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  • Publications
  • 2022-2022
  • Review
  • English

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  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maas, Harro;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    In Constructing Economic Science: The Invention of a Discipline 1850-1950 Keith Tribe takes us on a journey to show the transformation of economic discourse that turned a public discourse on things economic into a discipline with a separate curriculum and a technical vocabulary which was no longer accessible to the (literate) public at large. He does so not through the sequence of ideas of great economists, but by promising the reader a ‘Krimi’ that leads through a history of the institutiona...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M.;
    Country: Finland

    The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. Recent years have witnessed an accumulation of understanding of the process of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in infants. The natural gut microbiota colonization during birth is frequently disrupted due to C-section birth or intrapartum or postpartum antibiotic exposure, and consequently aberrant gut microbiota development is common. On a positive note, research has shown that restoration of normal gut microbiota development is feasible. We discuss here the current understanding of the infant microbiota, provide an overview of the sources of disturbances, and critically evaluate the evidence on early life gut microbiota restoration for improved health outcomes by analyzing published data from infant gut microbiota restoration studies. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antson, Hanna; Tonissoo, Tambet; Shimmi, Osamu;
    Country: Finland

    The Drosophila wing has been used as a model for studying tissue growth, morphogenesis and pattern formation. The wing veins of Drosophila are composed of two distinct structures, longitudinal veins and crossveins. Although positional information of longitudinal veins is largely defined in the wing imaginal disc during the larval stage, crossvein primordial cells appear to be naive until the early pupal stage. Here, we first review how wing crossveins have been investigated in the past. Then, the developmental mechanisms underlying crossvein formation are summarized. This review focuses on how a conserved trafficking mechanism of BMP ligands is utilized for crossvein formation, and how various co-factors play roles in sustaining BMP signalling. Recent findings further reveal that crossvein development serves as an excellent model to address how BMP signal and dynamic cellular processes are coupled. This comprehensive review illustrates the uniqueness, scientific value and future perspectives of wing crossvein development as a model. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schreur, Valerie;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Much of our politics revolves around money matters. Where to spend money on, who to tax, what to do with increasing national and private debts. Less saliently, the institutionalization of money is itself a crucial political question. Who controls this important life-shaping institution? Central bankers in grey suits come to mind, solemnly proclaiming fiscal discipline. How come we have accepted that control over money is not a political question, but a technocratic one—best left to experts? H...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kaptan, Shreyas; Vattulainen, Ilpo;
    Country: Finland

    Machine learning has rapidly become a key method for the analysis and organization of large-scale data in all scientific disciplines. In life sciences, the use of machine learning techniques is a particularly appealing idea since the enormous capacity of computational infrastructures generates terabytes of data through millisecond simulations of atomistic and molecular-scale biomolecular systems. Due to this explosion of data, the automation, reproducibility, and objectivity provided by machine learning methods are highly desirable features in the analysis of complex systems. In this review, we focus on the use of machine learning in biomolecular simulations. We discuss the main categories of machine learning tasks, such as dimensionality reduction, clustering, regression, and classification used in the analysis of simulation data. We then introduce the most popular classes of techniques involved in these tasks for the purpose of enhanced sampling, coordinate discovery, and structure prediction. Whenever possible, we explain the scope and limitations of machine learning approaches, and we discuss examples of applications of these techniques. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heliste, Maria; Pettilä, Ville; Berger, David; Jakob, Stephan M.; Wilkman, Erika;
    Country: Finland

