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  • Publications
  • 2018-2022
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  • Hyper Article en Ligne - Sciences de l'Homme et de la Société
  • COVID-19

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  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Viktor K. Jirsa; Spase Petkoski; Huifang Wang; Michael Marmaduke Woodman; Jan Fousek; Cornelia Betsch; Lisa Felgendreff; Robert Böhm; Lau Lilleholt; Ingo Zettler; +3 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: France
    Project: EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    SummaryDuring the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments must make decisions based on a variety of information including estimations of infection spread, health care capacity, economic and psychosocial considerations. The disparate validity of current short-term forecasts of these factors is a major challenge to governments. By causally linking an established epidemiological spread model with dynamically evolving psychosocial variables, using Bayesian inference we estimate the strength and direction of these interactions for German and Danish data of disease spread, human mobility, and psychosocial factors based on the serial cross-sectional COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO;N= 16,981). We demonstrate that the strength of cumulative influence of psychosocial variables on infection rates is of a similar magnitude as the influence of physical distancing. We further show that the efficacy of political interventions to contain the disease strongly depends on societal diversity, in particular group-specific sensitivity to affective risk perception. As a consequence, the model may assist in quantifying the effect and timing of interventions, forecasting future scenarios, and differentiating the impact on diverse groups as a function of their societal organization. Importantly, the careful handling of societal factors, including support to the more vulnerable groups, adds another direct instrument to the battery of political interventions fighting epidemic spread.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre-Edouard Danjou; Saâd Bouhsina; Sylvain Billet; Francine Cazier-Dennin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The year 2020 will be remembered as the year of COVID-19 and its subsequent lockdowns. This pandemic has profoundly changed the way we teach by forcing many institutions to offer their courses online. The time to come back to face-to-face teaching has arrived, but the shadow of the disease still hangs over teachers, students and society more generally. Disruption in teaching can still occur for students, or even teachers, if they are either diagnosed COVID-19 positive or contact case and forced to self-isolate. In order to limit the impact of self-isolation on learning, hybrid teaching (i.e. teaching face-to-face to students in a classroom and to online students at the same time) was successfully implemented owing to the combination of a videoconference software and a large interactive touchscreen. The set-up presented in this paper allows to broadcast courses to at-home students (i.e. voice, visual pedagogic support and, more interestingly, indications handwritten by the teacher) while simultaneously teaching face-to-face to students in the classroom. It also allows to self-isolated teacher to teach tutorial from home to students in the classroom. This paper focuses on the use of large interactive touchscreens for hybrid teaching. In order to evaluate this pedagogical approach, a questionnaire was completed by students and results discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jhony H. Giraldo; Arif Mahmood; Belmar Garcia-Garcia; Dorina Thanou; Thierry Bouwmans;
    Country: Switzerland

    Graph Signal Processing (GSP) is an emerging research field that extends the concepts of digital signal processing to graphs. GSP has numerous applications in different areas such as sensor networks, machine learning, and image processing. The sampling and reconstruction of static graph signals have played a central role in GSP. However, many real-world graph signals are inherently time-varying and the smoothness of the temporal differences of such graph signals may be used as a prior assumption. In the current work, we assume that the temporal differences of graph signals are smooth,and we introduce a novel algorithm based on the extension of a Sobolev smoothness function for the reconstruction of time-varying graph signals from discrete samples. We explore some theoretical aspects of the convergence rate of our Time-varying Graph signal Reconstruction via Sobolev Smoothness (Graph-TRSS) algorithm by studying the condition number of the Hessian associated with our optimization problem. Our algorithm has the advantage of converging faster than other methods that are based on Laplacian operators without requiring expensive eigenvalue decomposition or matrix inversions. The proposed Graph-TRSS is evaluated on several datasets including two COVID-19 datasets and it has outperformed many existing state-of-the-art methods for time-varying graph signal reconstruction. Graph-TRSS has also shown excellent performance on two environmental datasets for the recovery of particulate matter and sea surface temperature signals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Philippe Colson; Jérémy Delerce; Mamadou Beye; Anthony Levasseur; Céline Boschi; Linda Houhamdi; Hervé Tissot‐Dupont; Nouara Yahi; Matthieu Million; Bernard La Scola; +3 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: France

