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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Ainslee L. Erhard; Magda Águas Silva; Marie Damsbo-Svendsen; Bat-El Menadeva Karpantschof; Helle Sørensen; Michael Bom Frøst;
    Country: Denmark

    The growing global population and rising demand for meat increasingly pressures the world's resources. Edible insects are a promising alternative protein source to unsustainable conventional meat. Despite this, disgust and neophobia are cited as significant barriers to the adoption of these novel foods in Western diets. The primary aim of this study was to assess the effects of providing three types of information — the taste, health, and sustainability benefits of entomophagy (i.e. the practice of eating insects) — on the willingness to try and hedonic response to insect-based foods among children. In addition, the differences between insects (buffalo worms and cricket) in unprocessed form and in various food applications were examined. Food disgust sensitivity, food neophobia, willingness to try, familiarity, and hedonic response to insect foods were measured. The implications of the appropriateness (as a food ingredient and to be raised as livestock) of two different insect species on acceptance were also explored. The data were collected through an online questionnaire administered in school classrooms from a sample of Danish children (n = 181). Results showed that communicating information about the benefits of entomophagy did not increase the willingness to try insect foods, irrespective of the type of information. Food neophobia was found to be a strong predictor of willingness to try insect foods, whereas food disgust sensitivity had no effect. There was no correlation between food disgust and food neophobia scores. Furthermore, certain types of insect products were found to be better liked than others (e.g. cookies over falafel). There was a species effect on hedonic response when presented as a whole insect although not when presented as processed products made with insect flour.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Coralie Pasquier; Søren Roi Midtgaard; Marco Polimeni; Christian Isak Jørgensen; Lise Arleth; Thomas H. Callisen; Mikael Lund;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    Interactions between biomolecules are ubiquitous in nature and crucial to many applications including vaccine development; environmentally friendly textile detergents; and food formulation. Using small angle X-ray scattering and structure-based molecular simulations, we explore protein-protein interactions in dilute to semi-concentrated protein solutions. We address the pertinent question, whether interaction models developed at infinite dilution can be extrapolated to concentrated regimes? Our analysis is based on measured and simulated osmotic second virial coefficients and solution structure factors at varying protein concentration and for different variants of the protein Thermomyces Lanuginosus Lipase (TLL). We show that in order to span the dilute and semi-concentrated regime, any model must carefully capture the balance between spatial and orientational correlations as the protein concentration is elevated. This requires consideration of the protein surface morphology, including possible patch interactions. Experimental data for TLL is most accurately described when assuming a patchy interaction, leading to dimer formation. Our analysis supports that the dimeric proteins predominantly exist in their open conformation where the active site is exposed, thereby maximising hydrophobic attractions that promote inter-protein alignment.(c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Trine L. Wilkens; Helle Sørensen; Majken K. Jensen; Jeremy D. Furtado; Lars O. Dragsted; Kenneth J. Mukamal;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    Alcohol consumption increases circulating high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), but HDL protein cargo may better reflect HDL function. This study examined the associations between alcohol intake and HDL subspecies containing or lacking apoC3, apoE, and apoJ in a well-phenotyped cohort. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of 2092 Cardiovascular Health Study participants aged 70 or older with HDL subspecies measured in stored specimens from 1998 to 1999. Associations between alcohol intake and apoA1 defined HDL subspecies lacking or containing apoC3, apoE, and apoJ, and circulating levels of total apoA1, apoC3, apoE, and apoJ were examined. HDL subspecies lacking and containing apoC3, apoE, and apoJ were all positively associated with alcohol intake, with ∼1% per additional drink per week or ∼7% per additional drink per day (subspecies without the apolipoproteins, P ≤ 2 × 10−9, subspecies with the apolipoproteins, P ≤ 3 × 10−5). Total apoA1 was also directly associated with alcohol consumption, with a 1% increase per additional drink per week (P = 1 × 10−14). Total apoC3 blood levels were 0.5% higher per additional drink per week (P = 0.01), but the association was driven by a few heavily drinking men. Alcohol intake was positively associated with HDL subspecies lacking and containing apoC3, apoE, or apoJ, and with total plasma apoA1. ApoC3 was directly, albeit not as robustly associated with alcohol intake. HDL protein cargo is crucial for its anti-atherosclerotic functions, but it remains to be determined whether HDL subspecies play a role in the putative association between limited alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease.