    Background Critical illness may lead to activation of the sympathetic system. The sympathetic stimulation may be further increased by exogenous catecholamines, such as vasopressors and inotropes. Excessive adrenergic stress has been associated with organ dysfunction and higher mortality. beta-Blockers may reduce the adrenergic burden, but they may also compromise perfusion to vital organs thus worsening organ dysfunction. To assess the effect of treatment with beta-blockers in critically ill adults, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Materials and methods We conducted a search from three major databases: Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and Scopus database. Two independent reviewers screened, selected, and assessed the included articles according to prespecified eligibility criteria. We assessed risk of bias of eligible articles according to the Cochrane guidelines. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Sixteen randomized controlled trials comprising 2410 critically ill patients were included in the final review. A meta-analysis of 11 trials including 2103 patients showed a significant reduction in mortality in patients treated with beta-blockers compared to control (risk ratio 0.65, 95%CI 0.53-0.79; p < .0001). There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure or vasopressor load. Quality of life, biventricular ejection fraction, blood lactate levels, cardiac biomarkers and mitochondrial function could not be included in meta-analysis due to heterogenous reporting of outcomes. Conclusions In this systematic review we found that beta-blocker treatment reduced mortality in critical illness. Use of beta-blockers in critical illness thus appears safe after initial hemodynamic stabilization. High-quality RCT's are needed to answer the questions concerning optimal target group of patients, timing of beta-blocker treatment, choice of beta-blocker, and choice of physiological and hemodynamic parameters to target during beta-blocker treatment in critical illness. KEY MESSAGES A potential outcome benefit of beta-blocker treatment in critical illness exists according to the current review and meta-analysis. Administration of beta-blockers to resuscitated patients in the ICU seems safe in terms of hemodynamic stability and outcome, even during concomitant vasopressor administration. However, further studies, preferably large RCTs on beta-blocker treatment in the critically ill are needed to answer the questions concerning timing and choice of beta-blocker, patient selection, and optimal hemodynamic targets. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jokela, Aleksi; Stenroos, Antti; Kosola, Jussi; Valle, Xavier; Lempainen, Lasse;
    Country: Finland

    Hamstring injuries are among the most common muscle injuries. They have been reported in many different sports, such as running, soccer, track and field, rugby, and waterskiing. However, they are also present among the general population. Most hamstring injuries are mild strains, but also moderate and severe injuries occur. Hamstring injuries usually occur in rapid movements involving eccentric demands of the posterior thigh. Sprinting has been found to mainly affect the isolated proximal biceps femoris, whereas stretching-type injuries most often involve an isolated proximal injury of the semimembranosus muscle. The main cause of severe 2- or 3-tendon avulsion is a rapid forceful hip flexion with the ipsilateral knee extended. Most hamstring injuries are treated non-surgically with good results. However, there are also clear indications for surgical treatment, such as severe 2- or 3-tendon avulsions. In athletes, more aggressive recommendations concerning surgical treatment can be found. For a professional athlete, a proximal isolated tendon avulsion with clear retraction should be treated operatively regardless of the injured tendon. Surgical treatment has been found to have good results in severe injuries, especially if the avulsion injury is repaired in acute phase. In chronic hamstring injuries and recurring ruptures, the anatomical apposition of the retracted muscles is more difficult to be achieved. This review article analyses the outcomes of surgical treatment of hamstring ruptures. The present study confirms the previous knowledge that surgical treatment of hamstring tendon injuries causes good results with high satisfaction rates, both in complete and partial avulsions. Early surgical repair leads to better functional results with lower complication rates, especially in complete avulsions.KEY MESSAGEs Surgical treatment of hamstring tendon ruptures leads to high satisfaction and return to sport rates. Both complete and partial hamstring tendon ruptures have better results after acute surgical repair, when compared to cases treated surgically later. Athletes with hamstring tendon ruptures should be treated more aggressively with operative methods. publishedVersion Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rodenburg, Peter;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Jan Tinbergen was undoubtedly one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. Tinbergen was founder of macroeconomic modelling and the first Nobel laureate in economics in 1969, along with Ragnar Frisch, for his pioneering work in econometrics. As such, Tinbergen had a huge influence on the development of the practice of economists after World War II. No biography on Tinbergen’s life and works existed in the English-speaking world (a few small biographical works are available in D...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tawil, Alexandre;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Social sciences have been witnessing for several decades a revival of evolutionary thinking in various disciplines such as economics, anthropology, psychology, or sociology. One important issue concerns the relationship between biological evolution and social evolution. Shiping Tang’s last book, On Social Evolution. Phenomenon and Paradigm, offers a thought-provoking theory of social change that is partly at odds with the current literature on social/cultural evolution (e.g., Blute, 2010; Hod...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Riboldi,Ilaria; Cavaleri,Daniele; Capogrosso,Chiara A; Crocamo,Cristina; Bartoli,Francesco; Carrà,Giuseppe;
    Publisher: Dove Press

