Aim. Presented study deals with the cultural dimension. It analyses external and internal human activities, that are creating the polarity develop values. The aim of the study is to clarify and connect the theoretical level of thinking with the reality of life practice, which shows the true meaning of human existence. Concept. The study highlights the importance of human thinking and decision making. Through the actions, one develops and creates the values of human dignity. The study focuses on the importance of two dimensions (horizontal and vertical dimensions of man), the relationship of man to God. Human culture includes behaviour that can be learned and is shaped by the environment in which one lives. This contribution is to clarify a culture of thinking that is a reflection of the soul of human being. Since culture is not only a matter of individual dispositions but also of social reality, it is right to underline this dual aspect of the plurality dimension (Binetti et al., 2021). Conclusion. The study identifies a fundamental aspect of the culture’s values, which show the potential of the soul of every human being. Human values influence thinking and actions of human being, thus creating the image of God. This article was published with the support of International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century (contract number: 010-2021). Cooperation among: Sociedad Hispanica de Amigos de Kierkegaard, University of Granada (Spain) and College of Applied Psychology in Terezin (Czech Republic), 2021-2022. International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century 010-2021
Aim. Extraordinary circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic have led to new ways of learning and teaching, with students and teachers facing many challenges. The aim of the research was to examine attitudes and to determine the impressions and experiences of respondents regarding online teaching as well as to investigate and evaluate learning goals with regard to the SARS-COV-2 virus pandemic. Methods. The research was conducted in the Republic of Croatia on a sample of 1533 university students. A survey questionnaire designed specifically for the purposes of this research was used. Consisted of three independent variables and ten dependent variables related to online teaching. Results. The data obtained show that in online teaching, the respondents mostly used programs such as Zoom, Microsoft Teams and Merlin, while the least of them used Skype. Regarding testing and assessment, i.e. the grading of success in online teaching, respondents stated that teachers had mostly used colloquia (20.6%) and written exams (19.8%) for grading, while live exams had been used the least. The largest number of research participants, 61.9% of them, expressed the opinion that the criteria and grading procedures were clear and published before individual teaching units. doi:10.15503.jecs2021.2.399.411 400 Dynamics Conclusion. Faculties should design different syllabuses for conducting online classes. Centres should be provided/established with the task of collecting digital teaching materials, processing, and storing them, and making them available to teachers and students.
Aim. The aim of the research is to investigate the relationship between formal education and female entrepreneurship in Uganda. This research hopes to contribute to the literature on education and women’s entrepreneurship in this country. Methods. Data is collected from 109 women through semi structured interviews. These are participants from the agribusiness sector and own businesses ranging from market stalls, retail shops to street businesses. Through the iterative process, emerging themes are analysed and discussed. Results. The research finds that formal education programmes and macroeconomic policies negatively impact formal education and female entrepreneurship. Macroeconomic policies such as privatisation and the programmes of universal formal education do not incentivise students (specifically female ones) to pursue a full formal education, influencing them to leave schools early for necessity entrepreneurship to meet immediate needs. Conclusions. Even though the study indicates that a formal education demonstrates high outcomes in terms of economic growth and development, the education level attained by women entrepreneurs is insufficient to meet true entrepreneurial success. Furthermore, the macroeconomic environment adds to the challenge of successful women entrepreneurship. Originality. Various economic initiatives have been implemented in the quest for gender parity in education and women empowerment in Uganda since its independence. Statistics have demonstrated an increase in women’s education and empowerment through entrepreneurship, however, such data do not necessarily reflect economic development. The results suggest that the relationship between formal education and women entrepreneurship is more complex and nuanced than previously believed.
