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37 Research products, page 1 of 4

  • Publications
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
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  • Rural Digital Europe

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Eduardo Baumeister;
    Publisher: Revista de Ciencias Sociales
    Country: Uruguay

    Desde 1980, el agro de Costa Rica sufrió cambios que expandieron la agroexportación. De manera paralela, crecieron el turismo y otras actividades no agrícolas. En Nicaragua, por su parte, las actividades agrícolas de exportación decayeron y, por tanto, también la demanda de mano de obra. A partir de la década del noventa, se ampliaron las migraciones de nicaragüenses hacia Costa Rica, creándose un modelo de articulación de tipo sur-sur, muy diferente al del resto de América Central, centrado en migrar a Estados Unidos. Los salarios agrícolas en Costa Rica son más elevados que en Nicaragua, sin embargo, una parte importante de los nicaragüenses trabajan de manera informal, con salarios inferiores a los de los costarricenses y en condiciones de pobreza multidimensional. Since 1980, the agriculture of Costa Rica underwent changes that expanded agro-exports. In parallel, tourism and other non-agricultural activities spread. In Nicaragua, agricultural export activities declined and, therefore, the demand for labor. Beginning the nineties, Nicaraguan migrations to Costa Rica expanded, creating a South-South model of articulation, very different from the rest of Central America, focused on migrating to the United States. Agricultural wages in Costa Rica are higher than in Nicaragua; however, an important part of Nicaraguans work informally, with lower wages than Costa Ricans, and in conditions of multidimensional poverty.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . Preprint . 2021
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Omar Otoniel Flores-Cortez; Ronny Adalberto Cortez; Bruno González;

    Nowadays use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) has increased. LPG is an asphyxiating, volatile and highly flammable gas. In a LPG leak situation, potential health accidents are increased either by inhalation or by combustion of the gas. On the other hand, carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas that comes mainly from combustion in car engines. Breathing CO-polluted air can cause dizziness, fainting, breathing problems, and sometimes death. To prevent health accidents, including explosions, in open or closed environments, remote and real-time monitoring of the concentration levels of CO and LPG gases has become a necessity. The aim of this work is to demonstrate the use of Internet of Things (IoT) techniques to design and build a telemetry system to monitor in real-time the concentration of GLP and CO gases in the surrounding air. To implement this work, as central hardware there is a microcontroller, CO and PLG sensors on the electronic station. Besides, Amazon Web Services (AWS) was used as an IoT platform and data storage in the cloud. The main result was a telematics system to monitor in real time the concentrations of both GLP and CO gases, whose data is accessible from any device with internet access through a website. Field tests have been successful and have shown that the proposed system is an efficient and low-cost option. David C. Wyld et al. (Eds): BIoT, DKMP, CCSEA, EMSA - 2021 pp. 31-39, 2021. CS & IT - CSCP 2021

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Osmel Alberto Sánchez-Granados; Ana Sandra Aguilar de Mendoza; José Rigoberto Vaquerano-Benavides; Lizzie Nájera de Henríquez; Larissa Hernández-Monterrosa; Glenda Yamileth Trejo-Magaña; Elmer José René Hernández-Romero; Edwin Osmil Coreas-Flores; Ramón Edgardo Marquina-Martínez;
    Publisher: Latin America Journals Online

    Knowing the existing risks in the management of natural disasters is a relevant factor. Additionally, having knowledge on the protection and conservation of resources in the coastal zone is equally important. The goal of this study consisted on identifying the use and conservation practices of natural resources in the coastal zones. The method applied was quantitative and the approach was descriptive/correlational; the sample consisted of 1.810 families. A survey was conducted using the QuestionPro software. This study was conducted in order to find out the current status of the natural resources in the coastal zone. The findings showed a poor care of the natural resources; as a consequence, this has led to a progressive damage to the surrounding marine ecosystem. Keywords: Conservation of natural resources - El Salvador, Environmental Protection, Coasts of the Pacific Ocean – Artisan fishing - Techniques. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5377/entorno.v0i70.10370URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11298/1180

  • Open Access Spanish; Castilian
    Authors: 
    Cardona, M.; Serrano, F.; Martín, J. A.; Rausell, E.; Saltaren, R.; García-Cena, C.;
    Publisher: Revista Iberoamericana de Automática e Informática Industrial
    Countries: El Salvador, El Salvador, Spain