  • Publication . Article . 2023
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jens Gudmundsson; Jens Leth Hougaard; Trine Tornøe Platz;
    Country: Denmark

    We study decentralized task coordination. Tasks are of varying complexity and agents asymmetric: agents capable of completing high-level tasks may also take on tasks originally contracted by lower-level agents, facilitating system-wide cost reductions. We suggest a family of decentralized two-stage mechanisms, in which agents first announce preferred individual workloads and then bargain over the induced joint cost savings. The second-stage negotiations depend on the first-stage announcements as specified through the mechanism's recognition function. We characterize mechanisms that incentivize cost-effective task allocation and further single out a particular mechanism, which additionally ensures a fair distribution of the system-wide cost savings.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Johan S. Bundgaard; Kasper Iversen; Henning Bundgaard;
    Country: Denmark
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Anne Toftgaard Pedersen; Jesper Kjaergaard; Christian Hassager; Martin Frydland; Jakob Hartvig Thomsen; Anika Klein; Henrik Schmidt; Jacob Eifer Møller; Sebastian Wiberg;
    Country: Denmark

    Objectives: Prognostication after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) remains challenging. The inflammatory response after OHCA has been associated with increased mortality. This study investigates the associations and predictive value between inflammatory markers and outcome in resuscitated OHCA patients.Design: The study is based on post hoc analyses of a double-blind controlled trial, where resuscitated OHCA patients were randomized to receive either exenatide or placebo. Blood was analyzed for levels of inflammatory markers the day following admission. Primary endpoint was time to death for up to 180-days. Secondary endpoints included 180-day mortality and poor neurological outcome after 180-days, defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 3 to 5.Results: Among 110 included patients we found significant associations between higher leucocyte quartile and increasing mortality in univariable analysis (OR 2.6 (95%CI 1.6-4.2), pConclusions: Total leucocyte count and neutrophil levels measured the first day following OHCA were significantly associated with 180-day all-cause mortality and may potentially act as early predictors of outcome.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Laura N.H. Verbrugge; Gunnar Bjarnason; Nora Fagerholm; Eyðfinn Magnussen; Lis Mortensen; Erla Olsen; Tobias Plieninger; Christopher M. Raymond; Anton Stahl Olafsson;
    Countries: Denmark, Finland

    Long-term livestock grazing has shaped landscapes, biodiversity, societies, cultures, and economies in the North Atlantic over time. However, overgrazing has become a major environmental sustainability challenge for this region, covering the Faroe Islands, Greenland, Iceland, Norway, and Scotland. The objective of this study was to elicit narratives and spatial patterns of local people's management preferences for sheep grazing in the Faroe Islands through a socio-cultural lens. We collected data via a Public Participation Geographic Information Systems (PPGIS) survey with an open question about hopes and concerns for sheep management in the Faroe Islands and a mapping exercise for expressing spatial preferences for sheep management. Four distinct narratives emerged from a qualitative analysis of responses to the open question (n = 184): (1) Sustainable sheep management, (2) Nature without sheep, (3) Sheep as part of Faroese culture, and (4) Sheep as nuisance. Visual inspection of narrative-specific maps with locations where either no or fewer sheep were preferred indicated that sheep management is not simply a 'sheep vs. no sheep' issue but embedded in a more nuanced consideration of the place of sheep in the landscape and society. For example, for some residents sheep-farming is not a commercial enterprise but a social activity and local source of food. Our combined methodological approach using qualitative and spatial data can help researchers in other fields identify the interplay between place-specific areas of grazing management concern and socio-cultural values, enabling more targeted land-use management policies or plans. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Faranak Tootoonchi; Jan O. Haerter; Andrijana Todorović; Olle Räty; Thomas Grabs; Claudia Teutschbein;
    Publisher: Uppsala universitet, Luft-, vatten- och landskapslära
    Countries: Denmark, Sweden

