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  • 2018-2022
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  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Nikolai Anisimov; Galina Glukhova;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    In this article, we examine the spring ceremonies, the Eastern Udmurt’s summer ceremonies, and the Udmurt holidays (the Great Day, the Day of the Plough, Easter, commemoration days, etc.) during the COVID-19 quarantine as well as the humorous songs and chastushkas inspired by the quarantine and self-isolation. This article is the first attempt to describe and characterise the influence of the pandemic on the example of the Udmurt traditional culture. In our analysis, we rely on internet posts, data transmitted by informants, articles in district papers as well as observations by the authors. The data allow us to evaluate the changes in Udmurt customs and people’s adaptation to critical situations. Self-isolation caused anxiety in many village dwellers, because it was not possible to party in real time and place. The internet posts confirmed that the Udmurt are happy to share preparations and proceedings of their feasts, they like to send congratulations to friends and kin, who are able to participate both in joyful and sad emotions. The humorous Udmurt songs and chastushkas posted on the Internet help to survive in the difficult situation in the republic due to the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Maris Kuperjanov;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The aim of the article is to give an overview of the first month of the novel coronavirus outbreak and public reactions to the news in the media comments and social media environments. The pandemic is still in its initial phase at the time of the publishing of the article and the knowledge about virus SARS-CoV-2 and disease COVID-19 is increasing on a daily basis. During the first month of the virus outbreak the growing flow of information and rapid escalation of the situation made the topic more noticeable in both the media and social media and thus provided a fertile basis for jokes and internet memes, legends, fake news, misinformation and conspiracy theories, etc., as was the case with the former bigger epidemics and pandemics. As it has also been observed previously, the consequences of some fake news, misinformation and conspiracy theories may often be more harmful for the society than the disease itself. Several motives and storylines are universal and surge as similar situations arise both in Estonia and in the rest of the world. The article also presents a small selection of more prominent topics and examples of the outbreak from social media environments during the initial phase of international awareness of the novel coronavirus.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kõiva;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article elaborates on Dunn’s views on cosmopolitan medicine and broadens the term by applying it to a neighbouring field – cosmopolitan hereditary medicine. An overview is given of the movement’s contemporary trends, including esoteric teachings, homoeopathy, yoga, Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, music therapy, flower and aroma therapy as well as herbal medicine making use of new herbs – all of which have been introduced to Estonia via cultural cosmopolitanism. An outstanding feature is the attention given to a person’s holistic aspect, development of mentality and health behaviour. There is ongoing institutionalisation of traditional and complementary medicine practice, while educational courses and healing seances have moved from the city to rural health and tourism centres. One of the key values attributed to knowledge is its age, its ancient nature enabling the combination of different trends. Opportunities offered by local (vernacular) medicine are emphasised and new cultural interpretations are added. Mainstream trends are as follows: a) local complementary or alternative medicine as a segment of local folk medicine; b) health behaviour, lifestyle preventing or warding off disease (sauna culture, herbal medicine, release from city stress in natural surroundings, original music therapy, etc.); and c) introduction into the alternative worldview, mental self-development, and pluralistic folk belief.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kalda; Astrid Tuisk;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Internet memes represent a new vernacular genre, items of which are created and also distributed digitally. Every day, ever new information keeps flowing through the feeds of social media sites. Internet memes, unlike traditional folklore, are not meant to be conveyed from generation to generation, and rarely would one expect a recurrence of a meme that has already been seen and passed forward. New memes are being created constantly, representing every conceivable aspect of physical as well as virtual reality. The external world is represented through a seemingly anything-goes game of combining shapes and forms. Already in the current stage of development of the genre, we can notice that memes correspond to their users’ subcultural and other group-related preferences. Age-group specific meme use is also discernible. This paper focuses on the meme repertoire of schoolchildren in the Tartu region, which is published on special Facebook or Instagram pages. The empirical work consisted in observing the meme sites and interviewing those generating the memes. School memes are presented as depiction of the life in a particular school and used for generating a feeling of belonging within that school. By memeing, schoolchildren apply a certain kind of cultural knowledge, a memetic code, which is not necessarily accessible to adults – indeed, they might not even have encountered it. William Corsaro characterises peer group culture with keywords such as autonomy, control, conflict, and differentiation; the challenge is to make fun of the authority of adults. In school memes, we are witnessing not only a peer group counterculture, but also an endeavour by the group to create a certain distinct world of its own. The novel and youthful memetic form suits well for this project.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Enn Ernits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article gives an insight into the hagiology (Old Russian житие) of Alexander Nevsky (ca. 1220–1263), Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir. It was probably put down in the 1280s, at the Nativity Monastery in Vladimir, where his body was initially buried and where, in the late 14th century, he was canonised. The hagiology was written by an unknown author. About twenty versions of the hagiology, dating back to the 14th–19th centuries, have been preserved, and all in all, about 500 manuscript texts. The unknown author did not describe Alexander Nevsky’s entire life but focused on certain details essential for the hagiology, such as the Battle of the Neva, driving out the German invaders from Pskov, the Battle on the Ice, a campaign in the Lithuanian territories, and diplomatic relations with the Golden Horde and Vatican. The ruler is depicted as an ideal hero – a brave commander, a wise politician, and a skilful diplomat. The author has not attempted to show Nevsky as a real person but has rather constructed him as a good Christian, a saint, and a pious man, who believes in Christ and therefore defeats all the enemies of Russia. The hagiology of Alexander Nevsky is a pathetic work written in the superlative, which, based on the then canons, glorifies the hero, yet includes many inconsistencies and exaggerations. It is especially important to emphasise that the story strongly overestimates the Battle of the Neva (1240) and the Battle on the Ice (1242), which were actually of local importance only. In the description of the Battle of the Neva an interesting detail is an Izhorian called Pelkoinen (in the hagiology Пелгусий) or Pelkoi (Пелгуй). These names are the first recordings of words in Izhorian. It can be concluded that Alexander Nevsky’s hagiology was a significant religious work in Russian political and church history, which aimed, through overestimating the hero’s deeds, to create and canonise the figure of an ideal ruler, which in turn helped to strengthen Russian statehood and Russians’ national identity.