    Ilaria Riboldi,1 Daniele Cavaleri,1 Chiara A Capogrosso,1 Cristina Crocamo,1 Francesco Bartoli,1 Giuseppe Carrà1,2 1Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UKCorrespondence: Ilaria Riboldi, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, Monza, 20900, Italy, Tel +39 0257998647, Email i.riboldi1@campus.unimib.itAbstract: Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness causing a high degree of disability. First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) represent key resources for its acute and long-term management. Since a poor adherence to oral treatments may negatively impact the course of the disorder, long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are often used to reduce clinical relapses. Notwithstanding their potential beneficial features, LAIs use in clinical practice remains somewhat hampered by the limited amount of relevant systematic information. This review thus aims at providing a clinical, practical guidance for the use of LAIs in the treatment of schizophrenia. We synthetized main information on indications, dosage, and administration of LAIs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or in EU countries, as well as evidence from the most recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Currently available information, though heterogeneous, shows that LAIs can prevent relapses and rehospitalizations, improving clinical outcomes and favouring sustained remission among people with schizophrenia. The use of SGA LAIs is supported by more robust evidence than FGA LAIs. Along with their positive impact on the prevention of treatment discontinuation, some LAIs might also enhance individual global functioning and quality of life, without additional adverse events or health-care costs, as compared with oral antipsychotics. Although which LAIs can be considered a first-choice option, as well as their superiority over oral antipsychotics, remain unclear issues, this review offers a comprehensive overview of information available on the use of LAIs for people with schizophrenia, providing clinicians with practical guidance in terms of efficacy and acceptability of single agents. Literature gaps and future research needs are also described.Keywords: antipsychotic agents, injections, guidelines, schizophrenia

Advanced search in
Research products
arrow_drop_down
Searching FieldsTerms
Any field
arrow_drop_down
includes
arrow_drop_down
Include:
5,649 Research products, page 1 of 565
  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Maas, Harro;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    In Constructing Economic Science: The Invention of a Discipline 1850-1950 Keith Tribe takes us on a journey to show the transformation of economic discourse that turned a public discourse on things economic into a discipline with a separate curriculum and a technical vocabulary which was no longer accessible to the (literate) public at large. He does so not through the sequence of ideas of great economists, but by promising the reader a ‘Krimi’ that leads through a history of the institutiona...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Korpela, Katri; de Vos, Willem M.;
    Country: Finland

    The gut microbiota has a central role in the programming of the host's metabolism and immune function, with both immediate and long-term health consequences. Recent years have witnessed an accumulation of understanding of the process of the colonization and development of the gut microbiota in infants. The natural gut microbiota colonization during birth is frequently disrupted due to C-section birth or intrapartum or postpartum antibiotic exposure, and consequently aberrant gut microbiota development is common. On a positive note, research has shown that restoration of normal gut microbiota development is feasible. We discuss here the current understanding of the infant microbiota, provide an overview of the sources of disturbances, and critically evaluate the evidence on early life gut microbiota restoration for improved health outcomes by analyzing published data from infant gut microbiota restoration studies. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Antson, Hanna; Tonissoo, Tambet; Shimmi, Osamu;
    Country: Finland

    The Drosophila wing has been used as a model for studying tissue growth, morphogenesis and pattern formation. The wing veins of Drosophila are composed of two distinct structures, longitudinal veins and crossveins. Although positional information of longitudinal veins is largely defined in the wing imaginal disc during the larval stage, crossvein primordial cells appear to be naive until the early pupal stage. Here, we first review how wing crossveins have been investigated in the past. Then, the developmental mechanisms underlying crossvein formation are summarized. This review focuses on how a conserved trafficking mechanism of BMP ligands is utilized for crossvein formation, and how various co-factors play roles in sustaining BMP signalling. Recent findings further reveal that crossvein development serves as an excellent model to address how BMP signal and dynamic cellular processes are coupled. This comprehensive review illustrates the uniqueness, scientific value and future perspectives of wing crossvein development as a model. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Schreur, Valerie;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Much of our politics revolves around money matters. Where to spend money on, who to tax, what to do with increasing national and private debts. Less saliently, the institutionalization of money is itself a crucial political question. Who controls this important life-shaping institution? Central bankers in grey suits come to mind, solemnly proclaiming fiscal discipline. How come we have accepted that control over money is not a political question, but a technocratic one—best left to experts? H...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Kaptan, Shreyas; Vattulainen, Ilpo;
    Country: Finland

