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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    , Pelisson; Métais; , Nicolas; Diarra; Cheviet; Koun;
    Publisher: Elsevier BV
    Countries: Belgium, France

    Previous behavioral, clinical, and neuroimaging studies suggest that the neural substrates of adaptation of saccadic eye movements involve, beyond the central role of the cerebellum, several, still incompletely determined, cortical areas. Furthermore, no neuroimaging study has yet tackled the differences between saccade lengthening ("forward adaptation") and shortening ("backward adaptation") and neither between their two main components, i.e. error processing and oculomotor changes. The present fMRI study was designed to fill these gaps. Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal and eye movements of 24 healthy volunteers were acquired while performing reactive saccades under 4 conditions repeated in short blocks of 16 trials: systematic target jump during the saccade and in the saccade direction (forward: FW) or in the opposite direction (backward: BW), randomly directed FW or BW target jump during the saccade (random: RND) and no intra-saccadic target jump (stationary: STA). BOLD signals were analyzed both through general linear model (GLM) approaches applied at the whole-brain level and through sensitive Multi-Variate Pattern Analyses (MVPA) applied to 34 regions of interest (ROIs) identified from independent 'Saccade Localizer' functional data. Oculomotor data were consistent with successful induction of forward and backward adaptation in FW and BW blocks, respectively. The different analyses of voxel activation patterns (MVPAs) disclosed the involvement of 1) a set of ROIs specifically related to adaptation in the right occipital cortex, right and left MT/MST, right FEF and right pallidum; 2) several ROIs specifically involved in error signal processing in the left occipital cortex, left PEF, left precuneus, Medial Cingulate cortex (MCC), left inferior and right superior cerebellum; 3) ROIs specific to the direction of adaptation in the occipital cortex and MT/MST (left and right hemispheres for FW and BW, respectively) and in the pallidum of the right hemisphere (FW). The involvement of the left PEF and of the (left and right) occipital cortex were further supported and qualified by the whole brain GLM analysis: clusters of increased activity were found in PEF for the RND versus STA contrast (related to error processing) and in the left (right) occipital cortex for the FW (BW) versus STA contrasts [related to the FW (BW) direction of error and/or adaptation]. The present study both adds complementary data to the growing literature supporting a role of the cerebral cortex in saccadic adaptation through feedback and feedforward relationships with the cerebellum and provides the basis for improving conceptual frameworks of oculomotor plasticity and of its link with spatial cognition. ispartof: NEUROIMAGE vol:262 ispartof: location:United States status: accepted

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Chenyan Shi; Leen Beller; Lanjiao Wang; Ana Rosales Rosas; Lander De Coninck; Lyza Héry; Laurence Mousson; Nonito Pagès; Jeroen Raes; Leen Delang; +3 more
    Publisher: AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY
    Countries: France, Belgium