    ABSTRACTThe SARS-CoV-2 21K/BA.1, 21L/BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants have recently emerged worldwide. To date, the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant has remained very minority globally but became predominant in Denmark instead of the 21K/BA.1 variant. Here we describe the first cases diagnosed with this variant in south-eastern France. We identified thirteen cases using variant-specific qPCR and next-generation sequencing between 28/11/2021 and 31/01/2022, the first two cases being diagnosed in travellers returning from Tanzania. Overall, viral genomes displayed a mean (±standard deviation) number of 65.9±2.5 (range, 61-69) nucleotide substitutions and 31.0±8.3 (27-50) nucleotide deletions, resulting in 49.6±2.2 (45-52) amino acid substitutions (including 28 in the spike protein) and 12.4±1.1 (12-15) amino acid deletions. Phylogeny showed the distribution in three different clusters of these genomes, which were most closely related to genomes from England and South Africa, from Singapore and Nepal, or from France and Denmark. Structural predictions pointed out a significant enlargement and flattening of the 21L/BA.2 N-terminal domain surface compared with that of the 21K/BA.2 Omicron variant, which may facilitate initial viral interactions with lipid rafts. Close surveillance is needed at global, country and center scales to monitor the incidence and clinical outcome of the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pejman Abedifar; Kais Bouslah; Christopher Neumann; Amine Tarazi;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper examines whether environmental and social (ES) activities affect the resiliency of firms during the COVID-19 crisis. We study a sample of 330 firms operating in five developed countries: Canada, France, Japan, the UK and the US. Our analysis shows that US firms with a high ES ranking experienced a significantly lower stock price range volatility during the Covid stock market rundown of February-March 2020. Such findings also hold for Japanese firms but only later on after the introduction of government support. In terms of returns, compared to their peers with a low ES ranking, Japanese and UK stock prices with a high ES ranking suffered more during and after the market rundown. For other countries, we do not find significant differences in stock price behavior based on ES ratings. Our findings suggest that engaging with ES activities is not associated with a better or worse performance during crisis times, which has important implications for investors and managers. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ucheoma Nwaozuru; Chisom Obiezu-Umeh; Hassim Diallo; Danielle Graham; Guy-Lucien Whembolua; Marie Janeeca Bourgeau; Tiarney D. Ritchwood; LaRon E. Nelson; Thembekile Shato; Allison Mathews; +6 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Background COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration’s free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. Results Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. Conclusion Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alban, Frederique; Sophie LEONARDI; Pascal, Le Floc H.;
    Country: France

    Les halles à marée, présentes sur tout le littoral métropolitain, sont les premiers marchés pour les produits de la mer débarqués par les flottilles de pêche. La question posée porte sur la capacité d’adaptation des halles à marée face aux fluctuations de l’offre et des cours du poisson provoquées par le premier confinement et amplifiées par le second en 2020. A l’échelle nationale, le chiffre d’affaires des premiers marchés a décliné de 18% par rapport à la moyenne des trois années précédentes. La méthode de décomposition du chiffre d’affaires démontre que la valeur des productions traduit une stratégie de quantité et plus rarement une action sur les prix. Des enquêtes auprès des responsables de halles à marée apportent une lecture complémentaire à celle des statistiques de vente, parfois même une lecture différente. La discussion des résultats soulève deux questions majeures. La première traite du biais informationnel quand on limite l’analyse à une approche quantitative des statistiques de production. La seconde pose la question de la menace potentielle des ventes directes sur les halles à marée. C’est l’occasion pour les responsables de criée de rappeler les garanties qu’ils offrent en termes de traçabilité des produits. The fish markets, which are present all along the coast of Metropolitan France, are the primary markets for the seafood products landed by the fishing fleets. The question raised concerns the capacity of the fish markets to adapt to the fluctuations in supply and fish prices caused by the first confinement and amplified by the second in 2020. On a domestic scale, the turnover of the first markets declined by 18% compared to the average of the previous three years. The method of breaking down turnover shows that the value of production reflects a strategy on quantity and more rarely a price policy. Surveys of fish market managers provide a complementary understanding to that of the sales statistics, sometimes even a different reading. The discussion of the results raises two major questions. The first deals with the informational bias when the analysis is limited to a quantitative approach to production statistics. The second is the question of the potential threat of direct sales to fish markets. This is an opportunity for the executives of the fish market to claim the guarantees they offer in terms of goods traceability.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . Conference object . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabella Hall; Nirmalya Thakur; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The United States of America has been the worst affected country in terms of the number of cases and deaths on account of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19, a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that started spreading globally in late 2019. On account of the surge of infections, accompanied by hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19, and lack of a definitive cure at that point, a national emergency was declared in the United States on March 13, 2020. To prevent the rapid spread of the virus, several states declared stay at home and remote work guidelines shortly after this declaration of an emergency. Such guidelines caused schools, colleges, and universities, both private and public, in all the 50-United States to switch to remote or online forms of teaching for a significant period of time. As a result, Google, the most widely used search engine in the United States, experienced a surge in online shopping of remote learning-based software, systems, applications, and gadgets by both educators and students from all the 50-United States, due to both these groups responding to the associated needs and demands related to switching to remote teaching and learning. This paper aims to investigate, analyze, and interpret these trends of Google Shopping related to remote learning that emerged since March 13, 2020, on account of COVID-19 and the subsequent remote learning adoption in almost all schools, colleges, and universities, from all the 50-United States. The study was performed using Google Trends, which helps to track and study Google Shopping-based online activity emerging from different geolocations. The results and discussions show that the highest interest related to Remote Learning-based Google Shopping was recorded from Oregon, which was followed by Illinois, Florida, Texas, California, and the other states. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nirmalya Thakur; Saumick Pradhan; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: arXiv

