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681 Research products, page 1 of 69

  • Publications
  • 2013-2022
  • Open Access
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  • ELTE Digital Institutional Repository (EDIT)

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Hungler, Sára;
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | DEMOS (822590)

    Abstract The characteristics of Hungarian populism and its effects on labor and social policy are rather different compared to those of western Member States of the EU. These differences are due to the different experiences related to inter- and intra-EU migration and to the difference in how the EU’s austerity measures were imposed during the economic crisis. The two distinctive elements are the workfare regime which replaces the welfare state, and anti-pluralism. In the workfare model, ‘hard-working people’ are pictured as an idealized mass of employees who are disciplined and striving for betterment every day; and whose jobs and wellbeing are jeopardized by illegal migrants and the idle poor. However, labor law does not strengthen the rights of ‘hard-working people’ or support them in asserting their rights against their employers. While the Roma have been described as the undeserving poor and mainstreamed in everyday politics and practice, guarantees and protective measures have been severely curtailed in social policy, amplifying the insecurity and material deprivation of those who lose their jobs. Regarding collective labor law, the lack of an autonomous social dialogue supports anti-pluralist trends, a characteristic of populist governance. The fundamental elements of democratic control, such as participation or trade union rights have been largely eliminated to cement the executive power of the coalition.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Bálint Forgács; Judit Gervain; Eugenio Parise; Gergely Csibra; György Gergely; Júlia Baross; Ildikó Király;
    Publisher: Elsevier
    Countries: France, Hungary, United Kingdom, France, Hungary
    Project: EC | SOMICS (609819), UKRI | The International Centre ... (ES/L008955/1), EC | BabyRhythm (773202), EC | SOMICS (609819), UKRI | The International Centre ... (ES/L008955/1), EC | BabyRhythm (773202)

    Social cognition might play a critical role in language acquisition and comprehension, as mindreading may be necessary to infer the intended meaning of linguistic expressions uttered by communicative partners. In three electrophysiological experiments, we explored the interplay between belief attribution and language comprehension of 14-month-old infants. First, we replicated our earlier finding: infants produced an N400 effect to correctly labelled objects when the labels did not match a communicative partner’s beliefs about the referents. Second, we observed no N400 when we replaced the object with another category member. Third, when we named the objects incorrectly for infants, but congruently with the partner’s false belief, we observed large N400 responses, suggesting that infants retained their own perspective in addition to that of the partner. We thus interpret the observed social N400 effect as a communicational expectancy indicator because it was contingent not on the attribution of false beliefs but on semantic expectations by both the self and the communicative partner. Additional exploratory analyses revealed an early, frontal, positive-going electrophysiological response in all three experiments, which was contingent on infants’ computing the comprehension of the social partner based on attributed beliefs. Highlights • 14-month-old infants follow others’ comprehension of referential object labels • Infants track others’ false beliefs about objects at the object-kind level • The ‘social N400′ could be an indicator of communicational expectancy • An early frontal brain wave may reflect infants’ processing of false beliefs

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Henrietta Bolló; Krisztina J. Kovács; Radu Lefter; Ferenc Gombos; Enikő Kubinyi; József Topál; Anna Kis;
    Publisher: Nature Portfolio
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | EVOLOR (680040)

    AbstractDogs have outstanding capabilities to read human emotional expressions, both vocal and facial. It has also been shown that positively versus negatively valenced dog-human social interactions substantially affect dogs’ subsequent sleep. In the present study, we manipulated dogs’ (N = 15, in a within subject design) sleep structure by specifically disrupting REM versus Non-REM sleep, while maintaining equal sleep efficiency (monitored via non-invasive polysomnography). We found that both the number of awakenings as well as relative Non-REM (but not relative REM) duration influenced dogs’ viewing patterns in a task where sad and happy human faces were simultaneously projected with sad or happy human voice playbacks. In accordance with the emotion laterality hypothesis, the interaction between sound valence and Non-REM sleep duration was specific to images projected to the left (regardless of image-sound congruency). These results reveal the first evidence of a causal link between sleep structure and inter-specific emotion-processing in the family dog.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Péter Simor; Gwen van der Wijk; Lino Nobili; Philippe Peigneux;
    Countries: Hungary, Belgium
    Project: EC | IFatULB (801505)

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is a peculiar neural state that occupies 20-25% of nighttime sleep in healthy human adults and seems to play critical roles in a variety of functions spanning from basic physiological mechanisms to complex cognitive processes. REM sleep exhibits a plethora of transient neurophysiological features, such as eye movements, muscle twitches, and changes in autonomic activity, however, despite its heterogeneous nature, it is usually conceptualized as a homogeneous sleep state. We propose here that differentiating and exploring the fine microstructure of REM sleep, especially its phasic and tonic constituents would provide a novel framework to examine the mechanisms and putative functions of REM sleep. In this review, we show that phasic and tonic REM periods are remarkably different neural states with respect to environmental alertness, spontaneous and evoked cortical activity, information processing, and seem to contribute differently to the dysfunctions of REM sleep in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. We highlight that a distinctive view on phasic and tonic REM microstates would facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms and functions of REM sleep in healthy and pathological conditions. info:eu-repo/semantics/published