    Mosquitoes are important vectors for many arboviruses. It is becoming increasingly clear that various symbiotic microorganisms (including bacteria and insect-specific viruses; ISVs) in mosquitoes have the potential to modulate the ability of mosquitoes to transmit arboviruses. In this study, we compared the bacteriome and virome (both eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages) of female adult Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes fed with sucrose/water, blood, or blood spiked with Zika virus (ZIKV) or West Nile virus (WNV), respectively. Furthermore, we investigated associations between the microbiota and vector competence. We show that the influence of arboviruses on the mosquito microbiome-and vice versa-is distinct for each combination of arbovirus/mosquito species. The presence of ZIKV resulted in a temporarily increased Aedes ISV diversity. However, this effect was distinct for different ISVs: some ISVs decreased following the blood meal (Aedes aegypti totivirus), whereas other ISVs increased only when the blood contained ZIKV (Guadeloupe mosquito virus). Also, the diversity of the Aedes bacteriome depended on the diet and the presence of ZIKV, with a lower diversity observed for mosquitoes receiving blood without ZIKV. In Cx. quinquefasciatus, some ISVs increased in WNV-infected mosquitoes (Guadeloupe Culex tymo-like virus). Particularly, the presence of Wenzhou sobemo-like virus 3 (WSLV3) was associated with the absence of infectious WNV in mosquito heads, suggesting that WSLV3 might affect vector competence for WNV. Distinct profiles of bacteriophages were identified in Culex mosquitoes depending on diet, despite the lack of clear changes in the bacteriome. Overall, our data demonstrate a complex three-way interaction among arboviruses, resident microbiota, and the host, which is distinct for different arbovirus-mosquito combinations. A better understanding of these interactions may lead to the identification of microbiota able to suppress the ability of arbovirus transmission to humans, and hence improved arbovirus control measures. IMPORTANCE In this study, we first utilized the single mosquito microbiome analysis, demonstrating a complex three-way interaction among arboviruses, resident microbiota, and the host, which is distinct for different arbovirus-mosquito combinations. Some of the previously described "core virus" increased in the mosquitos receiving viral blood meal, like Guadeloupe mosquito virus and Guadeloupe Culex tymo-like virus, suggesting their potential roles in ZIKV and WNV infection. Notably, Wenzhou sobemo-like virus 3 was associated with the absence of infectious WNV in heads of Culex mosquitoes, which might affect vector competence for WNV. A better understanding of these interactions will lead to the identification of microbiota able to suppress the ability of arbovirus transmission to humans, and hence improved arbovirus control measures. ispartof: MBIO vol:13 issue:5 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Camille Petitfils; Sarah Maurel; Gaelle Payros; Amandine Hueber; Bahija Agaiz; Géraldine Gazzo; Rémi Marrocco; Frédéric Auvray; Geoffrey Langevin; Jean-Paul Motta; +19 more
    Publisher: BMJ
    Countries: Belgium, France
    Project: ANR | RANTES (ANR-20-CE14-0001), ANR | ANINFIMIP (ANR-11-EQPX-0003), ANR | LiBacPain (ANR-18-CE14-0039), ANR | METABOHUB (ANR-11-INBS-0010)

    ObjectivesClinical studies revealed that early-life adverse events contribute to the development of IBS in adulthood. The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between prenatal stress (PS), gut microbiota and visceral hypersensitivity with a focus on bacterial lipopeptides containing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA).DesignWe developed a model of PS in mice and evaluated, in adult offspring, visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD), colon inflammation, barrier function and gut microbiota taxonomy. We quantified the production of lipopeptides containing GABA by mass spectrometry in a specific strain of bacteria decreased in PS, in PS mouse colons, and in faeces of patients with IBS and healthy volunteers (HVs). Finally, we assessed their effect on PS-induced visceral hypersensitivity.ResultsPrenatally stressed mice of both sexes presented visceral hypersensitivity, no overt colon inflammation or barrier dysfunction but a gut microbiota dysbiosis. The dysbiosis was distinguished by a decreased abundance ofLigilactobacillus murinus, in both sexes, inversely correlated with visceral hypersensitivity to CRD in mice. An isolate from this bacterial species produced several lipopeptides containing GABA including C14AsnGABA. Interestingly, intracolonic treatment with C14AsnGABA decreased the visceral sensitivity of PS mice to CRD. The concentration of C16LeuGABA, a lipopeptide which inhibited sensory neurons activation, was decreased in faeces of patients with IBS compared with HVs.ConclusionPS impacts the gut microbiota composition and metabolic function in adulthood. The reduced capacity of the gut microbiota to produce GABA lipopeptides could be one of the mechanisms linking PS and visceral hypersensitivity in adulthood.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Flora Magnotti; Daria Chirita; Sarah Dalmon; Amandine Martin; Pauline Bronnec; Jeremy Sousa; Olivier Helynck; Wonyong Lee; Daniel L. Kastner; Jae Jin Chae; +11 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium

    The pyrin inflammasome acts as a guard of RhoA GTPases and is central to immune defenses against RhoA-manipulating pathogens. Pyrin activation proceeds in two steps. Yet, the second step is still poorly understood. Using cells constitutively activated for the pyrin step 1, a chemical screen identifies etiocholanolone and pregnanolone, two catabolites of testosterone and progesterone, acting at low concentrations as specific step 2 activators. High concentrations of these metabolites fully and rapidly activate pyrin, in a human specific, B30.2 domain-dependent manner and without inhibiting RhoA. Mutations in MEFV, encoding pyrin, cause two distinct autoinflammatory diseases pyrin-associated autoinflammation with neutrophilic dermatosis (PAAND) and familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Monocytes from PAAND patients, and to a lower extent from FMF patients, display increased responses to these metabolites. This study identifies an unconventional pyrin activation mechanism, indicates that endogenous steroid catabolites can drive autoinflammation, through the pyrin inflammasome, and explains the "steroid fever" described in the late 1950s upon steroid injection in humans. ispartof: CELL REPORTS vol:41 issue:2 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Octavi Bassegoda; Pol Olivas; Laura Turco; Mattias Mandorfer; Miquel Serra-Burriel; Luis Téllez; Wilhelmus J. Kwanten; Alexia Laroyenne; Oana Farcau; Edilmar Alvarado; +38 more
    Countries: Switzerland, Belgium

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Portal hypertension is the strongest predictor of hepatic decompensation and death in patients with cirrhosis. However, its discriminatory accuracy in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been challenged because hepatic vein catheterization may not reflect the real portal vein pressure as accurately as in patients with other etiologies. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and presence of portal hypertension-related decompensation in patients with advanced NAFLD (aNAFLD). METHODS: Multicenter cross-sectional study included 548 patients with aNAFLD and 444 with advanced RNA-positive hepatitis C (aHCV) who had detailed portal hypertension evaluation (HVPG measurement, gastroscopy, and abdominal imaging). We examined the relationship between etiology, HVPG, and decompensation by logistic regression models. We also compared the proportions of compensated/decompensated patients at different HVPG levels. RESULTS: Both cohorts, aNAFLD and aHVC, had similar baseline age, gender, Child-Pugh score, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. Median HVPG was lower in the aNAFLD cohort (13 vs 15 mmHg) despite similar liver function and higher rates of decompensation in aNAFLD group (32% vs 25%; P = .019) than in the aHCV group. For any of the HVPG cutoff analyzed (<10, 10-12, or 12 mmHg) the prevalence of decompensation was higher in the aNAFLD group than in the aHCV group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with aNAFLD have higher prevalence of portal hypertension-related decompensation at any value of HVPG as compared with aHCV patients. Longitudinal studies aiming to identify HVPG thresholds able to predict decompensation and long-term outcomes in aNAFLD population are strongly needed. ispartof: Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol vol:20 issue:10 pages:2276-2286.e6 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Christine Chiaverini; Mathieu Marty; S.M. Dridi; Sophie-Caroline Campana; Thibault Canceill; Isabelle Bailleul-Forestier; V. Verhaeghe; Dominique Declerck; Thomas Hubiche; Ph Kémoun; +2 more
    Country: Belgium

    ispartof: J Am Acad Dermatol vol:87 issue:4 pages:872-874 ispartof: location:United States status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Luca Monzo; João Pedro Ferreira; John G.F. Cleland; Pierpaolo Pellicori; Beatrice Mariottoni; Mark R. Hazebroek; Tim J. Collier; Joe J. Cuthbert; Burkert Pieske; Johannes Petutschnigg; +8 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium

    AIMS: In people at risk of heart failure (HF) enrolled in the Heart 'OMics' in AGEing (HOMAGE) trial, spironolactone reduced circulating markers of collagen synthesis, natriuretic peptides, and blood pressure and improved cardiac structure and function. In the present report, we explored factors associated with dyskalaemia. METHODS AND RESULTS: The HOMAGE trial was an open-label study comparing spironolactone (up to 50 mg/day) versus standard care in people at risk for HF. After randomization, serum potassium was assessed at 1 and 9 months and was defined as low when ≤3.5 mmol/L (hypokalaemia) and high when ≥5.5 mmol/L (hyperkalaemia). Multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to identify clinical predictors of dyskalaemia. A total of 513 participants (median age 74 years, 75% men, median estimated glomerular filtration rate 71 mL/min/1.73 m2 ) had serum potassium available and were included in this analysis. At randomization, 88 had potassium  5.0 mmol/L. During follow-up, on at least one occasion, a serum potassium  5.0 mmol/L was observed in 38 (8%) and >5.5 mmol/L in 5 (1.0%) participants. The median (percentile25-75 ) increase in serum potassium with spironolactone during the study was 0.23 (0.16; 0.29) mmol/L. Because of the low incidence of dyskalaemia, for regression analysis, hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia thresholds were set at 5.0 mmol/L, respectively. The occurrence of a serum potassium > 5.0 mmol/L during follow-up was positively associated with the presence of diabetes mellitus {odds ratio [OR]: 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.14; 3.79]} and randomization to spironolactone (OR: 2.83 [95% CI 1.49; 5.37]). Conversely, the occurrence of a potassium concentration < 4.0 mmol/L was positively associated with the use of thiazides (OR: 2.39 [95% CI 1.32; 4.34]), blood urea concentration (OR: 2.15 [95% CI 1.34; 3.39] per 10 mg/dL), and history of hypertension (OR: 2.32 [95% CI 1.02; 5.29]) and negatively associated with randomization to spironolactone (OR: 0.30 [95% CI 0.18; 0.52]). CONCLUSIONS: In people at risk for developing HF and with relatively normal renal function, spironolactone reduced the risk of hypokalaemia and, at the doses used, was not associated with the occurrence of clinically meaningful hyperkalaemia. ispartof: ESC HEART FAILURE ispartof: location:England status: published