    COVID-19, a pandemic that the world has not seen in decades, has resulted in presenting a multitude of unprecedented challenges for student learning across the globe. The global surge in COVID-19 cases resulted in several schools, colleges, and universities closing in 2020 in almost all parts of the world and switching to online or remote learning, which has impacted student learning in different ways. This has resulted in both educators and students spending more time on the internet than ever before, which may be broadly summarized as both these groups investigating, learning, and familiarizing themselves with information, tools, applications, and frameworks to adapt to online learning. This paper takes an explorative approach to further investigate and analyze the impact of COVID-19 on such web behavior data related to online learning to interpret the associated interests, challenges, and needs. The study specifically focused on investigating Google Search-based web behavior data as Google is the most popular search engine globally. The impact of COVID-19 related to online learning-based web behavior on Google was studied for the top 20 worst affected countries in terms of the total number of COVID-19 cases, and the findings have been published as an open-access dataset. Furthermore, to interpret the trends in web behavior data related to online learning, the paper discusses a case study in terms of the impact of COVID-19 on the education system of one of these countries. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

Advanced search in
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Include:
935 Research products, page 1 of 94
  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Viktor K. Jirsa; Spase Petkoski; Huifang Wang; Michael Marmaduke Woodman; Jan Fousek; Cornelia Betsch; Lisa Felgendreff; Robert Böhm; Lau Lilleholt; Ingo Zettler; +3 more
    Publisher: Public Library of Science (PLoS)
    Country: France
    Project: EC | HBP SGA3 (945539)

    SummaryDuring the current COVID-19 pandemic, governments must make decisions based on a variety of information including estimations of infection spread, health care capacity, economic and psychosocial considerations. The disparate validity of current short-term forecasts of these factors is a major challenge to governments. By causally linking an established epidemiological spread model with dynamically evolving psychosocial variables, using Bayesian inference we estimate the strength and direction of these interactions for German and Danish data of disease spread, human mobility, and psychosocial factors based on the serial cross-sectional COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring (COSMO;N= 16,981). We demonstrate that the strength of cumulative influence of psychosocial variables on infection rates is of a similar magnitude as the influence of physical distancing. We further show that the efficacy of political interventions to contain the disease strongly depends on societal diversity, in particular group-specific sensitivity to affective risk perception. As a consequence, the model may assist in quantifying the effect and timing of interventions, forecasting future scenarios, and differentiating the impact on diverse groups as a function of their societal organization. Importantly, the careful handling of societal factors, including support to the more vulnerable groups, adds another direct instrument to the battery of political interventions fighting epidemic spread.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Pierre-Edouard Danjou; Saâd Bouhsina; Sylvain Billet; Francine Cazier-Dennin;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The year 2020 will be remembered as the year of COVID-19 and its subsequent lockdowns. This pandemic has profoundly changed the way we teach by forcing many institutions to offer their courses online. The time to come back to face-to-face teaching has arrived, but the shadow of the disease still hangs over teachers, students and society more generally. Disruption in teaching can still occur for students, or even teachers, if they are either diagnosed COVID-19 positive or contact case and forced to self-isolate. In order to limit the impact of self-isolation on learning, hybrid teaching (i.e. teaching face-to-face to students in a classroom and to online students at the same time) was successfully implemented owing to the combination of a videoconference software and a large interactive touchscreen. The set-up presented in this paper allows to broadcast courses to at-home students (i.e. voice, visual pedagogic support and, more interestingly, indications handwritten by the teacher) while simultaneously teaching face-to-face to students in the classroom. It also allows to self-isolated teacher to teach tutorial from home to students in the classroom. This paper focuses on the use of large interactive touchscreens for hybrid teaching. In order to evaluate this pedagogical approach, a questionnaire was completed by students and results discussed.

  • Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Yuxin Song; Xuan-Nhi Nguyen; Anuj Kumar; Claire da Silva; Léa Picard; Lucie Etienne; Andrea Cimarelli;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD
    Country: France
    Project: ANR | ECOFECT (ANR-11-LABX-0048)

    ABSTRACTTo identify novel cellular modulators of HIV-1 infection in IFN-stimulated myeloid cells, we have carried out a screen that combines functional and evolutionary analyses in THP-1-PMA cells that led us to the Tripartite Motif Protein 69 (Trim69), a poorly studied member of the Trim family of innate immunity regulators. Trim69 inhibits HIV-1, primate lentiviruses and the negative and positive-strand RNA viruses VSV and SARS-CoV2, overall indicating it is a broad-spectrum antiviral factor. Trim69 binds directly to microtubules and its antiviral activity is intimately linked to its ability to promote the accumulation of stable MTs, a specialized subset of microtubules. By analyzing the behavior of primary blood cells, we provide evidence that a program of MT stabilization is commonly observed in response to IFN-I in cells of the myeloid lineage and Trim69 is the key factor behind this program.Overall, our study identifies Trim69 as the first antiviral innate defense factor that regulates the properties of microtubules to limit viral spread, highlighting the possibility that the cytoskeleton may be a novel unappreciated fighting ground in the host-pathogen interactions that underlie viral infections.

  • Publication . Article . Other literature type . Preprint . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Jhony H. Giraldo; Arif Mahmood; Belmar Garcia-Garcia; Dorina Thanou; Thierry Bouwmans;
    Country: Switzerland

    Graph Signal Processing (GSP) is an emerging research field that extends the concepts of digital signal processing to graphs. GSP has numerous applications in different areas such as sensor networks, machine learning, and image processing. The sampling and reconstruction of static graph signals have played a central role in GSP. However, many real-world graph signals are inherently time-varying and the smoothness of the temporal differences of such graph signals may be used as a prior assumption. In the current work, we assume that the temporal differences of graph signals are smooth,and we introduce a novel algorithm based on the extension of a Sobolev smoothness function for the reconstruction of time-varying graph signals from discrete samples. We explore some theoretical aspects of the convergence rate of our Time-varying Graph signal Reconstruction via Sobolev Smoothness (Graph-TRSS) algorithm by studying the condition number of the Hessian associated with our optimization problem. Our algorithm has the advantage of converging faster than other methods that are based on Laplacian operators without requiring expensive eigenvalue decomposition or matrix inversions. The proposed Graph-TRSS is evaluated on several datasets including two COVID-19 datasets and it has outperformed many existing state-of-the-art methods for time-varying graph signal reconstruction. Graph-TRSS has also shown excellent performance on two environmental datasets for the recovery of particulate matter and sea surface temperature signals.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Philippe Colson; Jérémy Delerce; Mamadou Beye; Anthony Levasseur; Céline Boschi; Linda Houhamdi; Hervé Tissot‐Dupont; Nouara Yahi; Matthieu Million; Bernard La Scola; +3 more
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: France

