, 2 tables, 13 figures, 2 appendices

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alexis Descatha; Grace Sembajwe; Fabien Gilbert; Marc Fadel;
    Publisher: Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
    Country: France

    Background. We aimed to assess the validity of the Mat-O-Covid Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) on SARS-CoV2 using compensation data from the French National Health Insurance compensation system for occupational-related COVID-19. Methods. Deidentified compensation data for occupational COVID-19 in France were obtained between August 2020 and August 2021. The acceptance was considered as the reference. Mat-O-Covid is an expert based French JEM on workplace exposure to SARS-CoV2. Bivariate and multivariate models were used to study the association between the exposure assessed by Mat-O-Covid and the reference, as well as the Area Under Curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios. Results. In the 1140 cases included, there was a close association between the Mat-O-Covid index and the reference (p<0.0001). The overall predictivity was good, with an AUC of 0.78 and an optimal threshold at 13 per thousand. Using Youden’s J statistic resulted in 0.67 sensitivity and 0.87 specificity. Both positive and negative likelihood ratios were significant: respectively 4.9 [2.4-6.4] and 0.4 [0.3-0.4]. Discussion. It was possible to assess Mat-O-Covid’s validity using data from the national compensation system for occupational COVID-19. Though further studies are needed, Mat-O-Covid exposure assessment appears to be accurate enough to be used in research.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Houcemeddine Othman; Houcemeddine Othman; Haifa Ben Messaoud; Oussema Khamessi; Hazem Ben-Mabrouk; Kais Ghedira; Avani Bharuthram; Florette Treurnicht; Ikechukwu Achilonu; Yasien Sayed; +1 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | PHINDaccess (811034)

    AbstractThe Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 virus harbors a sequence of Arg-Gly-Asp tripeptide named RGD motif, which has also been identified in extracellular matrix proteins that bind integrins as well as other disintegrins and viruses. Accordingly, integrins have been proposed as host receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The hypothesis was supported by sequence and structural analysis. However, given that the microenvironment of the RGD motif imposes structural hindrance to the protein-protein association, the validity of this hypothesis is still uncertain. Here, we used normal mode analysis, accelerated molecular dynamics microscale simulation, and protein-protein docking to investigate the putative role of RGD motif of SARS-CoV-2 RBD for interacting with integrins. We found, by molecular dynamics, that neither RGD motif nore its microenvironment show any significant conformational shift in the RBD structure. Highly populated clusters were used to run a protein-protein docking against three RGD-binding integrin types, showing no capability of the RBD domain to interact with the RGD binding site. Moreover, the free energy landscape revealed that the RGD conformation within RBD could not acquire an optimal geometry to allow the interaction with integrins. Our results highlighted different structural features of the RGD motif that may prevent its involvement in the interaction with integrins. We, therefore, suggest, in the case where integrins are confirmed to be the direct host receptors for SARS-CoV-2, a possible involvement of other residues to stabilize the interaction.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Leonardo W Heyerdahl; Muriel Vray; Benedetta Lana; Nastassia Tvardik; Nina Gobat; Marta Wanat; Sarah Tonkin-Crine; Sibyl Anthierens; Herman Goossens; Tamara Giles-Vernick;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, United Kingdom, France
    Project: EC | RECoVER (101003589)

    AbstractThe COVID-19 vaccine rollout in recent months offers a powerful preventive measure that may help control SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Nevertheless, long-standing public hesitation around vaccines has heightened public health concerns that vaccine coverage may not achieve desired public health impacts.This cross-sectional survey was conducted online in December 2020 among 7000 respondents (aged 18 to 65) in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Ukraine. The survey included open text boxes for fuller explanation of responses. Projected COVID-19 vaccine coverage varied and may not be sufficiently high among certain populations to achieve herd immunity. Overall, 56.9% would accept a COVID-19 vaccine, 19.0% would not, and 24.1% did not know or preferred not to say. By country, between 44% (France) and 66% (Italy) of respondents would accept a COVID-19 vaccine. Respondents expressed conditionality in open responses, voicing concerns about vaccine safety and mistrust of authorities. Public health campaigns must tackle these safety concerns.HighlightsMixed-method survey studied expected COVID vaccine uptake in 7 European countries.Projected COVID vaccine acceptance by country ranged from 44% to 66%.Explicit COVID vaccine acceptance or rejection was conditional.Study finds concerns about vaccine safety and authorities’ competence and honesty.Vaccine communications should address safety anxieties and target specific groups.

  • English
    Authors: 
    Shirish, Anuragini; O'Shanahan, John; Kumar, Anaya;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Prix du meilleur second choix dans la catégorie recherche lors de la conférence UIIN.; International audience; To leverage the emerging potential of new technologies, digital transformation has been a clear priority for most large- and mid-sized organizations for over a decade now (Vial, 2019). However, COVID-19 pandemic has recently pushed several microbusinesses (MBs) to hurriedly initiate digital transformation (DT) efforts and keep their businesses afloat (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). MBs comprise a class of small and medium enterprise category (SMEs) that typically have fewer than 10 employees and lesser resources (OECD, 2021). They represent about 93 percent of all businesses in the Europe (European Commission, 2019). Their economic significance is also shown through ha survey which predicted that by 2024 small businesses through their DT efforts have the potential to add over 2.3 trillion USD to the global GDP, which would be key for the post pandemic economic recovery (CISCO, 2020). Prior research has shown that DT effectiveness varies significantly with firm size (Mandviwalla & Flanagan, 2021). Following these, the aim of our study is to examine to identify the enablers and inhibitors of digital transformation within the MB sector in Ireland.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jacquet, Philippe;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    In this paper we analyse the genome sequence of covid 19 on a information point of view and we compare with past and present genomes. We use the powerful tool of joint complexity in order to quantify the various potential parent genomes.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maider Pagola Ugarte; Souzana Achilleos; Annalisa Quattrocchi; John Gabel; Ourania Kolokotroni; Constantina Constantinou; Nicoletta Nicolaou; Jose Manuel Rodriguez-Llanes; Qian Huang; Olesia Verstiuk; +29 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: United Kingdom, France

