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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chenyan Shi; Leen Beller; Lanjiao Wang; Ana Rosales Rosas; Lander De Coninck; Lyza Héry; Laurence Mousson; Nonito Pagès; Jeroen Raes; Leen Delang; +3 more
    Publisher: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
    Countries: France, Belgium

    Mosquitoes are important vectors for many arboviruses. It is becoming increasingly clear that various symbiotic microorganisms (including bacteria and insect-specific viruses; ISVs) in mosquitoes have the potential to modulate the ability of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses. In this study, we compared the bacteriome and virome (both eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages) of female adult Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes fed with sucrose/water, blood, or blood spiked with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV), respectively. Furthermore, we investigated associations between the microbiota and vector competence. We show that the influence of arboviruses on the mosquito microbiome-and vice versa-is distinct for each combination of arbovirus/mosquito species. The presence of ZIKV resulted in a temporarily increased Aedes ISV diversity. However, this effect was distinct for different ISVs: some ISVs decreased following the blood meal (Aedes aegypti totivirus), whereas other ISVs increased only when the blood contained ZIKV (Guadeloupe mosquito virus). Also, the diversity of the Aedes bacteriome depended on the diet and the presence of ZIKV, with a lower diversity observed for mosquitoes receiving blood without ZIKV. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, some ISVs increased in WNV-infected mosquitoes (Guadeloupe Culex tymo-like virus). Particularly, the presence of Wenzhou sobemo-like virus 3 (WSLV3) was associated with the absence of infectious WNV in mosquito heads, suggesting that WSLV3 might affect vector competence for WNV. Distinct profiles of bacteriophages were identified in Culex mosquitoes depending on diet, despite the lack of clear changes in the bacteriome. Overall, our data demonstrate a complex three-way interaction among arboviruses, resident microbiota, and the host, which is distinct for different arbovirus-mosquito combinations. A better understanding of these interactions may lead to the identification of microbiota able to suppress the ability of arbovirus transmission to humans, and hence improved arbovirus control measures. IMPORTANCE In this study, we first utilized the single mosquito microbiome analysis, demonstrating a complex three-way interaction among arboviruses, resident microbiota, and the host, which is distinct for different arbovirus-mosquito combinations. Some of the previously described "core virus" increased in the mosquitos receiving viral blood meal, like Guadeloupe mosquito virus and Guadeloupe Culex tymo-like virus, suggesting their potential roles in ZIKV and WNV infection. Notably, Wenzhou sobemo-like virus 3 was associated with the absence of infectious WNV in heads of Culex mosquitoes, which might affect vector competence for WNV. A better understanding of these interactions will lead to the identification of microbiota able to suppress the ability of arbovirus transmission to humans, and hence improved arbovirus control measures. ispartof: MBIO vol:13 issue:5 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Flora Magnotti; Daria Chirita; Sarah Dalmon; Amandine Martin; Pauline Bronnec; Jeremy Sousa; Olivier Helynck; Wonyong Lee; Daniel L. Kastner; Jae Jin Chae; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium

    The pyrin inflammasome acts as a guard of RhoA GTPases and is central to immune defenses against RhoA-manipulating pathogens. Pyrin activation proceeds in two steps. Yet, the second step is still poorly understood. Using cells constitutively activated for the pyrin step 1, a chemical screen identifies etiocholanolone and pregnanolone, two catabolites of testosterone and progesterone, acting at low concentrations as specific step 2 activators. High concentrations of these metabolites fully and rapidly activate pyrin, in a human specific, B30.2 domain-dependent manner and without inhibiting RhoA. Mutations in MEFV, encoding pyrin, cause two distinct autoinflammatory diseases pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Monocytes from PAAND patients, and to a lower extent from FMF patients, display increased responses to these metabolites. This study identifies an unconventional pyrin activation mechanism, indicates that endogenous steroid catabolites can drive autoinflammation, through the pyrin inflammasome, and explains the "steroid fever" described in the late 1950s upon steroid injection in humans. ispartof: CELL REPORTS vol:41 issue:2 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Octavi Bassegoda; Pol Olivas; Laura Turco; Mattias Mandorfer; Miquel Serra-Burriel; Luis Téllez; Wilhelmus J. Kwanten; Alexia Laroyenne; Oana Farcau; Edilmar Alvarado; +38 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Belgium