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Marianna Boros; Anna Gábor; Dóra Szabó; Anett Bozsik; Márta Gácsi; Ferenc Szalay; Tamás Faragó; Attila Andics;
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | EVOLOR (680040)

    AbstractIn the human speech signal, cues of speech sounds and voice identities are conflated, but they are processed separately in the human brain. The processing of speech sounds and voice identities is typically performed by non-primary auditory regions in humans and non-human primates. Additionally, these processes exhibit functional asymmetry in humans, indicating the involvement of distinct mechanisms. Behavioural studies indicate analogue side biases in dogs, but neural evidence for this functional dissociation is missing. In two experiments, using an fMRI adaptation paradigm, we presented awake dogs with natural human speech that either varied in segmental (change in speech sound) or suprasegmental (change in voice identity) content. In auditory regions, we found a repetition enhancement effect for voice identity processing in a secondary auditory region – the caudal ectosylvian gyrus. The same region did not show repetition effects for speech sounds, nor did the primary auditory cortex exhibit sensitivity to changes either in the segmental or in the suprasegmental content. Furthermore, we did not find evidence for functional asymmetry neither in the processing of speech sounds or voice identities. Our results in dogs corroborate former human and non-human primate evidence on the role of secondary auditory regions in the processing of suprasegmental cues, suggesting similar neural sensitivity to the identity of the vocalizer across the mammalian order.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Imre Varga; Attila Kardos; Attila Borsos; Tibor Gilányi;
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | NANOS3 (290251)

    Abstract The electrophoretic mobility of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) and poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) copolymer particles, as well as different core-shell microgel particles (neutral core with charged shell and charged core with neutral shell) was investigated as function of microgel swelling. The swelling of the microgels were varied with increasing the temperature. To interpret the experimental results, we used scaling arguments to show that due to the strong hydrodynamic interactions the inner part of the microgel particles are non-draining in low ionic strength media and only the outmost thin shell of the microgel contributes actively to the electrophoretic mobility. We found that the experimental results were in good agreement with the prediction of this model, while we found physical inconsistencies when the experiments were analysed in terms of the draining models often used in the literature.

  • Publication . Article . Conference object . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Alessandra De Rosa; Cristian Vignali; Tamara Bogdanovic; Pedro R. Capelo; Maria Charisi; Massimo Dotti; Bernd Husemann; Elisabeta Lusso; Lucio Mayer; Zsolt Paragi; +20 more
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Countries: Italy, United Kingdom, Hungary, Hungary, Italy, United Kingdom, Spain, France, Spain, Italy ...
    Project: SNSF | Massive black holes as gr... (178949), NWO | Genes for Seed Quality (2300149325), EC | DIFERENS2 (609412), NSF | Collaborative Research: M... (1715661), EC | imbh (647208), NSF | NANOGrav Physics Frontier... (1430284), EC | B Massive (818691), SNSF | Massive black holes as gr... (178949), NWO | Genes for Seed Quality (2300149325), EC | DIFERENS2 (609412),...