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Gabor Erdoes; Patrick F. Wouters; R. Peter Alston; Jan-Uwe Schreiber; Dominique Bettex; Theofani Antoniou; Maria Benedetto; Stefaan Bouchez; Laszlo Szegedi; Kirstin Wilkinson; +29 more
    Countries: Belgium, Belgium, Italy, Switzerland, Belgium, France, Netherlands

    International audience; This document represents the first update of the Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anaesthesia Fellowship Curriculum of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care. After obtaining feedback from exit interviews with fellows in training, graduate fellows, and program directors, 2 modified online Delphi procedures with questionnaires were conducted. A consensus was reached when two-thirds of responding committee members gave green or yellow ratings on a traffic light system, and >70% indicated strong agreement or agreement on a 5-point Likert scale. The new regulations include the following: (1) more flexibility in the fellows` rotation, as long as the total number of days, rotations, and cases are completed during the training year; (2) recommendation for strict compliance with national working-time guidelines; (3) no extension of fellowship training to compensate for annual and/or sick leave, unless the required minimum number of cases and rotations are not reached; (4) interruption of fellowship training for >12 months is allowed for personal or medical reasons; (5) introduction of a checklist for quantitative assessment of standard clinical skills; (6) recommendations for a uniform structure of exit interviews; (7) possibility of a 1-month training rotation in a postanesthesia care unit instead of an intensive care unit; and (8) provided all other requirements have been met, the allowance of progression from the basic training year to the advanced fellowship training year without first passing the transesophageal echocardiography examination.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    D. Smittarello; B. Smets; J. Barrière; C. Michellier; A. Oth; T. Shreve; R. Grandin; N. Theys; H. Brenot; V. Cayol; +26 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Belgium, France

    AbstractClassical mechanisms of volcanic eruptions mostly involve pressure buildup and magma ascent towards the surface1. Such processes produce geophysical and geochemical signals that may be detected and interpreted as eruption precursors1–3. On 22 May 2021, Mount Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of the Congo), an open-vent volcano with a persistent lava lake perched within its summit crater, shook up this interpretation by producing an approximately six-hour-long flank eruption without apparent precursors, followed—rather than preceded—by lateral magma motion into the crust. Here we show that this reversed sequence was most likely initiated by a rupture of the edifice, producing deadly lava flows and triggering a voluminous 25-km-long dyke intrusion. The dyke propagated southwards at very shallow depth (less than 500 m) underneath the cities of Goma (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Gisenyi (Rwanda), as well as Lake Kivu. This volcanic crisis raises new questions about the mechanisms controlling such eruptions and the possibility of facing substantially more hazardous events, such as effusions within densely urbanized areas, phreato-magmatism or a limnic eruption from the gas-rich Lake Kivu. It also more generally highlights the challenges faced with open-vent volcanoes for monitoring, early detection and risk management when a significant volume of magma is stored close to the surface.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Qazi Mashaal Khan; Lokesh Devaraj; Richard Perdriau; Alastair R. Ruddle; Tim Claeys; Mohamed Ramdani; Mohsen Koohestani;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: France, Belgium
    Project: EC | PETER (812790)

    ispartof: Ieee Access vol:10 status: published

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