    [ES] Un exoesqueleto robótico es un dispositivo electromecánico utilizado para aumentar la capacidad física de una persona, como ayuda a la locomoción o para procesos de rehabilitación de la marcha. En el caso de los exoesqueletos de rehabilitación se requiere que el sistema de control sea capaz de adaptarse adecuadamente a la evolución del paciente con el fin de optimizar su recuperación, esto implica el diseño de controladores robustos y precisos. En este trabajo se presenta el análisis cinemático, análisis dinámico y evaluación del sistema de control del exoesqueleto de rehabilitación ALICE. Dentro de las técnicas de control presentadas se encuentran: el controlador PD, PD adaptativo, y el controlador en modo deslizante. Además, se realiza un análisis de estabilidad utilizando el criterio de Lyapunov. Para probar el rendimiento de los reguladores, se utiliza un conjunto de datos de la Escuela de Fisioterapia de la ONCE de Madrid, correspondiente a personas sanas y personas con esclerosis múltiple. Se utiliza MATLAB como software de simulación y lenguaje de programación. [EN] A robotic exoskeleton is an electromechanical device that can be worn by a person to increase its physical capacity, to assist locomotion or for gait rehabilitation processes. In the case of rehabilitation exoskeletons, the control system is required to be smooth and capable to match accurately with the patients’ evolution in order to optimize the eciency of their recovery, this implies the design of robust and precise controllers. In this paper, kinematic analysis, dynamic analysis and control system evaluation for ALICE rehabilitation exoskeleton is presented. Among the control techniques used are: the PD controller, adaptive PD, and the sliding mode controller. In addition, a stability analysis using the Lyapunov criterion is performed. To test the performance of the controllers, gait data obtained by the ONCE School of Physiotherapy in Madrid, which correspond to healthy people and people with multiple sclerosis, are used. MATLAB as simulation software and programming language is used. Manuel Cardona agradece a la Fundación Carolina y a la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, España, por el apoyo para la realización de esta investigación gracias a la beca de Doctorado otorgada en el marco del convenio con la Universidad Don Bosco, El Salvador.

  • Publication . Conference object . Article . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manuel Cardona; Allan Palma; Josue Manzanares;
    Publisher: Editorial Universidad Don Bosco
    Country: El Salvador

    This paper presents how the COVID-19 pandemic has changed the course of the mobile robotics market, showing the status of mobile robots in three stages: before, during and after the COVID-19 pandemic. By analyzing these stages, it is possible to estimate what awaits this market in the future. From the many applications of mobile robots found during the COVID- 19 pandemic, as will be shown later, it is clear that mobile robots will be an important part of the future influencing the accelerated growth of their market and development.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Melba Castillo-Aramburu; Rafael Meza-Duriez;
    Publisher: Instituto Superior de Formacion Docente Salome Urena (ISFODOSU)

    El estudio analiza el currículo nacional en lo referido a las formas en que orienta la enseñanza de la lectura en aulas multigrado; así como las formas en que el profesorado lo aplica para ofrecer una instrucción efectiva. Se diseñó una investigación cualitativa de tipo exploratorio, con dos etapas: a) análisis documental para conocer las orientaciones del currículo sobre la enseñanza de la lectura, con énfasis en las particularidades para multigrado; b) un estudio de casos para analizar cómo los docentes contextualizan el currículo a esta modalidad. Para este segundo punto, se visitaron seis escuelas multigrado ubicadas en zonas rurales del país. Se realizaron entrevistas a docentes, así como observaciones de aula para determinar las influencias del currículo en las prácticas educativas de maestras/os. Como resultado, se han identificado márgenes de mejora en el currículo nacional referidos a la enseñanza de la lectura en la modalidad multigrado. Se identifica un currículo que parece limitar las posibilidades de una enseñanza efectiva en estas aulas. 