    Machine learning has rapidly become a key method for the analysis and organization of large-scale data in all scientific disciplines. In life sciences, the use of machine learning techniques is a particularly appealing idea since the enormous capacity of computational infrastructures generates terabytes of data through millisecond simulations of atomistic and molecular-scale biomolecular systems. Due to this explosion of data, the automation, reproducibility, and objectivity provided by machine learning methods are highly desirable features in the analysis of complex systems. In this review, we focus on the use of machine learning in biomolecular simulations. We discuss the main categories of machine learning tasks, such as dimensionality reduction, clustering, regression, and classification used in the analysis of simulation data. We then introduce the most popular classes of techniques involved in these tasks for the purpose of enhanced sampling, coordinate discovery, and structure prediction. Whenever possible, we explain the scope and limitations of machine learning approaches, and we discuss examples of applications of these techniques. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Heliste, Maria; Pettilä, Ville; Berger, David; Jakob, Stephan M.; Wilkman, Erika;
    Country: Finland

    Background Critical illness may lead to activation of the sympathetic system. The sympathetic stimulation may be further increased by exogenous catecholamines, such as vasopressors and inotropes. Excessive adrenergic stress has been associated with organ dysfunction and higher mortality. beta-Blockers may reduce the adrenergic burden, but they may also compromise perfusion to vital organs thus worsening organ dysfunction. To assess the effect of treatment with beta-blockers in critically ill adults, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Materials and methods We conducted a search from three major databases: Ovid Medline, the Cochrane Central Register for Controlled Trials and Scopus database. Two independent reviewers screened, selected, and assessed the included articles according to prespecified eligibility criteria. We assessed risk of bias of eligible articles according to the Cochrane guidelines. Quality of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Results Sixteen randomized controlled trials comprising 2410 critically ill patients were included in the final review. A meta-analysis of 11 trials including 2103 patients showed a significant reduction in mortality in patients treated with beta-blockers compared to control (risk ratio 0.65, 95%CI 0.53-0.79; p < .0001). There was no significant difference in mean arterial pressure or vasopressor load. Quality of life, biventricular ejection fraction, blood lactate levels, cardiac biomarkers and mitochondrial function could not be included in meta-analysis due to heterogenous reporting of outcomes. Conclusions In this systematic review we found that beta-blocker treatment reduced mortality in critical illness. Use of beta-blockers in critical illness thus appears safe after initial hemodynamic stabilization. High-quality RCT's are needed to answer the questions concerning optimal target group of patients, timing of beta-blocker treatment, choice of beta-blocker, and choice of physiological and hemodynamic parameters to target during beta-blocker treatment in critical illness. KEY MESSAGES A potential outcome benefit of beta-blocker treatment in critical illness exists according to the current review and meta-analysis. Administration of beta-blockers to resuscitated patients in the ICU seems safe in terms of hemodynamic stability and outcome, even during concomitant vasopressor administration. However, further studies, preferably large RCTs on beta-blocker treatment in the critically ill are needed to answer the questions concerning timing and choice of beta-blocker, patient selection, and optimal hemodynamic targets. Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jokela, Aleksi; Stenroos, Antti; Kosola, Jussi; Valle, Xavier; Lempainen, Lasse;
    Country: Finland