    All authors acknowledge the hospitality of the Lorentz Center for international workshops (Leiden, The Netherlands), where the idea of this work was born, and acknowledge the support of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI Bern, Switzerland), where the collaboration was originated. We thank the reviewers for having provided valuable and constructive comments that improved the clarity of the manuscript, and J.E. Barnes, L. Blecha, M. Eracleous, B.D. Farris, H. Fu, X. Liu, R. Pfeifle, L.C. Popovic, C. Ricci, S. Rodriguez, S. Tang, G. B. Taylor for their kind permission to reuse figures from their publications. ADR, CV and SB acknowledge financial support from ASI under grant ASI-INAF I/037/12/0 , and from the agreement ASI-INAF n. 2017-14-H.O . TB acknowledges support by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNX15AK84G and 80NSSC19K0319 issued through the Astrophysics Theory Program and by the Research Corporation for Science Advancement through a Cottrell Scholar Award. SF and KÉG thank the Hungarian National Research, Development, and Innovation Office ( OTKA NN110333 ) for support. KÉG was supported by the János Bolyai Research Scholarship of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences and by the ÚNKP-19-4 New National Excellence Program of the Ministry for Innovation and Technology. BH acknowledges financial support by the DFG grant GE625/17-1 . EL is supported by a European Union COFUND/Durham Junior Research Fellowship (under EU grant agreement no. 609412). DL acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC) under grant 647208 (PI Jonker). AS is supported by the ERC CoG grant 818691 (B Massive). MGi is supported by the “Programa de Atracción de Talento” of the Comunidad de Madrid grant 2018-T1/TIC-11733 for the project: “Unveiling Black Hole Winds from Space”, and by the Spanish State Research Agency (AEI) grant MDM-2017-0737 Unidad de Excelencia “María de Maeztu” - Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC). PRC and LM acknowledge support from the Swiss National Science Foundation under the Grant 200020_178949 . MC acknowledges support from the National Science Foundation (NSF) NANOGrav Physics Frontier Center, award number 1430284 . NHR acknowledges support from the BMBF Verbundforschung under FKZ: 05A17PC1 and FKZ: 05A17PC2. ZH acknowledges support from NASA grants NNX17AL82G and 80NSSC19K0149 and NSF grant 1715661 . KI acknowledges support by the Spanish MINECO under grant AYA2016-76012-C3-1-P and MDM-2014-0369 of ICCUB (Unidad de Excelencia ’María de Maeztu’). MPT acknowledges financial support from the Spanish MCIU through the “Center of Excellence Severo Ochoa” award for the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía ( SEV-2017-0709 ) and through the MINECO grants AYA2012-38491-C02-02 and AYA2015-63939-C2-1-P . The quest for binary and dual supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the dawn of the multi-messenger era is compelling. Detecting dual active galactic nuclei (AGN) -- active SMBHs at projected separations larger than several parsecs -- and binary AGN -- probing the scale where SMBHs are bound in a Keplerian binary -- is an observational challenge. The study of AGN pairs (either dual or binary) also represents an overarching theoretical problem in cosmology and astrophysics. The AGN triggering calls for detailed knowledge of the hydrodynamical conditions of gas in the imminent surroundings of the SMBHs and, at the same time, their duality calls for detailed knowledge on how galaxies assemble through major and minor mergers and grow fed by matter along the filaments of the cosmic web. This review describes the techniques used across the electromagnetic spectrum to detect dual and binary AGN candidates and proposes new avenues for their search. The current observational status is compared with the state-of-the-art numerical simulations and models for formation of dual and binary AGN. Binary SMBHs are among the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the Universe. The search for a background of GWs at nHz frequencies from inspiralling SMBHs at low redshifts, and the direct detection of signals from their coalescence by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna in the next decade, make this a theme of major interest for multi-messenger astrophysics. This review discusses the future facilities and observational strategies that are likely to significantly advance this fascinating field.© 2020 Elsevier B.V. 69 pages, 21 figures. Accepted for publication in New Astronomy Reviews © 2020 Elsevier B.V.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2020
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Hülya Duyan; Zoltán Halasi; Károly Podoski;
    Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | GROGandGIN (741420)

    Abstract The minimal base size b ⁢ ( G ) {b(G)} for a permutation group G is a widely studied topic in permutation group theory. Z. Halasi and K. Podoski [Every coprime linear group admits a base of size two, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 368 2016, 8, 5857–5887] proved that b ⁢ ( G ) ≤ 2 {b(G)\leq 2} for coprime linear groups. Motivated by this result and the probabilistic method used by T. Burness, M. W. Liebeck and A. Shalev, it was asked by L. Pyber [Personal communication, Bielefeld, 2017] whether or not, for coprime linear groups G ≤ G ⁢ L ⁢ ( V ) {G\leq GL(V)} , there exists a constant c such that the probability that a random c-tuple is a base for G tends to 1 as | V | → ∞ {\lvert V\rvert\to\infty} . While the answer to this question is negative in general, it is positive under the additional assumption that G is primitive as a linear group. In this paper, we show that almost all 11-tuples are bases for coprime primitive linear groups.

  • Open Access Hungarian
    Authors: 
    János N. Fodor;
    Publisher: Society of Hungarian Linguistics; Institute of Hungarian Linguistics and Finno-Ugric Studies of ELTE University
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | COLLMOT (227878)

    Aspects and methods for examining the connection between personal names and ethnicity It is a difficult task to determine the value of proper names in ethnic reconstruction. This can be considered a dubious area of onomastic/linguistic and historical research. Even the explanation of the basic concepts seems to be problematic; still, defining ethnicity and identifying the nature of the connection between ethnicity and language cannot be avoided. It is also important to define the value of the different types of personal names as sources: what can and cannot the research into the etymology of surnames be used for, what are the factors that have an impact on linguistic recon-struction, how can individual names help ethnic reconstruction, etc. After summarizing the back-ground research of name analysis in Hungary, the author presents a multi-level method of ethnic reconstruction based on personal names. The procedure tries to separate the determination of the name’s etymology from that of the ethnic affiliation, placing the examination objectives at separate levels. On the first level, the etymology of the surnames is determined and the linguistic background of the name is explored by considering linguistic aspects only, paying attention to the rules of ety-mological and onomastic research. The author separates two levels of the examination of ethnic reconstruction that are built upon each other. On the one hand, the linguistic features of the indi-vidual names are observed, and then other information on name sociology (e.g. social status, majority population), referring directly or indirectly to ethnic background, is taken into consideration.

  • Publication . Article . Preprint . 2019
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Dömötör Pálvölgyi;
    Country: Hungary
    Project: EC | CovDecRND (660400)

    Abstract We prove that for a triangulated plane graph it is NP-complete to determine its domination number and its power domination number.

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