    Abstract Background Understanding the impact of the burden of COVID-19 is key to successfully navigating the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of a larger investigation on COVID-19 mortality impact, this study aims to estimate the Potential Years of Life Lost (PYLL) in 17 countries and territories across the world (Australia, Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Cyprus, France, Georgia, Israel, Kazakhstan, Peru, Norway, England & Wales, Scotland, Slovenia, Sweden, Ukraine, and the United States [USA]). Methods Age- and sex-specific COVID-19 death numbers from primary national sources were collected by an international research consortium. The study period was established based on the availability of data from the inception of the pandemic to the end of August 2020. The PYLL for each country were computed using 80 years as the maximum life expectancy. Results As of August 2020, 442,677 (range: 18–185,083) deaths attributed to COVID-19 were recorded in 17 countries which translated to 4,210,654 (range: 112–1,554,225) PYLL. The average PYLL per death was 8.7 years, with substantial variation ranging from 2.7 years in Australia to 19.3 PYLL in Ukraine. North and South American countries as well as England & Wales, Scotland and Sweden experienced the highest PYLL per 100,000 population; whereas Australia, Slovenia and Georgia experienced the lowest. Overall, males experienced higher PYLL rate and higher PYLL per death than females. In most countries, most of the PYLL were observed for people aged over 60 or 65 years, irrespective of sex. Yet, Brazil, Cape Verde, Colombia, Israel, Peru, Scotland, Ukraine, and the USA concentrated most PYLL in younger age groups. Conclusions Our results highlight the role of PYLL as a tool to understand the impact of COVID-19 on demographic groups within and across countries, guiding preventive measures to protect these groups under the ongoing pandemic. Continuous monitoring of PYLL is therefore needed to better understand the burden of COVID-19 in terms of premature mortality.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schultz, Émilien; Atlani-Duault, L; Peretti-Watel, p; Ward, J,;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Objectives In the early stages of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chloroquine and its derivatives such as hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) were widely commented upon both within the scientific community and in the media. This paper explores the different factors that influenced public perceptions in France of the efficacy of HCQ as well as their evolution between April 2020 and June 2021. Methods This article draws on 5 surveys conducted among representative samples of the French population (projects COCONEL and TRACTRUST; quota method, n = 1006; 1004; 2006; 1014 and 1005). We asked questions on the effectiveness of chloroquine against COVID-19. We also collected sociodemographic variables and attitudes toward politics and science. Results Between April and June 2021, the proportion of respondents who believed in the efficacy of HCQ decreased rapidly from 35% to 14%. The proportion of respondents who believed that HCQ is ineffective rose gradually from 6% to 21%. After adjusting for the temporal effect, the logistic regression showed a very strong association between political orientation and the belief in the efficacy of HCQ. Respondents who felt closest to the more radical parties (far-right and far-left) were more likely to believe in the efficacy of HCQ than those who felt closest to the political center (O.R. 2.48 [1.95–3.15] and 1.87 [1.44–2.43]). The role of trust in the government and in science and of the degree of political engagement were investigated in the two waves conducted after the scientific consensus was established during the summer of 2020. High levels of trust in the government and in science and of politicization are associated with belief of HCQ proven inefficacy. Across the whole period, a majority of respondents were uncertain. Even in 2021, 41.5% stated that the data were insufficient to decide whether or not HCQ is effective and 25.2% stating that they did not know. Conclusion Because media coverage of scientific controversies is higher in times of uncertainty than after these controversies have died down, the publicization of therapeutic promises can have lasting consequences on attitudes towards science and medicine.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mariana Galvão Ferrarini; Aguiar-Pulido; Eric T. Dawson; Andrea Guarracino; Andreas Gruber; Lukas Heumos; Alexander Kanitz; Amit Kumar Lal; Brett E. Pickett; Rita Rebollo; +15 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    As part of the virtual BioHackathon 2020, we formed a working group that focused on the analysis of gene expression in the context of COVID-19. More specifically, we performed transcriptome analyses on published datasets in order to better understand the interaction between the human host and the SARS-CoV-2 virus.The ideas proposed during this hackathon were divided into five projects. Projects 1 and 2 aimed to identify human genes that are important in the process of viral infection of human cells. Projects 3 and 4 aimed to take the candidate genes identified in projects 1 and 2, as well as by independent studies, and relate them to clinical information and to possible therapeutic interventions. Finally, Project 5 aimed to package and containerize software and workflows used and generated here in a reusable manner, ultimately providing scalable and reproducible workflows.

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