    ABSTRACTThe SARS-CoV-2 21K/BA.1, 21L/BA.2, and BA.3 Omicron variants have recently emerged worldwide. To date, the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant has remained very minority globally but became predominant in Denmark instead of the 21K/BA.1 variant. Here we describe the first cases diagnosed with this variant in south-eastern France. We identified thirteen cases using variant-specific qPCR and next-generation sequencing between 28/11/2021 and 31/01/2022, the first two cases being diagnosed in travellers returning from Tanzania. Overall, viral genomes displayed a mean (±standard deviation) number of 65.9±2.5 (range, 61-69) nucleotide substitutions and 31.0±8.3 (27-50) nucleotide deletions, resulting in 49.6±2.2 (45-52) amino acid substitutions (including 28 in the spike protein) and 12.4±1.1 (12-15) amino acid deletions. Phylogeny showed the distribution in three different clusters of these genomes, which were most closely related to genomes from England and South Africa, from Singapore and Nepal, or from France and Denmark. Structural predictions pointed out a significant enlargement and flattening of the 21L/BA.2 N-terminal domain surface compared with that of the 21K/BA.2 Omicron variant, which may facilitate initial viral interactions with lipid rafts. Close surveillance is needed at global, country and center scales to monitor the incidence and clinical outcome of the 21L/BA.2 Omicron variant.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Pejman Abedifar; Kais Bouslah; Christopher Neumann; Amine Tarazi;
    Publisher: Wiley
    Country: United Kingdom

    This paper examines whether environmental and social (ES) activities affect the resiliency of firms during the COVID-19 crisis. We study a sample of 330 firms operating in five developed countries: Canada, France, Japan, the UK and the US. Our analysis shows that US firms with a high ES ranking experienced a significantly lower stock price range volatility during the Covid stock market rundown of February-March 2020. Such findings also hold for Japanese firms but only later on after the introduction of government support. In terms of returns, compared to their peers with a low ES ranking, Japanese and UK stock prices with a high ES ranking suffered more during and after the market rundown. For other countries, we do not find significant differences in stock price behavior based on ES ratings. Our findings suggest that engaging with ES activities is not associated with a better or worse performance during crisis times, which has important implications for investors and managers. Publisher PDF Peer reviewed

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Ucheoma Nwaozuru; Chisom Obiezu-Umeh; Hassim Diallo; Danielle Graham; Guy-Lucien Whembolua; Marie Janeeca Bourgeau; Tiarney D. Ritchwood; LaRon E. Nelson; Thembekile Shato; Allison Mathews; +6 more
    Publisher: Research Square Platform LLC
    Country: France

    Abstract Background COVID-19 self-testing (ST) is an innovative strategy with the potential to increase the access and uptake of testing and ultimately to limit the spread of the virus. To maximize the uptake and reach of this promising strategy and inform intervention development and scale up, research is needed to understand the acceptability of and willingness to use this tool. This is vital to ensure that Black/African Americans are reached by the Biden-Harris Administration’s free national COVID-19 ST program. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and recommendations to promote and scale-up the uptake of COVID-19 ST among Black/African Americans. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional qualitative study using a semi-structured questionnaire to assess barriers and facilitators to the uptake of COVID-19 ST among a convenience sample of 28 self-identified Black/African Americans from schools, community centers, and faith-based institutions in Ohio and Maryland. Inductive content analysis was conducted to identify categories and subcategories related to acceptability and recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST in communities. Results Participants perceived COVID-19 self-testing as an acceptable tool that is beneficial to prevent transmission and address some of the barriers associated with health facility testing, such as transportation cost and human contact at the health facility. However, concerns were raised regarding the accurate use of the kits and costs. Recommendations for implementing and scaling up COVID-19 ST included engagement of community stakeholders to disseminate information about COVID-19 self-testing and creating culturally appropriate education tools to promote knowledge of and clear instructions about how to properly use COVID-19 ST kits. Based on these recommendations, the COVID-19 STEP (Self-Testing Education and Promotion) Project is being developed and will involve engaging community partners such as barbers, church leaders, and other community-based organizations to increase the uptake and use of free COVID-19 ST kits among Black/African Americans. Conclusion Findings showed that most participants considered COVID-19 ST valuable for encouraging COVID-19 testing. However, cost and accuracy concerns may pose barriers. Future work should consider implementing interventions that leverage the benefits of COVID-19 ST and further assess the extent to which these identified facilitators and barriers may influence COVID-19 ST uptake.

