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  • Mémoires en Sciences de l'Information et de la Communication
  • COVID-19

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  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Richard Paul; Olivier Telle; Samuel Benkimoun;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the implementation of unprecedented public health intervention measures, not least the lockdown of countries worldwide. In our hyperconnected world exemplified by social media, it is now possible to derive quantitative measures of human mobilities at useful spatial scales. In this chapter we discuss how the use of Facebook data enables us not only to capture the impact of lockdown on human mobility but also to assess how changes in mobility contribute to the spread of the virus. By performing a comparative analysis across four countries of differing levels of lockdown—Sweden, US, France and Colombia—we show that mobility contributes a substantial amount to the spread of the disease. This contribution is strongest when the local number of cases is low, but, importantly, is maintained even when the virus is widespread. Current epidemiological models do not take into account such mobility patterns and yet there exists a developed theoretical framework within which mobility can be included. Inclusion of mobility data would allow public health authorities to focus on highly connected hubs of infection and, because mobility patterns are relatively stable over time, would also enable forecasting of how the spread of this or another novel virus is going to occur. Anticipating epidemics and their spread is key for developing suitable but targeted intervention strategies and avoiding draconian lockdowns that are so harmful to the economy.

  • Publication . Part of book or chapter of book . 2022
    Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Slim Zidi; Nadia Hamani; Lyes Kermad;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Nowadays, supply chain disruptions caused by COVID-19 pandemic, demand variation, raw material shortage, etc., made the supply chains unable to deal with emerging market problems. Responding to the new requirements has underscored the need to ensure a reconfigurable supply chain in order to survive in this uncertain economic environment. Indeed, the objective of this study is to identify the quantitative factors of each reconfigurability characteristic representing the reconfigurability assessment indicators (modularity, integrability, convertibility, diagnosability, scalability and customization). Based on the literature review, quantitative factors used to assess the degree of reconfigurability in supply chain are determined. These factors allow classifying reconfigurability characteristics according to the degree of their influence on the supply chain structure or supply chain functions. Through this research work, we try to facilitate the assessment of reconfigurability based on its characteristics in order to determine the ability of the supply chain to cope with new emerging disruptions.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Kubler, Bérénice; Arezki, Djelloul; Soldo, Edina;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Cet article questionne la capacité des musées français à faire preuve de résilience organisationnelle face à la crise sanitaire. La nature complexe et contingente de ces établissements nous a conduits à employer une méthodologie exploratoire holistique à même de répondre à leurs caractéristiques. Nous avons construit, sur la base de données secondaires (rapports officiels, guides et webinaires), une taxonomie pragmatique selon la méthode de Grémy et Le Moan (1977), permettant ainsi de répondre à une confusion généralisée dans les sciences humaines et sociales sur les procédures de classification. Cinq dimensions ressortent dans cette taxonomie, révélant la capacité de résilience muséale.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Vinot, Didier;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; The COVID-19 pandemic brings to light an obvious fact that has been forgotten for 20 years: health cannot be treated as a commercial good, and consequently, hospitals cannot be managed like companies. The current situation should help us to conceive of a different hospital for tomorrow. However, the problem of the hospital is more structural than cyclical. Onwhat basis can these principles be rethought? After a diagnosis of the structural blockages in hospitals, principles are put forward to propose the bases of a hospital management renewed by the values of care.; La pandémie du Covid-19 a fait apparaître une évidence oubliée depuis 20 ans : la santé ne peut pas être traitée comme un bien marchand, et donc, l’hôpital ne peut pas être géré comme une entreprise. L’événement conjoncturel que nous vivons doit mieux aider à penser un autre hôpital pour demain. Or, la problématique de l’hôpital est plus structurelle que conjoncturelle. Mais sur quellesbases pourraient être repensés ces principes ? Après un diagnostic des blocages structurels des hôpitaux, nous proposons les fondements d’un management hospitalier renouvelé par les valeurs du soin.