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal hypertension is the strongest predictor of hepatic decompensation and death in patients with cirrhosis. However, its discriminatory accuracy in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been challenged because hepatic vein catheterization may not reflect the real portal vein pressure as accurately as in patients with other etiologies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and presence of portal hypertension-related decompensation in patients with advanced NAFLD (aNAFLD). METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study included 548 patients with aNAFLD and 444 with advanced RNA-positive hepatitis C (aHCV) who had detailed portal hypertension evaluation (HVPG measurement, gastroscopy, and abdominal imaging). We examined the relationship between etiology, HVPG, and decompensation by logistic regression models. We also compared the proportions of compensated/decompensated patients at different HVPG levels. RESULTS: Both cohorts, aNAFLD and aHVC, had similar baseline age, gender, Child-Pugh score, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. Median HVPG was lower in the aNAFLD cohort (13 vs 15 mmHg) despite similar liver function and higher rates of decompensation in aNAFLD group (32% vs 25%; P = .019) than in the aHCV group. For any of the HVPG cutoff analyzed (<10, 10-12, or 12 mmHg) the prevalence of decompensation was higher in the aNAFLD group than in the aHCV group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with aNAFLD have higher prevalence of portal hypertension-related decompensation at any value of HVPG as compared with aHCV patients. Longitudinal studies aiming to identify HVPG thresholds able to predict decompensation and long-term outcomes in aNAFLD population are strongly needed. ispartof: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol vol:20 issue:10 pages:2276-2286.e6 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christine Chiaverini; Mathieu Marty; S.M. Dridi; Sophie-Caroline Campana; Thibault Canceill; Isabelle Bailleul-Forestier; V. Verhaeghe; Dominique Declerck; Thomas Hubiche; Ph Kémoun; +2 more
    Country: Belgium

    ispartof: J Am Acad Dermatol vol:87 issue:4 pages:872-874 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luca Monzo; João Pedro Ferreira; John G.F. Cleland; Pierpaolo Pellicori; Beatrice Mariottoni; Mark R. Hazebroek; Tim J. Collier; Joe J. Cuthbert; Burkert Pieske; Johannes Petutschnigg; +8 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium

    AIMS: In people at risk of heart failure (HF) enrolled in the Heart 'OMics' in AGEing (HOMAGE) trial, spironolactone reduced circulating markers of collagen synthesis, natriuretic peptides, and blood pressure and improved cardiac structure and function. In the present report, we explored factors associated with dyskalaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HOMAGE trial was an open-label study comparing spironolactone (up to 50 mg/day) versus standard care in people at risk for HF. After randomization, serum potassium was assessed at 1 and 9 months and was defined as low when ≤3.5 mmol/L (hypokalaemia) and high when ≥5.5 mmol/L (hyperkalaemia). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify clinical predictors of dyskalaemia. A total of 513 participants (median age 74 years, 75% men, median estimated glomerular filtration rate 71 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) had serum potassium available and were included in this analysis. At randomization, 88 had potassium  5.0 mmol/L. During follow-up, on at least one occasion, a serum potassium  5.0 mmol/L was observed in 38 (8%) and >5.5 mmol/L in 5 (1.0%) participants. The median (percentile25-75 ) increase in serum potassium with spironolactone during the study was 0.23 (0.16; 0.29) mmol/L. Because of the low incidence of dyskalaemia, for regression analysis, hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia thresholds were set at 5.0 mmol/L, respectively. The occurrence of a serum potassium > 5.0 mmol/L during follow-up was positively associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus {odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14; 3.79]} and randomization to spironolactone (OR: 2.83 [95% CI 1.49; 5.37]). Conversely, the occurrence of a potassium concentration < 4.0 mmol/L was positively associated with the use of thiazides (OR: 2.39 [95% CI 1.32; 4.34]), blood urea concentration (OR: 2.15 [95% CI 1.34; 3.39] per 10 mg/dL), and history of hypertension (OR: 2.32 [95% CI 1.02; 5.29]) and negatively associated with randomization to spironolactone (OR: 0.30 [95% CI 0.18; 0.52]). CONCLUSIONS: In people at risk for developing HF and with relatively normal renal function, spironolactone reduced the risk of hypokalaemia and, at the doses used, was not associated with the occurrence of clinically meaningful hyperkalaemia. ispartof: ESC HEART FAILURE ispartof: location:England status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gabor Erdoes; Patrick F. Wouters; R. Peter Alston; Jan-Uwe Schreiber; Dominique Bettex; Theofani Antoniou; Maria Benedetto; Stefaan Bouchez; Laszlo Szegedi; Kirstin Wilkinson; +29 more
    Countries: Belgium, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Netherlands