    For climate-change impact studies at the catchment scale, meteorological variables are typically extracted from ensem-ble simulations provided by global and regional climate models, which are then downscaled and bias-adjusted for eachstudy site. For bias adjustment, different statistical methods that re-scaleclimate model outputs have been suggested inthe scientific literature. They range from simple univariate methods that adjust each meteorological variable individ-ually, to more complex and more demanding multivariate methods that take existing relationships between meteoro-logical variables into consideration. Over the past decade, several attempts have been made to evaluate such methodsin various regions. There is, however, still no guidance for choosing appropriate bias adjustment methods for a study athand. In particular, the question whether the benefits of potentially improved adjustments outweigh the cost of in-creased complexity, remains unanswered.This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of the performance of two commonly used univariate and two multi-variate bias adjustment methods in reproducing numerous univariate, multivariate and temporal features of precipita-tion and temperature series in different catchments in Sweden. The paper culminates in a discussion on trade-offs between the potential benefits (i.e., skills and added value) and disadvantages (complexity and computational de-mand) of each method to offer plausible, defensible and actionable insights from the standpoint of climate-change im-pact studies in high latitudes.We concluded that all selected bias adjustment methods generally improved the raw climate model simulations, but that not a single method consistently outperformed the other methods. There were, however, differences in the methods' performance for particular statistical features, indicating that other practical aspects such as computationaltime and heavy theoretical requirements should also be taken into consideration when choosing an appropriate biasadjustment method

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Khadija Waqar; Kasper Engholm-Keller; Marcel S. Joehnke; Dereck E.W. Chatterton; Mahesha M. Poojary; Marianne N. Lund;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Country: Denmark

    Protein-polyphenol adducts are formed upon covalent bonding between oxidized polyphenols and proteins. 4-Methylcatechol (4MC) is a polyphenol with origin in coffee and is oxidized to 4-methylbenzoquinone (4MBQ) under conditions used during food processing. The present study characterizes 4MBQ-induced covalent modifications on β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from bovine milk, (henceforth β-LQ) and the effect on protein digestibility. Significant thiol and amine loss was found in β-LQ compared to β-LG. Site-specific 4MBQ-induced modifications were identified on Cys, Lys, Arg, His and Trp in β-LQ. No significant differences between β-LG and β-LQ on in vitro digestibility were observed by assessment with SDS-PAGE, degree of hydrolysis and LC-MS/MS unmodified peptide intensities. Cys-4MC adduct (1.7 ± 0.1 µmol/g) was released from β-LQ after in vitro digestion. Thus, it is relevant to investigate how released Cys-4MC adducts are absorbed in vivo in future studies.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Miguel Peña-Espinoza; Yeambell Romero-Uzqueda; Angela H. Valente; Matthew de Roode; Henrik T. Simonsen; Stig M. Thamsborg; Andrew R. Williams; Rodrigo López-Muñoz;
    Country: Denmark

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, is a potentially life-threatening parasitic zoonosis infecting 6-7 million people worldwide, mainly in Latin America. Due to the limited numbers of drugs available against this neglected disease and their frequent adverse effects, novel anti-chagasic agents are urgently needed. Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) is a bioactive plant with potent activity against parasitic nematodes, but its effects on protozoans are poorly known and no studies have explored its trypanocidal potential. Here, we investigated the activity of C. intybus against extracellular and intracellular stages of T. cruzi, including the prediction of trypanocidal compounds by metabolomic analyses and bioactivity-based molecular networking. Purified C. intybus extracts were prepared from leaves and roots of five C. intybus cultivars (cv. 'Benulite', 'Goldine', 'Larigot', 'Maestoso' and 'Spadona'). All C. intybus extracts induced concentration-dependent effects against T. cruzi trypomastigotes. C. intybus leaf extracts had higher trypanocidal selectivity and lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells than root extracts. The leaf extract of C. intybus cv. Goldine also significantly reduced the number of mammalian cells infected with T. cruzi amastigotes. Metabolomic and bioactivity-based molecular networking analyses revealed 11 compounds in C. intybus leaves strongly linked with activity against trypomastigotes, including the sesquiterpene lactone lactucin, and flavonoid- and fatty acid-derivatives. Furthermore, seven distinct C. intybus molecules (including two sesquiterpene lactone-derivatives) were predicted to be involved in reducing the number of mammalian cells infected with amastigotes. This is the first report of the anti-protozoal activity of C. intybus against trypanosomatid parasites and expands our understanding of the anti-parasitic effects of this plant and its bioactive metabolites. Further studies to elucidate the anti-protozoal compound(s) in C. intybus and their mode(s) of action will improve our knowledge of using this bioactive plant as a promising source of novel broad-spectrum anti-parasitic compounds with associated health benefits and biomedical potential.

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