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arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
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5 Research products, page 1 of 1
  • Publication . Article . 2020
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Nikolai Anisimov; Galina Glukhova;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    In this article, we examine the spring ceremonies, the Eastern Udmurt’s summer ceremonies, and the Udmurt holidays (the Great Day, the Day of the Plough, Easter, commemoration days, etc.) during the COVID-19 quarantine as well as the humorous songs and chastushkas inspired by the quarantine and self-isolation. This article is the first attempt to describe and characterise the influence of the pandemic on the example of the Udmurt traditional culture. In our analysis, we rely on internet posts, data transmitted by informants, articles in district papers as well as observations by the authors. The data allow us to evaluate the changes in Udmurt customs and people’s adaptation to critical situations. Self-isolation caused anxiety in many village dwellers, because it was not possible to party in real time and place. The internet posts confirmed that the Udmurt are happy to share preparations and proceedings of their feasts, they like to send congratulations to friends and kin, who are able to participate both in joyful and sad emotions. The humorous Udmurt songs and chastushkas posted on the Internet help to survive in the difficult situation in the republic due to the COVID-19 crisis.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Maris Kuperjanov;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The aim of the article is to give an overview of the first month of the novel coronavirus outbreak and public reactions to the news in the media comments and social media environments. The pandemic is still in its initial phase at the time of the publishing of the article and the knowledge about virus SARS-CoV-2 and disease COVID-19 is increasing on a daily basis. During the first month of the virus outbreak the growing flow of information and rapid escalation of the situation made the topic more noticeable in both the media and social media and thus provided a fertile basis for jokes and internet memes, legends, fake news, misinformation and conspiracy theories, etc., as was the case with the former bigger epidemics and pandemics. As it has also been observed previously, the consequences of some fake news, misinformation and conspiracy theories may often be more harmful for the society than the disease itself. Several motives and storylines are universal and surge as similar situations arise both in Estonia and in the rest of the world. The article also presents a small selection of more prominent topics and examples of the outbreak from social media environments during the initial phase of international awareness of the novel coronavirus.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kõiva;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article elaborates on Dunn’s views on cosmopolitan medicine and broadens the term by applying it to a neighbouring field – cosmopolitan hereditary medicine. An overview is given of the movement’s contemporary trends, including esoteric teachings, homoeopathy, yoga, Chinese medicine, Ayurveda, music therapy, flower and aroma therapy as well as herbal medicine making use of new herbs – all of which have been introduced to Estonia via cultural cosmopolitanism. An outstanding feature is the attention given to a person’s holistic aspect, development of mentality and health behaviour. There is ongoing institutionalisation of traditional and complementary medicine practice, while educational courses and healing seances have moved from the city to rural health and tourism centres. One of the key values attributed to knowledge is its age, its ancient nature enabling the combination of different trends. Opportunities offered by local (vernacular) medicine are emphasised and new cultural interpretations are added. Mainstream trends are as follows: a) local complementary or alternative medicine as a segment of local folk medicine; b) health behaviour, lifestyle preventing or warding off disease (sauna culture, herbal medicine, release from city stress in natural surroundings, original music therapy, etc.); and c) introduction into the alternative worldview, mental self-development, and pluralistic folk belief.

  • Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Mare Kalda; Astrid Tuisk;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    Internet memes represent a new vernacular genre, items of which are created and also distributed digitally. Every day, ever new information keeps flowing through the feeds of social media sites. Internet memes, unlike traditional folklore, are not meant to be conveyed from generation to generation, and rarely would one expect a recurrence of a meme that has already been seen and passed forward. New memes are being created constantly, representing every conceivable aspect of physical as well as virtual reality. The external world is represented through a seemingly anything-goes game of combining shapes and forms. Already in the current stage of development of the genre, we can notice that memes correspond to their users’ subcultural and other group-related preferences. Age-group specific meme use is also discernible. This paper focuses on the meme repertoire of schoolchildren in the Tartu region, which is published on special Facebook or Instagram pages. The empirical work consisted in observing the meme sites and interviewing those generating the memes. School memes are presented as depiction of the life in a particular school and used for generating a feeling of belonging within that school. By memeing, schoolchildren apply a certain kind of cultural knowledge, a memetic code, which is not necessarily accessible to adults – indeed, they might not even have encountered it. William Corsaro characterises peer group culture with keywords such as autonomy, control, conflict, and differentiation; the challenge is to make fun of the authority of adults. In school memes, we are witnessing not only a peer group counterculture, but also an endeavour by the group to create a certain distinct world of its own. The novel and youthful memetic form suits well for this project.

  • Publication . Article . 2019
    Open Access Estonian
    Authors: 
    Enn Ernits;
    Publisher: Eesti Kirjandusmuuseum

    The article gives an insight into the hagiology (Old Russian житие) of Alexander Nevsky (ca. 1220–1263), Grand Prince of Novgorod and Vladimir. It was probably put down in the 1280s, at the Nativity Monastery in Vladimir, where his body was initially buried and where, in the late 14th century, he was canonised. The hagiology was written by an unknown author. About twenty versions of the hagiology, dating back to the 14th–19th centuries, have been preserved, and all in all, about 500 manuscript texts. The unknown author did not describe Alexander Nevsky’s entire life but focused on certain details essential for the hagiology, such as the Battle of the Neva, driving out the German invaders from Pskov, the Battle on the Ice, a campaign in the Lithuanian territories, and diplomatic relations with the Golden Horde and Vatican. The ruler is depicted as an ideal hero – a brave commander, a wise politician, and a skilful diplomat. The author has not attempted to show Nevsky as a real person but has rather constructed him as a good Christian, a saint, and a pious man, who believes in Christ and therefore defeats all the enemies of Russia. The hagiology of Alexander Nevsky is a pathetic work written in the superlative, which, based on the then canons, glorifies the hero, yet includes many inconsistencies and exaggerations. It is especially important to emphasise that the story strongly overestimates the Battle of the Neva (1240) and the Battle on the Ice (1242), which were actually of local importance only. In the description of the Battle of the Neva an interesting detail is an Izhorian called Pelkoinen (in the hagiology Пелгусий) or Pelkoi (Пелгуй). These names are the first recordings of words in Izhorian. It can be concluded that Alexander Nevsky’s hagiology was a significant religious work in Russian political and church history, which aimed, through overestimating the hero’s deeds, to create and canonise the figure of an ideal ruler, which in turn helped to strengthen Russian statehood and Russians’ national identity.

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