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    Do, Hien; Benoit, Benjamin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience

  • Open Access French
    Authors: 
    du Boys, Céline; Bertolucci, Marius;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; This article examines how France, a model of centralism, responded during the first phase of the Covid-19 crisis between January and October 2020. The theoretical framework of intergovernmental relations is mobilized to reflect on the successes and failures of our administrative-political system in the face of the pandemic. The article is based on a qualitative and quantitative analysis of reports and speeches published by institutional actors during the crisis and shows relations in permanent tension between hyper-centralization and the development of a more flexible and reactive horizontal governance.; Cet article étudie la façon dont la France, modèle de centralisme, a réagi lors de la première phase de la crise de la Covid-19 entre janvier et octobre 2020. Le cadre théorique des relations intergouvernementales est mobilisé pour réfléchir les réussites et les échecs de notre système administrativo-politique face à la pandémie. L’article s’appuie sur une analyse qualitative et quantitative des rapports et discours publiés par les acteurs institutionnels pendant la crise et montre des relations en tension permanente entre une hyper-centralisation et le développement d’une gouvernance horizontale plus souple et réactive.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Chokri Arfa; Ilker Dastan; Kamel Barkaoui; Borgi Taoufik;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Health informatics and technological advances have the potential to improve the monitoring of medical and social protection of patients with communicable and non-communicable diseases through a disease management program and to reduce the financial burden on healthcare. In this chapter, we present a review of decision support systems and electronic health record management as tools for data analysis and data sharing and their integration in real time into health supply chains and social health protection, making health policies more efficient, particularly for those targeting patients infected with coronaviruses in need of health assistance.

  • French
    Authors: 
    Pierru, Emmanuel;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    Depuis 2019, je suis membre du Comité de pilotage, du Conseil scientifique & co-organisateur (avec Michel Pigenet et Danielle Tartakowsky et alii) de ce colloque pluridisciplinaire international, qui devait initialement se tenir sous forme de deux journées,initialement prévue en mars 2020 puis en repoussées en septembre 2021 puis reportées les 11 et 12 mars 2022 en raison de la crise sanitaire. En raison de l'épidémie de Covid 19, la première journée n'ayant pu être organisée, il devrait en principe se tenir sous forme de deux journées consécutives en juin 2021.; International audience

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Mehdi Stiti; Guillaume Castanet; Andrew Corber; Marcus Aldén; Edouard Berrocal;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: EC | Spray-Imaging (638546)

    To control the evolution of a pandemic such as COVID-19, knowing the conditions under which the pathogen is being transmitted represents a critical issue, especially when implementing protection strategies like social distancing and face masks wearing. For viruses and bacteria that spread via airborne and/or droplet pathways, this requires understanding how saliva droplets evolve over time after their expulsion by speaking or coughing. Within this context, the transition from saliva droplets to solid residues, due to water evaporation, is studied here both experimentally, considering the saliva from 5 men and 5 women, and via numerical modeling to accurately predict the dynamics of this process. The model assumes saliva to be a binary water/salt mixture and is validated against experimental results using saliva droplets that are suspended in an ultrasound levitator. We demonstrate that droplets with an initial diameter smaller than 21 μm will produce a solid residue that would be considered an aerosol of <5 μm diameter within less than 2 second (for any relative humidity less than 80% and/or any temperature greater than 20 °C). Finally, the model developed here accounts for the influence of the saliva composition, relative humidity and ambient temperature on droplet drying. Thus, the travel distance prior to becoming a solid residue can be deduced. We found that saliva droplets of initial size below 80 μm, which corresponds to the vast majority of speech and cough droplets, will become solid residues prior to touching the ground when expelled from a height of 160 cm.

  • Closed Access English
    Authors: 
    Kaat Philippe; Sylvie Issanchou; Sandrine Monnery-Patris;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France

    International audience; Using open-ended questions, this study explored parents’ experiences regarding changes in their family’s food-related behaviours during the first COVID-19 lockdown in France (March- May 2020). Parents (N=498, 72% mothers) of children aged 3-12 years described which food- related changes they (1) perceived as positive during the lockdown, (2) perceived as negative, and (3) would like to maintain after the lockdown. A thematic analysis revealed that parents appreciated the choice of more local, fresh foods, the time to prepare food (home-made dishes, new recipes) and cooking and eating together with the family. In contrast, some parents highlighted a burden imposed by the increased food preparation at home. They also described a higher intake of unhealthy, palatable food (or the temptation to do so), and weight concerns. Parents would like to maintain their choice of local, fresh foods, and to continue spending more time together around food but doubt the feasibility after the lockdown. The results revealed many inter- and intra-individual contrasts in parents’ answers. An ambivalent attitude toward food pleasure was demonstrated: the sensory/commensal pleasure of eating versus the concerns about an increased intake of pleasurable food. Additionally, gender differences were observed: mothers perceived the preparation of additional meals, for example, more often as a burden than fathers. This study revealed intimate perceptions of the impact of the lockdown on eating habits in families. They give insight into possible facilitators and barriers (e.g., time) for the adoption of recommended eating and cooking behaviours in families, beyond the pandemic.

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