    International audience; This document represents the first update of the Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia Fellowship Curriculum of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. After obtaining feedback from exit interviews with fellows in training, graduate fellows, and program directors, 2 modified online Delphi procedures with questionnaires were conducted. A consensus was reached when two-thirds of responding committee members gave green or yellow ratings on a traffic light system, and >70% indicated strong agreement or agreement on a 5-point Likert scale. The new regulations include the following: (1) more flexibility in the fellows` rotation, as long as the total number of days, rotations, and cases are completed during the training year; (2) recommendation for strict compliance with national working-time guidelines; (3) no extension of fellowship training to compensate for annual and/or sick leave, unless the required minimum number of cases and rotations are not reached; (4) interruption of fellowship training for >12 months is allowed for personal or medical reasons; (5) introduction of a checklist for quantitative assessment of standard clinical skills; (6) recommendations for a uniform structure of exit interviews; (7) possibility of a 1-month training rotation in a postanesthesia care unit instead of an intensive care unit; and (8) provided all other requirements have been met, the allowance of progression from the basic training year to the advanced fellowship training year without first passing the transesophageal echocardiography examination.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    D. Smittarello; B. Smets; J. Barrière; C. Michellier; A. Oth; T. Shreve; R. Grandin; N. Theys; H. Brenot; V. Cayol; +26 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, France

    AbstractClassical mechanisms of volcanic eruptions mostly involve pressure buildup and magma ascent towards the surface1. Such processes produce geophysical and geochemical signals that may be detected and interpreted as eruption precursors1–3. On 22 May 2021, Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), an open-vent volcano with a persistent lava lake perched within its summit crater, shook up this interpretation by producing an approximately six-hour-long flank eruption without apparent precursors, followed—rather than preceded—by lateral magma motion into the crust. Here we show that this reversed sequence was most likely initiated by a rupture of the edifice, producing deadly lava flows and triggering a voluminous 25-km-long dyke intrusion. The dyke propagated southwards at very shallow depth (less than 500 m) underneath the cities of Goma (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Gisenyi (Rwanda), as well as Lake Kivu. This volcanic crisis raises new questions about the mechanisms controlling such eruptions and the possibility of facing substantially more hazardous events, such as effusions within densely urbanized areas, phreato-magmatism or a limnic eruption from the gas-rich Lake Kivu. It also more generally highlights the challenges faced with open-vent volcanoes for monitoring, early detection and risk management when a significant volume of magma is stored close to the surface.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qazi Mashaal Khan; Lokesh Devaraj; Richard Perdriau; Alastair R. Ruddle; Tim Claeys; Mohamed Ramdani; Mohsen Koohestani;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium
    Project: EC | PETER (812790)

    ispartof: Ieee Access vol:10 status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Katerina M. Antoniou; Eirini Vasarmidi; Anne-Marie Russell; Claire Andrejak; Bruno Crestani; Marion Delcroix; Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan; Venerino Poletti; Nicola Sverzellati; Michele Vitacca; +3 more
    Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD
    Countries: France, Belgium

    Patients diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection frequently experience symptom burden post-acute infection or post-hospitalisation. We aimed to identify optimal strategies for follow-up care that may positively impact the patient's quality of life (QoL). A European Respiratory Society (ERS) Task Force convened and prioritised eight clinical questions. A targeted search of the literature defined the timeline of "long COVID" as 1-6 months post-infection and identified clinical evidence in the follow-up of patients. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria report an association of characteristics of acute infection with persistent symptoms, thromboembolic events in the follow-up period, and evaluations of pulmonary physiology and imaging. Importantly, this statement reviews QoL consequences, symptom burden, disability and home care follow-up. Overall, the evidence for follow-up care for patients with long COVID is limited. ispartof: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL vol:60 issue:2 ispartof: location:England status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Martin Hoenigl; Danila Seidel; Agostinho Carvalho; Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy; Amir Arastehfar; Jean-Pierre Gangneux; Nosheen Nasir; Alexandro Bonifaz; Javier Araiza; Nikolai Klimko; +7 more
    Publisher: The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    Countries: France, Belgium

    International audience; Reports of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis have been increasing in frequency since early 2021, particularly among patients with uncontrolled diabetes. Patients with diabetes and hyperglycaemia often have an inflammatory state that could be potentiated by the activation of antiviral immunity to SARS-CoV2, which might favour secondary infections. In this Review, we analysed 80 published and unpublished cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis. Uncontrolled diabetes, as well as systemic corticosteroid treatment, were present in most patients with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis, and rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis was the most frequent disease. Mortality was high at 49%, which was particularly due to patients with pulmonary or disseminated mucormycosis or cerebral involvement. Furthermore, a substantial proportion of patients who survived had life-changing morbidities (eg, loss of vision in 46% of survivors). Our Review indicates that COVID-19-associated mucormycosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis is particularly challenging, and might be frequently missed in India. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

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