Aim. The present study is focused on exploring of the relationship between spirituality and irrational beliefs particularly in relation to movement activities in Slovakia and Czechia, i.e., helplessness, idealisation, perfectionism, external vulnerability, and negative expectation. Concept. Our research has been focused on the investigation, comparison, and correlation between the level of spirituality and irrational beliefs depending on the frequency of sport activities. Method. The research sample (N = 469) consisted of Slovak and Czech health population aged 18-70 (M = 41.97, SD = 13.14), of which 42.2% were men (N = 198) and 57.8% were women (N = 271). The level of spirituality was identified by means of the Expressions of Spiritual Inventory-Revised – ESI-R (MacDonald, 2000). The irrational beliefs were measured using the Scale of Irrational Beliefs (Kondáš & Kordáčová, 2000). Results. Research results confirmed the differences between the variables of spirituality and irrational beliefs based on the frequency of sports activities. Also, we confirmed the hypothesis of negative correlation between spirituality and irrational beliefs. Conclusion. In our study, we focused on the correlations between irrational beliefs and spirituality in group of Slovak and Czech population. Based on our results we can draw several conclusions. Research results confirmed the differences between the variables of spirituality and irrational beliefs based on frequency of sports activities. This paper is published within the frame of the project Institutional Counselling in Fight against Discrimination (ITMS2014 + 312041V753). This project is implemented thanks to support from the European Social Fund and the European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Program Human Resources and with the support of International Scientific Research Project: Pastoral practice, psychology and philosophical-theological-social fragments in the light of the 21st century (contract number: 010-2021). Cooperation among: Sociedad Hispanica de Amigos de Kierkegaard, University of Granada (Spain) and College of Applied Psychology in Terezin (Czech Republic), 2021-2022. European Regional Development Fund under the Operational Program Human Resources 010-2021 2021-2022 project Institutional Counselling in Fight against Discrimination ITMS2014 + 312041V753 European Social Fund (ESF)
Aim. The aim of this research is to examine how critical thinking is reflected in Lithuanian higher education study programmes and what conceptual model(s) of critical thinking are used by study programme makers.
Methods. The subject of the study encompasses 8 higher education study programmes and their subjects. They are analysed based on a constructed conceptual framework, which defines 9 critical thinking skills and 18 critical thinking dispositions.
Results. Analysis, evaluation and decision making are the most common critical thinking skills embedded in the goals of a study course and its learning outcomes. Explanation, interpretation and making inferences are less pronounced. Dispositions are listed rarely and in quite an indistinct way. Only open-mindedness and honesty have clear expression and statement in study programmes, though to a lesser extent. Dispositions such as concern for every person, inquisitiveness and flexibility are very fragmented.
Conclusions. For the meantime, critical thinking is neither reflected equally and coherently in all parts of study programmes – course goals, content, described methods and learning outcomes – nor clear conceptual models of critical thinking can be detected.
Research restrictions. The policy of the colleges and universities on providing the descriptions of study programmes and syllabuses publicly, limits their accessibility. Due to the sampling of study programmes, the research represents only selected study programmes.
Practical application. The created framework may be used to study programmes’ development by introducing the defined critical thinking skills in the descriptions of the study programmes more systematically.
Aim: The aim of this paper is to define the correlation between experiencing personal well-being and manifestations of spirituality of an individual.
Methods: The study involved the citizens of Chernihiv (average age – 33.2 years old): 96 people in total, 40 men and 56 women. The following methods were used: a) to measure the components of personal well-being – Satisfaction with Life scale by E. Diener, Psychological well-being scale by С. Riff, Questionnaire of parameters of subjective social well-being by T. Danylchenko; b) to measure the spiritual component – EPU Plus (Egoism - Personal Uniqueness) by L. Z. Levit, Methodology of measuring social interaction (mentality aspect) by G. L. Voronin.
Results: The source of experiencing personal well-being is positive health (physical abilities, absence of physical limitations). Factors that decrease personal well-being are low level of tolerance and the pursuit of pleasure. Personal well-being is ensured by belief about collaboration and experiencing positive health as a state of readiness for activity. Psychological well-being has a negative correlation with basic egoism (the pursuit of pleasure) and a positive one with social egoism (ability to comply one’s needs with the group interests, following social rules and norms). Subjective social well-being relates to the highest egoism (unique self-realization, realization of existing potential in an acceptable way). The orientation towards achieving personal or public goals determines the peculiarities of experiencing well-being in the eudaemonic and hedonistic dimensions.
Thesis. After the handover of Hong Kong’s sovereignty to China in 1997, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region government stipulated a trilingual (English, Cantonese, and Mandarin) and biliterate (English and Chinese) policy, in order to include Mandarin as an additional co-official language together with the original English and Cantonese. Until the handover, the use of Mandarin was restricted in British colonial Hong Kong. Since the handover, however, Mandarin and its users have experienced some resistance by local Hong Kong people.