  • Open Access
    Authors: 
    Alban, Frederique; Sophie LEONARDI; Pascal, Le Floc H.;
    Country: France

    Les halles à marée, présentes sur tout le littoral métropolitain, sont les premiers marchés pour les produits de la mer débarqués par les flottilles de pêche. La question posée porte sur la capacité d’adaptation des halles à marée face aux fluctuations de l’offre et des cours du poisson provoquées par le premier confinement et amplifiées par le second en 2020. A l’échelle nationale, le chiffre d’affaires des premiers marchés a décliné de 18% par rapport à la moyenne des trois années précédentes. La méthode de décomposition du chiffre d’affaires démontre que la valeur des productions traduit une stratégie de quantité et plus rarement une action sur les prix. Des enquêtes auprès des responsables de halles à marée apportent une lecture complémentaire à celle des statistiques de vente, parfois même une lecture différente. La discussion des résultats soulève deux questions majeures. La première traite du biais informationnel quand on limite l’analyse à une approche quantitative des statistiques de production. La seconde pose la question de la menace potentielle des ventes directes sur les halles à marée. C’est l’occasion pour les responsables de criée de rappeler les garanties qu’ils offrent en termes de traçabilité des produits. The fish markets, which are present all along the coast of Metropolitan France, are the primary markets for the seafood products landed by the fishing fleets. The question raised concerns the capacity of the fish markets to adapt to the fluctuations in supply and fish prices caused by the first confinement and amplified by the second in 2020. On a domestic scale, the turnover of the first markets declined by 18% compared to the average of the previous three years. The method of breaking down turnover shows that the value of production reflects a strategy on quantity and more rarely a price policy. Surveys of fish market managers provide a complementary understanding to that of the sales statistics, sometimes even a different reading. The discussion of the results raises two major questions. The first deals with the informational bias when the analysis is limited to a quantitative approach to production statistics. The second is the question of the potential threat of direct sales to fish markets. This is an opportunity for the executives of the fish market to claim the guarantees they offer in terms of goods traceability.

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Article . Conference object . 2022
    Open Access English
    Authors: 
    Isabella Hall; Nirmalya Thakur; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: HAL CCSD

    The United States of America has been the worst affected country in terms of the number of cases and deaths on account of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or COVID-19, a highly transmissible and pathogenic coronavirus that started spreading globally in late 2019. On account of the surge of infections, accompanied by hospitalizations and deaths due to COVID-19, and lack of a definitive cure at that point, a national emergency was declared in the United States on March 13, 2020. To prevent the rapid spread of the virus, several states declared stay at home and remote work guidelines shortly after this declaration of an emergency. Such guidelines caused schools, colleges, and universities, both private and public, in all the 50-United States to switch to remote or online forms of teaching for a significant period of time. As a result, Google, the most widely used search engine in the United States, experienced a surge in online shopping of remote learning-based software, systems, applications, and gadgets by both educators and students from all the 50-United States, due to both these groups responding to the associated needs and demands related to switching to remote teaching and learning. This paper aims to investigate, analyze, and interpret these trends of Google Shopping related to remote learning that emerged since March 13, 2020, on account of COVID-19 and the subsequent remote learning adoption in almost all schools, colleges, and universities, from all the 50-United States. The study was performed using Google Trends, which helps to track and study Google Shopping-based online activity emerging from different geolocations. The results and discussions show that the highest interest related to Remote Learning-based Google Shopping was recorded from Oregon, which was followed by Illinois, Florida, Texas, California, and the other states. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

  • Publication . Other literature type . Preprint . Conference object . Article . 2022 . Embargo End Date: 01 Jan 2022
    Open Access
    Authors: 
    Nirmalya Thakur; Saumick Pradhan; Chia Y Han;
    Publisher: arXiv

    COVID-19, a pandemic that the world has not seen in decades, has resulted in presenting a multitude of unprecedented challenges for student learning across the globe. The global surge in COVID-19 cases resulted in several schools, colleges, and universities closing in 2020 in almost all parts of the world and switching to online or remote learning, which has impacted student learning in different ways. This has resulted in both educators and students spending more time on the internet than ever before, which may be broadly summarized as both these groups investigating, learning, and familiarizing themselves with information, tools, applications, and frameworks to adapt to online learning. This paper takes an explorative approach to further investigate and analyze the impact of COVID-19 on such web behavior data related to online learning to interpret the associated interests, challenges, and needs. The study specifically focused on investigating Google Search-based web behavior data as Google is the most popular search engine globally. The impact of COVID-19 related to online learning-based web behavior on Google was studied for the top 20 worst affected countries in terms of the total number of COVID-19 cases, and the findings have been published as an open-access dataset. Furthermore, to interpret the trends in web behavior data related to online learning, the paper discusses a case study in terms of the impact of COVID-19 on the education system of one of these countries. Comment: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human Interaction & Emerging Technologies: Artificial Intelligence & Future Applications (IHIET-AI 2022), Lausanne, Switzerland, April 21-23, 2022

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