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Kristen Evans; Anne M. Larson; Selmira Flores;
    Publisher: Commonwealth Forestry Association

    From 2011–2015, the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) trained field teams in Nicaragua in Adaptive Collaborative Management (ACM) methods. ACM is a social learning-based approach to help forest communities manage their natural resources in a more equitable and sustainable way and respond to change. This paper presents the lessons-learned from the training and field work. It argues that understanding and building social learning processes among the ACM team members and facilitators are crucial components of the ACM methodology and necessary in order to recognize and address the complex nature of socio-ecological relationships. In particular, promoting women's participation in forest decision-making in their own rural communities requires not only a consideration of gender relations but also of the gender perspectives of each member of the field team.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Danny Morick; Nadav Davidovich; Eyal Bigal; Ezra Rosenbluth; Arieli Bouznach; Assaf Rokney; Merav Ron; Natascha Wosnick; Dan Tchernov; Aviad Scheinin;
    Publisher: MDPI AG

    Simple Summary Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a major fish pathogenic bacterium. In this study, we describe a fatal infection of a stranded wild sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus) by a post-mortem examination, histopathology, classical bacteriology and advanced molecular methods. The bacterial agent was characterized as S. agalactiae, type Ia-ST7. Abstract Streptococcus agalactiae is one of the most important fish pathogenic bacteria as it is responsible for epizootic mortalities in both wild and farmed species. S. agalactiae is also known as a zoonotic agent. In July 2018, a stranded wild sandbar shark (Carcharhinus plumbeus), one of the most common shark species in the Mediterranean Sea, was found moribund on the seashore next to Netanya, Israel, and died a few hours later. A post-mortem examination, histopathology, classical bacteriology and advanced molecular techniques revealed a bacterial infection caused by S. agalactiae, type Ia-ST7. Available sequences publicly accessible databases and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the S. agalactiae isolated in this case is closely related to fish and human isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a fatal streptococcosis in sandbar sharks.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Manuel Cardona; Cecilia E. Garcia Cena; Fernando E. Serrano; Roque Saltaren;
    Publisher: MDPI AG
    Countries: El Salvador, Spain, Spain

    Objective: In this article, we present the conceptual development of a robotics platform, called ALICE (Assistive Lower Limb Controlled Exoskeleton), for kinetic and kinematic gait characterization. The ALICE platform includes a robotics wearable exoskeleton and an on-board muscle driven simulator to estimate the user’s kinetic parameters. Background: Even when the kinematics patterns of the human gait are well studied and reported in the literature, there exists a considerable intra-subject variability in the kinetics of the movements. ALICE aims to be an advanced mechanical sensor that allows us to compute real-time information of both kinetic and kinematic data, opening up a new personalized rehabilitation concept. Methodology: We developed a full muscle driven simulator in an open source environment and validated it with real gait data obtained from patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. After that, we designed, modeled, and controlled a 6 DoF lower limb exoskeleton with inertial measurement units and a position/velocity sensor in each actuator. Significance: This novel concept aims to become a tool for improving the diagnosis of pathological gait and to design personalized robotics rehabilitation therapies. Conclusion: ALICE is the first robotics platform automatically adapted to the kinetic and kinematic gait parameters of each patient. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Catharina Wesseling; Jason Glaser; Julieta Rodríguez-Guzmán; Ilana Weiss; Rebekah A. I. Lucas; Sandra Peraza; Agnes Soares da Silva; Erik Hansson; Richard J. Johnson; Christer Hogstedt; +2 more
    Publisher: Pan American Health Organization

    ABSTRACT The death toll of the epidemic of chronic kidney disease of nontraditional origin (CKDnt) in Mesoamerica runs into the tens of thousands, affecting mostly young men. There is no consensus on the etiology. Anecdotal evidence from the 1990s pointed to work in sugarcane; pesticides and heat stress were suspected. Subsequent population-based surveys supported an occupational origin with overall high male-female ratios in high-risk lowlands, but small sex differences within occupational categories, and low prevalence in non-workers. CKDnt was reported in sugarcane and other high-intensity agriculture, and in non-agricultural occupations with heavy manual labor in hot environments, but not among subsistence farmers. Recent studies with stronger designs have shown cross-shift changes in kidney function and hydration biomarkers and cross-harvest kidney function declines related to heat and workload. The implementation of a water-rest-shade intervention midharvest in El Salvador appeared to halt declining kidney function among cane cutters. In Nicaragua a water-rest-shade program appeared sufficient to prevent kidney damage among cane workers with low-moderate workload but not among cutters with heaviest workload. Studies on pesticides and infectious risk factors have been largely negative. Non-occupational risk factors do not explain the observed epidemiologic patterns. In conclusion, work is the main driver of the CKDnt epidemic in Mesoamerica, with occupational heat stress being the single uniting factor shown to lead to kidney dysfunction in affected populations. Sugarcane cutters with extreme heat stress could be viewed as a sentinel occupational population. Occupational heat stress prevention is critical, even more so in view of climate change.

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