    Hamstring injuries are among the most common muscle injuries. They have been reported in many different sports, such as running, soccer, track and field, rugby, and waterskiing. However, they are also present among the general population. Most hamstring injuries are mild strains, but also moderate and severe injuries occur. Hamstring injuries usually occur in rapid movements involving eccentric demands of the posterior thigh. Sprinting has been found to mainly affect the isolated proximal biceps femoris, whereas stretching-type injuries most often involve an isolated proximal injury of the semimembranosus muscle. The main cause of severe 2- or 3-tendon avulsion is a rapid forceful hip flexion with the ipsilateral knee extended. Most hamstring injuries are treated non-surgically with good results. However, there are also clear indications for surgical treatment, such as severe 2- or 3-tendon avulsions. In athletes, more aggressive recommendations concerning surgical treatment can be found. For a professional athlete, a proximal isolated tendon avulsion with clear retraction should be treated operatively regardless of the injured tendon. Surgical treatment has been found to have good results in severe injuries, especially if the avulsion injury is repaired in acute phase. In chronic hamstring injuries and recurring ruptures, the anatomical apposition of the retracted muscles is more difficult to be achieved. This review article analyses the outcomes of surgical treatment of hamstring ruptures. The present study confirms the previous knowledge that surgical treatment of hamstring tendon injuries causes good results with high satisfaction rates, both in complete and partial avulsions. Early surgical repair leads to better functional results with lower complication rates, especially in complete avulsions.KEY MESSAGEs Surgical treatment of hamstring tendon ruptures leads to high satisfaction and return to sport rates. Both complete and partial hamstring tendon ruptures have better results after acute surgical repair, when compared to cases treated surgically later. Athletes with hamstring tendon ruptures should be treated more aggressively with operative methods. publishedVersion Peer reviewed

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Rodenburg, Peter;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Jan Tinbergen was undoubtedly one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. Tinbergen was founder of macroeconomic modelling and the first Nobel laureate in economics in 1969, along with Ragnar Frisch, for his pioneering work in econometrics. As such, Tinbergen had a huge influence on the development of the practice of economists after World War II. No biography on Tinbergen’s life and works existed in the English-speaking world (a few small biographical works are available in D...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Tawil, Alexandre;
    Publisher: Association Œconomia

    Social sciences have been witnessing for several decades a revival of evolutionary thinking in various disciplines such as economics, anthropology, psychology, or sociology. One important issue concerns the relationship between biological evolution and social evolution. Shiping Tang’s last book, On Social Evolution. Phenomenon and Paradigm, offers a thought-provoking theory of social change that is partly at odds with the current literature on social/cultural evolution (e.g., Blute, 2010; Hod...

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Riboldi,Ilaria; Cavaleri,Daniele; Capogrosso,Chiara A; Crocamo,Cristina; Bartoli,Francesco; Carrà,Giuseppe;
    Publisher: Dove Press

    Ilaria Riboldi,1 Daniele Cavaleri,1 Chiara A Capogrosso,1 Cristina Crocamo,1 Francesco Bartoli,1 Giuseppe Carrà1,2 1Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Division of Psychiatry, University College London, London, UKCorrespondence: Ilaria Riboldi, Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cadore 48, Monza, 20900, Italy, Tel +39 0257998647, Email i.riboldi1@campus.unimib.itAbstract: Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness causing a high degree of disability. First- and second-generation antipsychotics (FGAs and SGAs) represent key resources for its acute and long-term management. Since a poor adherence to oral treatments may negatively impact the course of the disorder, long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) are often used to reduce clinical relapses. Notwithstanding their potential beneficial features, LAIs use in clinical practice remains somewhat hampered by the limited amount of relevant systematic information. This review thus aims at providing a clinical, practical guidance for the use of LAIs in the treatment of schizophrenia. We synthetized main information on indications, dosage, and administration of LAIs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or in EU countries, as well as evidence from the most recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Currently available information, though heterogeneous, shows that LAIs can prevent relapses and rehospitalizations, improving clinical outcomes and favouring sustained remission among people with schizophrenia. The use of SGA LAIs is supported by more robust evidence than FGA LAIs. Along with their positive impact on the prevention of treatment discontinuation, some LAIs might also enhance individual global functioning and quality of life, without additional adverse events or health-care costs, as compared with oral antipsychotics. Although which LAIs can be considered a first-choice option, as well as their superiority over oral antipsychotics, remain unclear issues, this review offers a comprehensive overview of information available on the use of LAIs for people with schizophrenia, providing clinicians with practical guidance in terms of efficacy and acceptability of single agents. Literature gaps and future research needs are also described.Keywords: antipsychotic agents, injections, guidelines, schizophrenia

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