Method. In an attempt to better understand this resistance and its implications, this study adopts Pierre Bourdieu’s field, habitus, and capital theory, to analyse the anti-Mandarin discourse that has prevailed in the ensuing two decades. Via narrative inquiry, this study explains the habitus of four Mandarin speaking teachers, while especially noting their clashes with the anti-Mandarin discourse, and the symbolic violence they suffered in the field.
Conclusion. The study concludes with a reflection on the clash between the teachers’ struggles with the discourse from a postcolonial perspective, and it also considers the legal issues involved in protecting mainland Chinese as a minority in Hong Kong.
Aim: Higher education has experienced major changes in last few decades in India in terms of its expansion, content and reach. Massification of higher education has increased access to education and people belonging to different social backgrounds are getting enrolled in higher education. A pertinent question that emerges here is: what kind of relationship exists between the background characteristics of people and the levels and types of higher education they attain? This descriptive study provides a comprehensive answer.
Method: This empirical work is conducted in Srinagar city of India. It covered 704 respondents belonging to 245 households. Survey method was used for collecting primary data and structured interviews were conducted by making use of interview-schedule.
Results: This study finds that higher education in Srinagar is readily available for many but such availability is embedded within constraints related to gender, age, occupation and education of parents and caste related identities. People coming from different social backgrounds acquire different types and levels of higher education. It creates hierarchy among and within academic courses of higher education and inequalities among the groups.
Conclusion: Higher education reflects as well as promotes social inequalities in contemporary context and thus the egalitarian goals of higher education are getting compromised. There is need to bring change in the courses and contents of higher education so that it can address to dynamic needs of people coming from different backgrounds. Education needs to become a vehicle for liberation and social transformation and should not remain a mere agency of social reproduction.
Key words: social background; courses within higher education; higher education in different contexts; gender; caste; parent’s background; descriptive study.
Aim. The modern museum becomes an attractive learning place and space where the visitor, depending on age and competence, develops personal experience, and constructs the learning process based on personalized goals. The article aims to reveal how spaces in museums are exploited, in what ways visitors are involved in a narrative that connects the present and the past.
Concept. The research uses a case-study method to investigate the POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews (Poland), Ruhr Museum (Germany), and Vienna Technical Museum (Austria). Within the smart learning environment context, this study explains how to encourage museum visitors to learn and seek answers.
Results and conclusion. Four main directions are emphasized: the construction of a narrative through the creation of spaces and places, the creation of a historical narrative through simulacra, the educational effect of smart solutions, and the edutainment. The findings show that change in the museum by combining design solutions, historical narrative, time experience, and smart technologies leads to cognitive, engaging learning, touching, feeling, and experiencing different emotions, encouraging a return to the museum, inviting to learn, and shaping one's personal experience.
Cognitive value. Contemporary museums invite visitors to a new experience combining artistic space design, storytelling, individual time management, and the use of smart learning environments. These challenges are shifting museum narratives and influencing non-formal learning programs. Authors raise a discussion of how, by exploiting museum spaces, the visitors are involved in the stories, and how the smart learning environment is created in a modern museum.
Aim. The main objective of this investigation is to explore perceived lack of Lithuanian STEM labour force supply. It is often believed that education systems are the bottleneck of economic growth and that by increasing the supply of STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) graduates we will get more and better payed jobs. But a growing body of evidence suggests that in many STEM fields there is an adequate supply or even oversupply of STEM majors. Still, technologically advanced capitalist countries advocate for more STEM workforce regardless of an overcrowded market. Echoing foreign neoliberal trends, Lithuanian education policy makers are on the same STEM shortage hype-train, and reforms are full steam ahead.
Methods. To explore perceived lack of Lithuanian STEM labour force supply an assessment of STEM graduates’ (n=3720) occupational destinations one year after graduation and average salaries in those professions was conducted employing a descriptive statistical analysis.
Results. Findings show that there is no general shortage of STEM labour supply; the majority (54% n=2023) of all recent STEM degree holders in Lithuania do not work in STEM jobs. The majority of graduates usually do not reach national average income one year after graduation.
Conclusions. Persuasion of students to study STEM degrees based on better labour market outcomes is misleading and possibly unethical. The principal theoretical implication of this paper is the acknowledgment that low STEM graduate employment does not necessarily signify a failing education system. Rather, this is an opportunity to look beyond human capital and labour market discourse which, arguably, prevents STEM education to realize its revolutionary potential.